Japanese grammar

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eLecture on Tense and Particles

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Japanese grammar

  1. 1. Japanese Grammar Tenses and Particles
  2. 2. Why Japanese is easier• No plural/singular noun forms In the sentence “Kore wa hon desu” can mean you are pointing to one book or to many books.• No special forms of verbs All Vmasu verbs become Vmashita in the past tense. No exception.• No specific order of terms Sentences can be jumbled up as long as the correct particles are attached to the correct words
  3. 3. Tense• There are only two tenses in Japanese: past & non-past. This talks about the structure of ,for example,the verb. Meaning, you only have two forms: Vmasu & Vmashita And of course, if the sentence is in the negative: Vmasen & Vmasendeshita
  4. 4. Tense• You use the Past Tense for actions or events that happened in the past – Watashi wa kyoukai e ikimashita This sentence means you went to church at some time in the past – Watashi wa piza o tabemashita This sentence means you ate pizza at some time in the past
  5. 5. Tense• You use the Non-Past Tense for actions or events that will happen in the future – Watashi wa kyoukai e ikimasu This sentence means you will go to church at some time in the future – Watashi wa piza o tabemasu This sentence means you will eat pizza at some time in the future
  6. 6. Tense• You also use the Non-Past Tense for actions or events that occur habitually – Watashi wa kyoukai e ikimasu This can also mean you go to church regularly – Watashi wa piza o tabemasu This can also mean pizza is part of your regular diet
  7. 7. Q&AQ: So if my friend says “Watashi wa kyoukai e ikimasu,” how will I know if he means he will be going to church or that he is saying he usually goes to church?A: The context of the conversation. If he is telling you about his everyday life, his hobbies and alike, then in this context he is saying he goes to church. But if you just asked him what he will do on the weekend, then in answer to your question he is telling you what he will be doing.
  8. 8. Time expressions• Time expressions are also another way of differentiating future action from habitual action Watashi wa ashita kyoukai e ikimasu means he will go tomorrow Watashi wa maishuu Nichiyoubi kyoukai e ikimasu means he goes to church every Sunday.

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