Awareness raising workshop


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This is about the UNEP project on Converting Agricultural Waste Biomass to Energy.

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Awareness raising workshop

  1. 1. Awareness raising about WAB2E technologies: 20th September-2013
  2. 2. UNEP- India Project On “WAB for Energy: Resource conservation and GHG Emission Reduction”: Awareness raising workshop: 20th September-2013
  3. 3. Title Background: Technology Classification Methods of utilizing waste agricultural biomass as a source of energy • Direct combustion • Thermo-chemical conversion routes • Conventions for deriving thermal value of biomass: • Densification • Briquetting • Biological Conversion • Liquid Biofuels: • Process of the WAB to Biofuel conversion Environmental performances Impacts of emissions from biomass combustion Technology selection SAT Methodology. Implemented Case study
  4. 4. Target audience: Professionals working in the energy generation and utilization activity. Total of 25 members attended
  5. 5. Workshop coverage: The main coverage of the workshop: Sharing the information about the global scenario of WAB Different technology developments, Need to develop the subject to be prepared to face the dangers of energy shortage Need for development of alternate sources of energy, Renewable energy sources area and options Various other forms of renewable energy, and Need to stress upon the WAB as a major energy resource. Recent inclusion of the “Short Lived Climate Pollutants” (SLCP) Technology Classification Different processes and technologies for converting biomass to energy. •Direct combustion of the raw biomass •Combustion after simple physical processing •Sorting •Chipping •Air-drying (beneficiation) Straightforward conversion of thermal energy into mechanical or electric power and the resulting loss in such conversions. Use of low temperature waste heat for drying or heating purposes, thereby achieving much higher overall efficiencies. Types of combustion reactions: viz: •Exothermic: Heat is released as a result of the reaction •Endothermic: Heat is absorbed during the reaction Importance of maintaining appropriate Air/Fuel Ratios Methods of utilizing waste agricultural biomass as a source of energy Different processes and technologies are available for converting biomass to energy.
  6. 6. Various routes for conversion of biomass to useful fuel
  7. 7. Various routes for conversion of biomass to useful fuel
  8. 8. Flame D Heat Flow Gas Flow Char C Pyrolytic Zone Gaseous-phase combustion Diffusion flame, mostly Turbulent – a „free‟ fire T > 1000 C (probably T < 1000 C) Simultaneous heat and mass transfer with chemical reaction; Surface combustion – a slow process 500 C < T < 800 C B Problem same as in zone A but with sources/sinks due to pyrolytic reactions 200 C < T < 500 C Virgin Wood A Heat conduction in a medium with a moving boundary; Mitigation of moisture & gases; Uncertain properties T < 200 C Figure 6.1: Processes and temperatures in a burning piece of wood Stages of burning of fuel
  9. 9. Energy content (Heating Values) of WAB Energy content (Heating Values) of WAB : Three different conventions commonly used: Gross Calorific Value (or Higher Heating Value-HHV), Net Calorific Value (or Lower Heating Value-LHV), and Usable Heat Content.
  10. 10. Composition of different fuels Fuel Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Ash Paddy Husk 63.3 14.0 22.7 Bagasse 74.0 19.3 6.7 Wood 77-87 13-21 0.1-0.2 Lignite 43 46.6 10.4 Anthracite Coal 5.0 80 15
  11. 11. HHVD in Mega Joules per Kg. of biofuel Biomass Fuel Composition (% by weight) VM (ash FC free) (ash free) Ash HHVD (MJ/Kg) Model-A Model-B Model-C Bagasse 84.2 15.8 2.9 18.1 19.4 19.6 Coconut coir 82.8 17.2 0.9 18.8 20.1 20.2 Coconut shell 80.2 19.8 0.7 19.4 20.6 20.3 Coir pith 73.3 26.7 7.1 19.3 20.4 18.3 Corn cob 85.4 14.6 2.8 17.9 19.2 19.6 Corn stalks Groundnut shell 80.1 19.9 6.8 18.1 19.3 18.4 83.0 17.0 5.9 17.8 19.0 18.7 Paddy Husk 81.6 18.4 23.5 14.5 15.6 13.2 Paddy straw 80.2 19.8 19.8 15.5 16.6 14.3 Wheat straw 83.9 16.1 11.2 16.6 17.8 17.0 Peanut shell 78.4 21.6 7.2 18.4 19.5 18.3 Cotton stalk 80.8 20.0 5.3 18.5 19.7 18.9
  12. 12. Densification Densification (briquetting or pelleting for only those WABs with very low density). To gain advantage through Productive transport and Improved fuel characteristics. WABs for densification: Like Sawdust, Loose crop residues, and Charcoal fines. Pressure, Speed of densification, and Binders decide the characteristics
  13. 13. Briquetting There are two main briquetting technologies viz: The Piston press, and The Screw press. In the piston press the material is punched into a die by a ram with a high pressure In the screw press, the material is compacted continuously by a screw. With the screw generally briquettes of higher quality can be produced.
  15. 15. Thermochemical Conversion Biomass subjected to appropriate temperatures and pressures and under a controlled and restricted supply of oxygen, typically at 300 - 500°C, until the volatile matters has been driven off. The residual product is Char (commonly known as charcoal). Char has about twice the energy density of the original fuel and burns at a much higher temperature Pyrolysis is the basic thermo chemical process Oldest method of processing one fuel in order to produce better one With more sophisticated pyrolysis techniques, the volatile matters can be collected, Careful choice of the temperature at which the process takes place allows the control of their composition. The products formed are normally a gas, an oil-like liquid (Tar) and charcoal. The distribution of these products is dependent on the feedstock, temperature and pressure of reaction, the time spent in the reaction zone and the heating rate. High temperature pyrolysis (1000°C) maximizes the production of gas (gasification) while lower temperature pyrolysis processes (<600°C) are used for the production of charcoal (carbonization). Another approach to produce liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass is direct catalytic liquefaction Depending on the moisture content and the efficiency of process, 4 - 10 kg of wood are required to produce one kg of charcoal
  16. 16. Biological Conversion Types and grades of biofuels Impacts of emissions from biomass combustion
  17. 17. Technology selection, Analysis of the Options, SAT Methodology. Stages of technology development and adoption
  18. 18. Next steps Identified following steps for future stress in this area. Organise similar workshops for mass awareness raising. Phase I workshops Agriculture intensive activity zones like agricultural universities, large organized farms, forest departments, food processing industry units, remote backward areas etc. Characterization of the types of biomasses available in such areas be undertaken. Appropriate need based and practical technologies be identified and implemented. This will solve the problems of either shortage of or non availability of energy sources in such areas. Phase II workshops For organized sectors e.g. Various governmental agencies like the ministries of agriculture in states, and the areas where the captive availability of rich biomass is assured. agricultural activity based industry clusters like the oil extraction units, Large vegetable market yards, Large Saw mills, Rice mills, Dal mills etc. And Phase III workshops Nationwide awareness raising programmes should be conducted. Conventional lecture oriented approach is not advised. Use of mass media, Mobile telephony, TV channels, Road shows etc. should be used as the media of awareness.
  19. 19. Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Name of the Employee Mr. Joydev Chatterjee Mr. Ramesh Kumar Verma Mr. Sameer Kumar Chimman Lal Mr. Syed Izhar Husain Mr. N Sivakumar Mr. Sudhi Ranjan Chakraborty Mr. Bikash Kumar Biswas Mr. Nrusigha Charan Das Mr. Surendra Das Mrs. Jyotshnarani Mohanty Mr. Damodara Rao Mavuru Mr. Padma Lochan Sala Mr. Tanmoy Mukarjee Mr. Dipak Biswas Mr. Ajit Kumar Sarkar Mrs. Manorama Nayak Mr. Akashaya Kumar Prusty Mr. Hemant Kumar Parija Mr. Sudershan Behera Mr. Bashishtha Choudhury Mr. Kodukula Prakasa Rao Mr. Gopal Krishna Parashar Mr. Nuram Verma Mr. Jageshwar Prasad Patkar Mr. Binu Tirkey Occupation Officer (Information Technology) Engineer (CHP) Public Relation Officer Engineer Officer Accounts Officer (HR) Engineer Engineer C&I/ O&M Engineer (Elect.) Officer (Nursing) Officer (F&A) Engineer O&M Executive Secretary Engineer Mech. Engineer Officer (Nursing) Asst. Manager O&M Asst. Manager C&M Officer AM (C & M) Executive Officer Engineer (O&M) Engineer(O&M) Engineer (CHP) (O )Mech.