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Logic preview

  1. 1. Copyrighted Material.
  2. 2. Copyrighted Material.
  3. 3. Copyrighted Material. Philippine Copyright© 1969, 2003, 2013 by HARRY C. LORENZO, JR. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this book may be reproduced without written permission from the Author First Printing: 1969 Second Printing: 2003 by King’s Way, Cabanatuan City, Philippines Third Printing: 2013 by Tri-Psyc Enterprise, Lorenzo Ville, Cabanatuan City
  4. 4. Copyrighted Material. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I Introduction 1 1 The Value of Argumentation and Debate What is Argumentation? 2 What is Debate? 2 Debate as an Art 3 Debate and Logic 3 Debate and Sport 4 Chapter II The Proposition 7 Types of Propositions 7 8 Characteristics of the Proposition Chapter III Issues 12 Finding the Issues 12 Types of Issues 14 Chapter IV Types of Debates The The The The The 19 Lincoln—Douglas Type 19 Oxford Type 20 Oregon Type 21 One- Rebuttal Type 22 Oregon-Oxford Type 22 Chapter V Evidence and Proof 25 Sources of Evidence 26 Tests of Authority 27 Classes of Evidence 30 Tests of Evidence 32
  5. 5. Copyrighted Material. Chapter VI Preparing a Constructive Speech 35 How to Start With 35 The Introduction 37 The Discussion 42 The Conclusion 65 Chapter VII Delivering a Speech 71 What is Delivery 71 72 Methods of Delivering a Speech Using Gestures 73 The Importance of Voice 75 Chapter VIII Types of Arguments 81 81 Deductive and Inductive Arguments Conversion and Obversion 83 Argument from Analogy 84 87 Argument from Causal Relation Argument from Sign 90 Argument from Generalization 91 Argument from Relativity 92 Chapter IX Refutation and Rebuttal 95 Methods of Refutation 95 The Rebuttal 102 Chapter X Definition of Terms 109 How to Define Terms Definition of Definition Classes of Definition General Rules of Definition Special Types of Definition 110 111 112 113 115
  6. 6. Copyrighted Material. Chapter XI The Syllogism 121 Categorical Syllogism 122 Rules of Syllogism 123 Chapter XII The Hypothetical Syllogism 133 The Disjunctive Syllogism 134 The Conditional Syllogism 135 The Conjunctive Syllogism 137 141 Chapter XIII Special Types of Syllogism The Enthymeme 141 The Epichireme 142 The Polysyllogism 142 The Sorites 142 The Extra-Syllogistic Inferences 143 Chapter XIV Fallacies 147 Logical Fallacies 147 Material Fallacies 149 153 Chapter XV Other Phases of Debate The Debater 153 Persuasion 160 160 The Chairman of the Debate 161 The Affirmative Side The Negative Side 161 Time Allotment 162 Cross-Examination 163 Informal Debate 167 Non- Decision Debate 167 168 How to Judge a Debate Bibliography 173
  7. 7. Copyrighted Material. Introduction CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Value of Argumentation and Debate Man is one of the weakest of animals and would be doomed to extinction if it were not for his faculty called “reason”. He has not the strength of the elephant, he does not possess the subtlety of the serpent and he is inferior to the swiftness of the deer. He has no ethereal power to explore the vastness of space above him like the multifarious birds that blanket the sky and he has not strength sufficient to conquer the grandeur and the depths of the ocean. While he may be stronger than the insects, he has no peculiar ability like them to multiply manifold and make survival possible. Man, however, with all his impediments and fragilities has been able to survive in a cruel world where strength seems the only virtue and weakness the only course. This was made possible through his ability to think. Via his reason, he was able to conquer nature and become its master. The unknown become known, the unseen seen, the unreached reached and the impossible became a reality. Thus, the magnitude and power of man’s reason. There is nothing to compare with it, not even the whole of the Universe with all its splendor and magnificence for man’s reasoning permeates through and goes beyond the totality of phenomena. 1
  8. 8. Copyrighted Material. 2 Principles of Logic for Argumentation and Debate Man reasons when he begins to doubt and ponder. We are always haunted by these doubts and uncertainties in our consciousness. We doubt the veracity of another’s opinion, and we express our own ideas which we think are far better than the ideas of others. Thus, argumentation becomes inevitable. Sometimes our discussion evolves to more formal deliberations and so we have debates. We clash on any topic from the frivolous to the most sublime. Only the man who knows how to persuade and influence through oral and written discourse can win the confidence of his hearer or reader. It cannot be denied, therefore, that argumentation is an important aspect in the lives of men. However, argumentation must be done systematically if a desired end is to be achieved, i.e., to influence other people’s thinking and behavior. It is the purpose of this book to give students the proper guidance in argumentation. What is Argumentation? Argumentation is a rhetorical process of influencing the thought, belief, opinion, and behavior of a hearer or reader by supplying him with reasons and motives for action. This includes any kind of discourse with an aim to persuade, from the prattling of a child to the meticulous and intelligible talk of the philosopher. A salesman argues when he offers his goods, a small boy argues when he asks money for a bar of candy and a fool argues when he insists that his folly is better than the other’s. Argumentation is not only an appeal to reason, but it is also an appeal to emotion. To argue for instance, that parity rights be extended beyond 1974 needs not only an appeal to reason but also an appeal to emotion. What is Debate? Debate is a direct, oral controversy between two or more persons on a definite proposition at a definite time and at a definite place. Debate though not opposed to discussion is different from the latter. Discussion takes place at no definite time, with no definite subject and at no definite place. In discussion, any person can participate and no time limit is required. Topics may be changed continually in the course of the conversation. This is not so in debate. First of all, there must be a definite proposition. No one can get out of this proposition or change it during the debate. The proposition calls only for two sides, affirmative and negative, with an equal number of speakers. Those
  9. 9. Copyrighted Material. Introduction who are assigned to the affirmative may only defend the affirmative side and those who are assigned to the negative may only defend the negative side. Debate demands a definite time. Prior to the debate, there must be an agreement as to the time of meeting and all debaters are expected to be there at such a time. Every speaker is under time pressure. He cannot extend his talk beyond the allotted time as in ordinary discussion. Debate must have a definite place. Debaters do not just meet at a place by chance. They assign a definite place for encounter. Politicians attacking each other during their campaign speeches from two different platforms, five kilometers away from each other, are not having any real debate at all. Debate as an Art Art may be defined as any specific skill or its application. As in any art, debate calls for skill. It is not merely wrangling or jargon, but it is something which requires ability, wit, and skill in the process of persuasion. It requires skill to make ones talk sound convincing and sensible. It requires skill to detect and to destroy the arguments of the opponent. It requires skill to ask pertinent questions and to give satisfactory answers to the questions hurled at the debater. Debate as an art has beauty of its own, although not all arts are necessarily beautiful. Good debates attract intellectual minds as quality goods attract avid buyers. Students crowd in the auditorium to listen to an intercollegiate debate; people from a distance walk or ride to hear popular debaters and forget their dinners just to listen to a debate over the radio or television. We love to see and hear debaters like Senator Santiago or Senator Enrile and other well-known speakers engaged in debate, not only because they have pleasing personalities but because their ability to speak and argue sensibly is something which cannot be ignored. Debate and Logic Logic is defined as the science of correct thinking. It deals with the mental activities of men. A person who is good in logic can put his reasoning in order. He can direct his arguments in their proper sequence. He is fully aware of the different methods which underlie the various operation of the mind. Since debate deals mainly with reasoning which is the primary concern of logic, we can hardly divorce 3
  10. 10. Copyrighted Material. 4 Principles of Logic for Argumentation and Debate debate from logic and, frankly, a person cannot be a good debater unless he is good in logic. For what is debate but an outgrowth and application of logic. It is advisable for any student of debate to read some books in logic like those written by Bittle, Creighton, Burtt, Wolf, and Cohen.1 A student who reads these books will help himself become familiar with some of the different rules in logic because they discuss matters which have great bearing on debate. Debate and Sport Debate and sport are similar in many aspects although both are distinct from each other and belong to completely different fields. Debate like sport has a coach or trainer. The coach of a debating team give guidance and directives this debaters in the province of debate as the coach in a game does so in the world of sports. In some cases, there are debating teams without a coach. This is true when nobody is qualified for the task or when nobody is willing to take the job. Sometimes this happens in a game. For instance, during fiesta where there are games to be participated in by different towns, players usually come for the tournament even without a coach. These players are, of course, less organized and less disciplined. In more formal games, however, as in more formal debates, there is usually a coach. Games are played with a referee. He is called the chairman and moderator in debate. The chairman keeps the order of the debate and rules according to the criteria and regulations of the contest just as the referee does in a game. There are also judges in contest debates as there are judges in games who make decision for the outcome of a dispute. Sometimes, in sports the referee serves also as judge for the purpose, as in track and field. In boxing, a referee also makes decision like the other judges who are assigned to the task. In debate, however, it seldom happen that one man acts as the chairman and the judge at the same time. This many happen in a classroom debate where an Instructor may serve as a chairman and judge at the same time. 1 Celestine Bittle, The Science of Correct Thinking, (revised edition; Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1950). James Edwin Creighton and Harold R. Smart, An Introductory Logic, (fifth edition; New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932)Edwin Arthur Buril, Right Thinking, (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1946). A. Wolf, Textbook of Logic. (Second revised edition; London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1961).Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel, An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method, (New York) Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1934).