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Alveolar Bone

Alveolar Bone






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    Alveolar Bone Alveolar Bone Presentation Transcript

    • Alveolar bone
    • Part I
    • Bone Tissue
      • 2 Types of bone tissue:
      Compact (Cortical) bone
      Spongy (Cancellous) bone
      Bone tissue
      is a specialized form of connective tissue and is the main element of the skeletal tissues.
      is composed of cells and an extracellular matrix in which fibers are embedded.
      is unlike other connective tissues in that the extracellular matrix becomes calcified.
    • Functions of Bone
      Support: provides framework that supports and anchors all soft organs.
      Protection: skull and vertebrae surround soft tissue of the nervous system, and the rib cage protects vital thoracic organs.
      Movement: skeletal muscles use the bones as levers to move the body.
      Storage: fat stored in the interior of the bones. Bone matrix serves as a storehouse for various minerals.
      Blood Cell Formation: hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of the bones.
    • Classification of Bone
      Bone may be classified in several ways:
    • endochondralbone
      • Where bone is preceded by a cartilagenous model that is eventually replaced by bone In a process termed endochondral ossification.
      intramembranous bone
      • Where bone forms directly w/in a vascular, fibrous membrane.
      “Oral Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology”
      60 % Inorganic material
      is formed from carbonated hydroxyapatite.
      25 % Organic material
      mainly composed of Type I collagen.
      The organic part is also composed of various growth factors:
      glycosaminoglycans, osteocalcin, osteonectin, bone sialo protein, osteopontin and Cell Attachment Factor.
      • 15% Water
    • Organic Matrix of the bone
    • Structural Elements of Bone
      Bone Cells
      Odontoblasts – are mononucleatecells that are responsible for bone formation
      Osteocytes – When osteoblasts become trapped in the matrix they secrete, they become osteocytes.
      Osteoclasts – is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix and breaking up the organic bone
      Bone Matrix
      is the intercelluar substance of bone consisting of collagenous fibers ground substances & inorganic salts
      Sharpey’s Fibers
      Are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of collagenous fibers connecting periosteum to bone
      Blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels
    • Sharpey’s fibers
    • Cell types in bone
      are mononucleatecells that are responsible for bone formation
      When osteoblasts become trapped in the matrix they secrete, they become osteocytes.
      Bone-lining cells
      Are inactive osteoblasts that cover all of the available bone surface and function as a barrier for certain ions
      Osteoprogenitor cells
      relatively undifferentiated cells found on or near all of the free surfaces of bone, which, under certain circumstances, undergo division and transform into osteoblasts or coalesce to give rise to osteoclasts.
      is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix and breaking up the organic bone
    • Ossification
      Also called Osteogenesis
      is the natural process of bone formation
      There are two processes resulting in the formation of normal, healthy bone tissue:
      Endochondral (Intracartilaginous) Bone Ossification
      The formation of bone in which a cartilage template is gradually replaced by a bone matrix, as in the formation of long bones or in osteoarthritic ossification of synovial cartilage.
      Intramembranous Bone Ossification
      the development of bone from tissue or membrane, as in the formation of the skull.
    • SuturalBone Growth
      variable and irregularly shaped bones in the sutures between the bones of the skull.
    • Alveolar Bone
      Also called as alveolar process
      The specialized bone structure that contains the alveoli or sockets of the teeth and supports the teeth.
      If the teeth are lost the alveolar process disappears
      It is composed mainly of two parts:
      alveolar bone proper
      Supporting bone
    • Alveolar Bone
    • Development of Alveolar Bone
    • Development of Alveolar Bone
      Alveolar bone develops from the dental follicle
      The ectomesenchymal cells of the dental follicle differentiate into osteoblasts and lay down the matrix called osteoid
      Some osteoblasts become embedded in the matrix and are called osteocytes
    • Near the end of the 2nd month of fetal life, mandible and maxilla form a groove that is opened toward the surface of the oral cavity
      As tooth germs start to develop, bony septa form gradually. The alveolar process starts developing strictly during tooth eruption.
    • Gross Morphology of Bone
      Morphology -is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural
    • Alveolar Socket
      Also called Dental alveolus
      are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament.
      Alveolar socket of the second premolar tooth in a bovine maxillary bone.
    • Interdental Septa
      “Septa” – in Latin, it means “fence” or “wall”
      Are plates of bone that separate each individual sockets from one another.
      Interradicular Septa
      Are thin plates of bone that separate the roots of multi-rooted teeth
    • Cribriform Plate
      also called as bundle bone
      Is the compact layer of bone lining the tooth socket (alveolar socket)
      Reflects the sieve-like appearance produced by numerous Volkmann’s canals passing from the alveolar bone to the PDL (periodontal ligament).
      Numerous Sharpey’s Fiber pass through it.
    • Alveolar process
      is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on bones that bear teeth.
      The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament called Lamina dura.
      Maxilla and Mandible
      Are the tooth-bearing bones
    • Lamina Dura
      this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament.
      Is the bone lining the alveolus
      In clinical radiographs, it commonly appears as a dense white line.
      Lamina Dura
      Radiographic appearance of alveolar bone proper as ‘Lamina Dura’
    • Functions of the bone
    • Functions of Alveolar bone
      Alveolar bone forms and protects the sockets for the teeth.
      It gives the attachment to the periodontal ligament fibers, which are the principle fibers. These fibers which enter the bone are regarded as Sharpey’s fibers.
      It supports the tooth roots on the facial and on the palatal/lingual sides.
      It helps absorb the forces placed upon the tooth by disseminating the force to underlying tissues.
    • Structure of the Alveolar Bone
      Cortical Plate – outermost part
      Alveolar bone proper or lamina
      Spongiosa – spongy bone
    • a) outer cortical platesb) a central spongiosac) bone lining the alveolus (bundle bone)
    • Cortical Plate
      Outer bony plate of varying thickness, which is the outside wall of the maxilla and mandible, covered with periosteum
      Continuous with the lamina cribriformis at the orifice of the alveoli – alveolar crest
      Consists of haversian systems (osteons) and interstitial lamellae
      Thicker in the mandible than maxilla
      Generally greater on the lingual than on the buccal/facial
    • Alveolar Bone Proper or Lamina
      An inner, heavily perforated bony lamellae, forming the alveolar wall
      In radiograph, appears as radioopaque line distinct from the adjacent spongiosa – Lamina Dura
      Contains osteons like other cortical bone, but is distinguished by the presence of Bundle Bone
    • Spongiosa
      Are spongy (or cancellous/trabecullar) bone between the 2 bony plates and between the lamina cribriformis of adjacent teeth or roots
      Consists of delicate trabeculae, between which are marrow spaces, filled mostly with fatty marrow
      Regions of maxillary tuberosity and the angle of mandible, erythropoietic …
    • VascuLAR Supply of ALVEOLAR BONE
    • Vascular Supply of Alveolar Process
      Alveolar process of the maxilla
      Anterior and posterior alveolar arteries (branch from the maxilla and infraorbital arteries)
      Alveolar process of the mandible
      Inferior alveolar arteries (internal)
      Periosteal branches of submental and buccal arteries (external)
    • Periodontal disease
    • PeriodonTal disease
      Periodontal disease is a type of disease that affects one or more of the periodontal tissues:
      Alveolar bone
      Periodontal ligament
      While many different diseases affect the tooth-supporting structures, plaque-induced inflammatory lesions make up the vast majority of periodontal diseases and have traditionally been divided into two categories:
      gingivitis or
    • Histological Arrangement of Mature Bone
      Mature bone is composed of:
      Compact bone
      Spongy Bone
    • 40
    • Compact Bone
      Also called as Cortical bone
      As its name implies. . .
      “cortical” bone forms the cortex or outer shell of most bones.
      “compact” bone is much denser than cancellous bone. Furthermore, it is harder, stronger and stiffer than cancellous bone.
      The primary anatomical and functional unit of cortical bone is the osteon.
      3Distinct Layering of Compact Bone:
      Circumferential lamella
      Concentric lamella
      Interstitial lamella
      facilitates to support the whole body
      protect organs
      provide levers for movement
      store and release chemical elements, mainly calcium.
    • 3 Distinct Layering of Compact Bone:
      Circumferential Lamellae
      enclose the entire adult bone, forming its outer perimeter
      Concentric Lamellae
      make up the bulk of compact bone and form the basic metabolic unit of bone, the osteon
      Interstitial Lamellae
      interspersed between adjacent concentric lamellae and fill the spaces between them
    • 43
    • Spongy Bone
      Also called Cancellous bone orTrabecular bone
      Compared to compact bone, cancellous bone has a higher surface area but is less dense, softer, weaker, and less stiff.
      Cancellous bone is highly vascular and frequently contains red red bone marrow where hematopoeisis occurs.
      The primary anatomical and functional unit of cancellous bone is the trabecula.