Chapter 21


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Chapter 21

  1. 1. Chapter 21 Second Homecoming And The Liga Filipina
  2. 2. <ul><li>Arrival in Manila with Sister At noon of June 26, 1892 Rizal and his widowed sister Lucia ( wife of the late Mariano Herbosa) arrived in Manila. A meticuluos diarist, he described his second homecoming as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I arrived at Manila on 26 June (1892), Sunday, at 12:00 noon. I was met by many carabineers headed by a major. There were in addition one captain and one sergeant of the Veteran Civil Guard. I came down with my luggage and they inspected me at the customhouse. From there I went to Hotel de Orient where I occupied room No. 22, facing the church of Binondo” </li></ul><ul><li>In the afternoon, at 4:00 o’clock, he went to Malacanan Palace to seek audience with the Spanish governor general, Gen. Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe. He was told to come back at that night at 7:00 o’clock. Promptly at 7:00 p.m. he returned and was able to confer with Gen. Despujol, who agreed to pardon his father but not the rest of his family and told him to return on Wednesday (June 29) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>At 6:00 P.M. of the following day (June 27), Rizal bourded a train in Tutuban Station and visited his friends in Malolos (Bulacan), San Fernando (Pampanga), Tarlac (Tarlac) and Bacolor (Pampanga). He was welcomed and lavishly entertained at the homes of his friends. These friends were good patriots, who were his supporters in the reform crusade, and he took the opportunity to greet them personally and discussed the problems affecting their people. </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal returned by train to Manila on the nest day, June 28, at 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon. Whether he knew it or not, he shadowed by government spies who watched carefully his every movement. The homes he had visited were raided by the Guardia Civil which seized some copies of the Noli and El Fili and “subversive” pamphlets. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other Interview with Despujol <ul><li>After Rizal’s visit to his friends in Central Luzon, he has other interviews with Gov. Despujol. These interviews were vividly recorded in his diary, as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>On Wednesday (June 29) at 7:30, I saw His Excellency. I did not succeed to have the penalty of exile lifted, but he gave me hope with regard o my sisters. As it was the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul our interview ended at 9:15. I was to come again the following day at 7:30. </li></ul><ul><li>The following day, Thursday (June 30), we talked about the question of Borneo. The general was opposed to it, very much opposed. He told me to come back Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>On Sunday (July 3) I returned, We talked about sundry things and I thanked him for having lifted the exile of my sisters. I told that my father and brother would arrive on the first boat. He asked me if I would like to go abroad to Hong Kong. I told him yes. He told me to return on Wednesday </li></ul>
  5. 5. Founding of the Liga Filipina <ul><li>On the evening of Sunday July 3, 1892, following his morning interview with Gov. Despujol, Rizal attended a meeting of the patriots at the home of the Chinese-Filipino mestizo, Doroteo Ongjunco, on Ylaya Street, Tondo, Manila. </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga Filipina, a civic league of Filipinos, which he desired to establish and its role in the socio-economic life of the people. He presented the Constitution of the Liga which he had written in Hong Kong and discussed its provision. The patriots were favorably impressed and gladly approved the establishment of the Liga. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constitution of the Liga Filipina <ul><li>The aims of the Liga Filipina, as embodied in its Constitution, were the following: </li></ul><ul><li>To unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual protection in every want and necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Defense against all violence and injustice </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Study and application of reforms </li></ul><ul><li>The motto of the Liga Filipina was: UNUS INSTAR OMNIUM ( One Like All) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The government body of the league was the Supreme Council which had jurisdiction over the whole country. It was composed of a president, a secretary, a treasurer, and a fiscal. There was a Provincial Council in every province and a Popular Council in every town. </li></ul><ul><li>All Filipinos who have at heart the welfare of their fatherland are qualified for membership. Every member pays an entrance fee of two pesos and a monthly due of 10 centavos. </li></ul><ul><li>The duties of the Liga members are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Obey the orders of the Supreme Council; </li></ul><ul><li>To help in recruiting new members </li></ul><ul><li>To keep in strictest secrecy the decisions of the Liga authorities </li></ul><ul><li>To have a symbolic name which he cannot change until he becomes president of his council </li></ul><ul><li>To report to the fiscal anything that he may hear which affects the Liga </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>To behave well as befits a good Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>To help fellow members in all ways </li></ul><ul><li>On Wednesday, July 6, Rizal went to Malacanan Palace to resume his series of interviews with the governor general. During the interview Despujol suddenly showed him some printed leaflets which he allegedly found in Lucia’s pillow cases. This incriminatory leaflets were entitled Pobres Frailes ( Poor Frairs ) under the authorship of Fr. Jacinto and printed by the Imprenta de los Amigos del Pais, Manila. They were satire against the Dominican friars who amassed fabulous riches contrary to their monastic vow of poverty </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Rizal vigorously denied having those leaflets in either his or Lucia’s baggage which had been thoroughly searched upon their arrival from Hong Kong by the customs authorities who found nothing. Despite his denial and insistent demand for investigation in accordance with the due process of law, he was placed under arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago by Ramon Despujol, nephew and aide of the governor general. In Fort Santiago, he was kept incommunicado, as he related in his diary: </li></ul><ul><li>They assigned me a fairly furnished room with a bed, a dozen chairs, one table, a wash basin, and a mirror. The room had three windows; one without grill which opens on a patio, another with grills which looks out on the city walls and the beach and another which was the door closed with a padlock. Two artillery men as sentinels guarded it. They had orders to fire on anyone who might signal from the beach. I could not write nor speak with any one except the officer on duty . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Arbitrary Deportation to Dapitan <ul><li>The same issue of the Gaceta ( July 7, 1892) contained Gov. Gen. Despujol decree deporting Rizal to “one of the islands in the South”. The gubernatorial decree give the reasons for Rizal’s deportation, as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal had published books and articles abroad which showed disloyalty to Spain and which were “frankly anti-Catholic” and “imprudently anti-friar”. </li></ul><ul><li>A few hours after his arrival in Manila “there was found in one of the packages…a bundle of handbills entitled Pobres Frailes in which patient and humble generosity of Filipinos is satirized, and which accusation is published against the customs of the religious orders”. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>His novel El Fili was dedicated to the memory of three “traitors”, and on the title page he wrote that in view of the vices and errors of the Spanish administration, “the only salvation for the Philippines was separation from the mother country”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The end which he pursues in his efforts and writings is to tear from the loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of our holy Catholic faith”. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after the midnight of July 4, 1892 (12:30 a.m.) Rizal was brought under heavy guard to the steamer CEBU which was sailing for Dapitan. This steamer under Captain Delgras departed at 1:00 a.m. of July 15, sailing south, passing Mindoro and Panay, and reaching Dapitan on Sunday, the 17 th of July, at 7:00 in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Delgras went ashore and handed Rizal over to Captain Ricardo Carnicero, Spanish commandant of Dapitan. That same night, July 17, Rizal began his exile in lonely Dapitan which would last until July 31, 1896, a period of four years. </li></ul>