“ The linguistic student should never make the mistake of identifying a language with its dictionary.”
• The word has been defined for scientific linguistic study.• “ A free form which consists entirely of two or more lesser free forms, as, for instance, poor John or John ran away or yes, sir,is a PHRASE.A free form which is not a phrase, is a WORD.A word, then, is free form which does not consist entirely of two or lesser free forms; in brief, a word is a MINIMUM FREE FORM.
A word is a combination of sounds acting as a stimulus to bring into an attention the experience to which it has become attached by use… Example: head “a head of the cabbage” It is the shape which is the dominant aspect of the experience that has made a connection with the material unit. “the head of a department” It is the head as the chief “table” as a piece of furniture “table of contents”The “meanings” of words are ,therefore, more fluid than we realize.For the foreign speaker of a language who learns this new language as an adult,The words as stimuli probably never function with anything like the same fullnessAnd freedom as they do for a native.
Three aspects of words:(1)Their form(2) their meaning(3) their distribution
• sound segment, stress, and tone languages. • pitchExample: Is a sequence of 4 significant sound segments jugo (phonemes) /xúgo/ and stress yugo yugó
• Meanings into which we classify our experience are culturally determined orModified and they vary considerably from culture to culture.• some meaning found in one culture may not be exist in one another.Example: the word “pasma” “horse” “rikon” “potato”• even when the reality is available to the culture, the meanings will differ Example: eskimos have many distinctions correlating with different types of snow kanin, bahaw, bigas, tutong• meanings that attach to words as words are LEXICAL meanings Example: building > house• meanings that attach to the bound form –s [s] can be called MORPHOLOGICALmeaning.• Is he a farmer? Is a SYNTACTIC meaning. But the meaning “question” attachedTo the word form question is a lexical.
• is important because the history of a language carry with them the habits of the restrictions. Water > noun > Glass of water Water the garden > verb Water meter > noun adjunct Agua > noun Watery substance • dialect area • social-class levels • many words found in poetry will not be found in ordinary conversation
Fries: (1) function words (2) substitute words (3) grammatically distributed words (4) content wordsCommon core vocabulary and specialized vocabularyCommon core vocabulary• known to all members of a language communityspecialized vocabulary • known only to special groups • have to be learned by native and nonnative speakers
Vocabulary for production and vocabulary for recognition• As a rule, our recognition vocabulary is much larger than ourproduction vocabulary. Basic English uses approximately 1000 for the student to communicate.
Ease and difficulty Machete, suppuration and calumniator Machete, supuracion and calumniador Fire and man will probably more difficult. Ex. Fire the furnace, man the gun open fire > start shooting ~ fuego table, table of contents mesa
Difficulty Patterns• Similarity to and difference from the native language in form,Meaning, and distribution will result in ease or difficulty inacquiring the vocabulary of a language.*in comparing NL to FL:1. Similar in form and meaning2. Similar in form but different in meaning3. Similar in meaning but different in form4. Different in form and in meaning5. Different in their type of construction6. Similar in primary meaning but different in connotation7. Similar in meaning but with restrictions in geographical8. distribution.
Cognates~ words that are similar in form and in meaning Hotel, Hospital, calendarDeceptive Cognates~ words that are similar in form but mean different things. Ex. “milk” – “miruku” ifferent forms ~ words that are the “same” in a particular meaning but different in form ~ difficulty level:normal Ex. Tree > arbol = same in 4 out of 20 meanings and uses. “The leaves of that tree are falling” Pennicillin~ considered equivalent in all their meaning
~ words that are different in form and represent meanings thatAre “strange” to speakers of a particular native language,that is,Meanings that represent a different grasp of reality.~ difficultEx. First floor is different in form from primer piso Number one above the ground level ~ words that are different in their morphological construction. ~ difficult Ex. Call up > to telephone call on > to visit run out of > to exhaust the supply of
~ words that have widely different connotations in 2 languages.~ difficult~ harmless in NL but offensive/taboo in FLEx. 馬鹿 and baka~ words that are restricted to certain geographic areas within thearea of the FL.~ difficult>because the restrictions must be learned alsoEx. Petrol and gasoline dragonfly > darning needle > snake feeder nanay = ima, inda
A limited vocabulary~ we can limit the size of the vocabulary to something less thanthe entire vocabulary range of a language~ Fries:”in the matter of vocabulary items this stage of learningmust include the chief items of the first three kinds: 1. function words 2. substitute words 3. neg & affirmative distribution~ what is your purpose? Speaking vocabulary: 1. 2,000 words or less 2.decide what meanings of these wordswill include within that vocabulary. 3. decide what contextual areas is yourconcern
4. Decide what grammatical patterns will be included within the range of our sample. 5. Decide what age groups our vocabulary is intendedSpecific suggestions on comparing vocabularies~ compare form, meaning, distribution and connotation with the NL.~ it can be done with the following steps: 1st step: comparison of form~ reading aloud each word~deciding quickly whether it resembles a NL word or not.
2nd step: comparing meaning~ check the similarity in form against the similar words in NL.~ take the words that are not similar in form to words in the NL3rd step: comparing distribution and connotation~ find words that show wide differences in distribution and/orconnotation~ words that may not be used as verbs in the FL will constituteProblems if it is used in NL~ words that are restricted in geographic distribution in the FL willBe listed as problems.~ words that show wide differences in connotation will constituteproblem