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  • wheres the other page can't find them i badly need the chapter 4 which the 2nd line defense :(
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  • 1. Copyrighted Material.
  • 2. Copyrighted Material.
  • 3. Copyrighted Material. Industrial Security Management First Edition Philippine Copyright, 2013 By: ChapterHouse Publishing Incorporated All Rights Reserved. The text of this book or any part hereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including copying, recording, storage in any informational retrieval system, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Any unauthorized copying, reproduction, or dissemination of any portion of this book shall be prosecuted in accordance with law. Published and Distributed by: ChapterHouse Publishing Incorporated Novaliches, Quezon City Edited by: The English Factor www.englishfactor.com “Providing international-quality editorial services at reasonable costs.” ISBN: 978-971-95775-2-2
  • 4. Copyrighted Material. T ABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION V PREFACE VII PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS OF SECURITY 1 Chapter 1: The Concept of Security 3 Definitions of Security 4 Related Concepts 5 Categories of Security 5 7 Security Management in Organizations Chapter 2: History of Security 9 Historical Roots of Security 9 Security in Philippine History 10 Security in the Present Time 11 Chapter 3: Legal Context of Security Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines The Revised Penal Code (RA 3815) Private Security Agency Law (RA 5487 as Amended) Presidential Decree No. 1919 (Amending RA 5487 and Pd 100) Presidential Decrees No. 11 and No. 100 (Amending RA 5487) 13 13 14 15 15 16 16
  • 5. Copyrighted Material. PART TWO: CATEGORIES OF SECURITY 17 Chapter 4: Physical Security 19 Principles of Physical Security 20 Factors in Selecting Security Safeguards 20 Physical Barriers 21 Advantages of Physical Barriers 22 Purpose of Physical Barriers 22 General Types of Physical Barriers 22 Other Types of Physical Barriers 22 First Line of Defense: The Perimeter Barrier 23 Purpose of the Perimeter Barrier 23 Types of Perimeter Barriers 24 Second Line of Defense: Building Exteriors 27 Roofs 27 Exterior Walls 27 Concrete Structures 28 Floors 28 Interior Walls 29 Ceilings 29 Doorways 30 Windows 31 Other Openings 32 Third Line of Defense: Interior Controls 32 Locks 33 Telephone Entry Systems 33 Identification Systems 34 Protective Alarm Sensors 34 Protective Lighting 35 Purpose of Protective Lighting 35 General Characteristics of Protective Lighting 36 Types of Protective Lighting 36 Chapter 5: Personnel Security Purpose of Personnel Security: Pre-Employment Screening Pre-employment Screening Policy Checklist (CPNI, 2011) Application Form Interviews Identity Verification Qualification and Employment Checks Media Searches Ongoing Personnel Security during Employment Purpose of Ongoing Personnel Security (CPNI, 2010) Importance Ongoing Personnel Security Security Training and Awareness Addressing Behaviors of Concern Controlling Employee Access Screening for the Insider Threat 39 41 41 42 43 43 43 45 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 50
  • 6. Copyrighted Material. Exit Procedures 50 The Exit Interview 53 Chapter 6: Document and Information Security 55 Types of Documents 56 Factors to Consider 57 Stages of Information Cycle 57 Characteristics of Information 58 60 Sensitive Information Classification of Sensitive Information 60 Proprietary Information 61 Information Security Measures 62 PART THREE: TECHNICAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT 65 Chapter 7: Security Survey and Inspection 67 The Security Survey 67 Importance of Security Survey 68 The Value of a Security Professional 70 Security Inspection 70 Purpose of Security Inspection 71 Phases of Security Inspection 71 Importance of Security Inspection 71 Steps in a Security Inspection 72 Safety Inspection 72 Objectives of Safety Inspection 72 Purpose of Safety Inspection 72 Phases of Safety Inspections 73 Importance of Safety Inspection 73 74 Steps in Safety Inspection Security Survey Format 75 Security Inspection Report Format 77 Industrial Security Survey Checklist 78 Chapter 8: Security Risk Analysis 89 Security Analysis 90 Defining the Problem 90 Security Hazards 93 Types of Hazards 93 Major Risks 94 Risks Management Alternatives and Strategies 95 Chapter 9: Security Investigation 97 Elements of Investigation 98 The Three I’s of Investigation 98 Purpose of Investigation 99 Qualities of Effective Investigation 99
  • 7. Copyrighted Material. Characteristics of a Successful Investigator 100 Systematic Approach to an Investigation 101 Guidelines in Investigation 102 Investigation Report 103 Purpose of the Investigation Report 103 Qualities of an Investigation Report 104 Parts of the Report 104 Sample Report Format 105 Incident-Type Investigation/Complaint-Type Investigation 106 Sequence of Investigative Leads 107 Interrogation and Interview 108 Interview of Non-Hostile Informants 108 The Interrogator and the Science of Psychology 108 Interrogation of Suspected Individuals 109 Types of Suspects in Terms of Attitude and Personality 110 Different Interrogation Schemes 110 Interrogation Proper 111 PART IV: SECURITY AGENCY MANAGEMENT 113 Chapter 10: Management and Planning 115 MANAGEMENT IN GENERAL AND PLANNING FUNCTION 116 Security Management and Cost Effectiveness 116 Security Planning 116 Development of Security Polices 117 Illustrations of Security Policies 117 Operating Level Policies 118 FINANCING 118 BUDGETING 118 The Process of Budgeting 118 119 Budget Costs and Justification ORGANIZING 119 Organizational Relationship 120 Organizational Principle 120 Reporting Levels 121 Typical Security Organization 121 The Agency Operator/Security Director 121 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATION 122 Ranks and Positions 122 Staffing Pattern 123 Position Standards 124 Hiring 124 Training and Professional Development 125 Discipline 125 Appraisal of Results 125 Promotions 125 Morale and Welfare 126 Communication 126 Some Management Principles 126
  • 8. Copyrighted Material. Chapter 11: Implementation, Problem-Solving and Audit/Inspection 129 Program Implementation 130 Top Management’s Responsibility 130 Involvement of Others 130 Setting Priorities and Meeting Schedules 130 Drills and Rehearsals 130 130 Validation and Updating of Plans Program Evaluation 131 Problem Solving and Decision-Making 131 Problem Solving Techniques 131 Some Pitfalls in Decision Making 132 Factors Affecting a Decision 132 Security Audit/Inspection 133 Rationale for Security Audit 133 Conduct of the Audit 134 Formal and Informal Security Audit 134 Structured and Unstructured Audit 134 Ascertaining Compliance 134 Chapter 12: Security Personnel 137 DEFINITION 138 Types of Security Guards 138 Advantages and Disadvantages of Company Guards versus Agency Guards 139 GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF A SECURITY GUARD 140 Categories of Private Security Training 140 Qualifications, Functions and Attributes 141 Powers and Duties of Security Guard 143 Functions of a Private Detective 144 Functions of Security Supervisor from the Security Guard’s Point of View 145 Functions of Security Supervisor from the Management Point of View 145 Duties during Strikes and Lockouts 145 Attributes of Security Guard/Private Detective 146 Desirable Qualities of Security Guard 147 Desirable Qualities of Security Supervisor 147 Basis for Disqualification 149 Grounds for Cancellation of Security Guard License 149 Private Security Agency Law (RA 5487 as amended) 150 Organization 150 Management 151 Operations 154 Limitations and Prohibitions 156 Administrative Sanctions 158
  • 9. Copyrighted Material. Chapter 13: CODE OF ETHICS AND CONDUCT PRIVATE SECURITY AGENCIES Private Security Agency’s Creed Ethical Standards for Private Security Agencies Code of Conduct for Private Security Agencies SECURITY GUARDS Security Guard’s Creed The 11 General Orders for Security Guards Code of Ethics for Security Guards Code of Conduct for Security Guards 161 161 161 161 162 164 164 165 166 167 Chapter 14: GUARD FORCE ADMINISTRATION 171 Leadership and Command 172 Leadership: the Concept 172 Goals of a Leader 173 Types of Leadership 173 Leadership Traits 173 Leadership Principles 175 Leadership Indicators 175 Operations 176 Administration 176 Technical Services 177 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 179 BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 IMAGE CREDITS 187
  • 10. Copyrighted Material. 1 PART ONE FUNDAMENT ALS OF SECURITY
  • 11. Copyrighted Material. The Concept of Security CHAPTER 1 THE CONCEPT OF SECURITY Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter, the student will be able to: • Define security • Explain the concepts of asset, risk, threat and vulnerability • Enumerate the categories of security • Discuss the importance of private security in organizations Security is important to everyone. It is important to individuals such as a homeowner who wants to protect valuable items in his house, a parent who does not want her child to be harmed while in school, an employee who wants to save for a comfortable retirement, or an online shopper who wants to purchase a gadget via the internet. It is also important to private companies such as a jewelry store that keeps diamonds in storage, a law firm that holds incriminating evidence against a drug lord, or an internet company that requires personal information and passwords from its users. Of course, it is also very important to governments that maintain military forces, use intelligence services, legislate civil defense policies, and implement emergency preparedness measures to serve and protect its citizens. 2
  • 12. Copyrighted Material. 3 INDUSTRIAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT Definitions of Security The word secure is derived from the Latin securus which means “safe” or “without care,” or from se cura, wherein se means “free from” and cura means “care.” To be secure could mean many different things. It could mean being free from danger, risk, injury, fear, trouble, doubt or anxiety. Being secure could also refer to being dependable, strong, good, impregnable or inviolable. Or simply, it could mean having peace of mind. Security can be defined as the degree of protection or resistance against harm, danger, loss, and criminals. As a form of protection, it includes structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) is an open community and a non-profit organization that published in 2001 the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM), a peer-reviewed manual of security testing and analysis. OSSTMM 3 was released in 2010, defining security with the following explanation: “For a threat to be effective, it must interact either directly or indirectly with the asset. To separate the threat from the asset is to avoid a possible interaction. Therefore it is possible to have total (100%) security if the threat and the asset are completely separated from each other. Otherwise what you have is safety of the asset which is provided by the controls you put on the asset or the degree to which you lessen the impact of the threat. For example, to be secure from lightning, one must move to where lightning can’t reach such as deep in a mountain. Threats which can’t be separated from the assets must be made safer so that their interactions and any effects from interactions do little or no harm. In this same example, to be safe from lightning, one must stay indoors during storms, avoid windows or other openings, and use lightning rods on the roof. Therefore, under the context of operational security, we call security the separation of an asset and a threat and safety the control of a threat or its effects” (ISECOM, 2010, emphasis supplied).
  • 13. Copyrighted Material. The Concept of Security Related Concepts Understanding the concept of security requires further definition of other related concepts such as asset, risk, threat and vulnerability. An asset is anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce value. If it has positive economic value, it is considered an asset. Or more simply, if its value can be converted into cash, it is an asset (Sullivan & Sheffrin, 2003). Risk is the uncertainty of financial loss, the probability that a loss has occurred or will occur, the variations between actual and expected results, or the possible occurrence of an undesirable event. The end result of risk is loss or a decrease in value (Sennewald, 2003). Threat and vulnerability are sometimes interchangeably used with risk. A threat is anything that could adversely affect assets; it can be classified into natural hazards (such as floods), accidents (chemical spills), or intentional acts (domestic or international terrorism). Vulnerability means weakness, flaw, or virtually anything that may conceivably be exploited by a threat; examples are holes in a fence, an out-of-date key system or the introduction of a computer virus (Sennewald, 2003). Categories of Security The concept of security is so wide that categorization is necessary for better understanding and analysis. The three main categories covered in this book include: 1. Physical Security - pertains to all physical barriers employed or installed to secure assets 2. Personnel Security - refers to the procedure followed, inquiries conducted, and criteria applied to determine the work suitability of a particular applicant or the retention of a particular employee 3. Document and Information Security - refers to policies, regulations, doctrines, and practices enforced to safeguard the contents and integrity of any classified information or document from compromise or loss 4
  • 14. Copyrighted Material. 5 INDUSTRIAL SECURITY MANAGEMENT The three main categories enumerated will be discussed more lengthily in Part Two of this book. Political security is another category that relate to social relationships involving governments or entities that hold authority or power. This includes issues of security in the public, national or international level, as enumerated below. 1. Public security refers to the way governments are ensuring the protection of its citizens, organizations and institutions against threats to their well-being, as well as maintaining the general security and peace in public places. This includes security against problems that have a direct impact on people’s lives, such as gang violence, cybercrime, or trafficking of illegal drugs and firearms. 2. National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of a state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, and political power. Security threats include military foes from other nations, big drug cartels, or even national disasters that cause severe environmental damage. 3. International security consists of the measures taken by nations and international organizations to ensure mutual survival and safety. Examples of measures are military actions and diplomatic agreements. In the private sphere, security can be even further categorized, as shown below. 1. Industrial security is a form of physical security involving industrial plants and business enterprises. This involves the safeguarding of personnel, processes, properties and operations. 2. Bank and armor security involves the protection resulting from the application of various measures which safeguards cash and assets in storage, in transit, or during transaction. 3. Hotel security involves using various measures of protection for the guests, personnel properties and functions in hotels, restaurants, bars and clubs.
  • 15. Copyrighted Material. The Concept of Security 4. V.I.P. security involves the protection of top-ranking officials of the government, visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries. 5. Operational security involves the protection of processes, formula, patents and industrial and manufacturing activities from espionage, infiltration, loss, compromise or infringement. 6. Communication security involves the safeguard resulting from the application of different measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized person from gaining information through communication including transmission and cryptographic. 7. Mall/commercial security is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and crime inside malls. As a form of protection, it refers to systems, structures and processes that provide or improve mall security as a condition. Security Management in Organizations Security management has become an essential feature of corporate activity; there is almost no organization without a team dedicated to managing issues of security. We usually see shopping malls, entertainment venues and banks policed by private armies which we call security guards. The presence of these uniformed staff represents the company’s ability to respond to or deter threats. This, however, is only part of the security measures employed by companies against threats posed by opportunistic criminals, its rival organizations, or even its own saboteur employees. Other security measures may include the installation of CCTVs, sophisticated alarm systems, policies against workplace bullying and harassment, employee screening, emergency planning, and other measures that enable individuals and organizations to carry on with their business free from danger. Indeed, security has a policing function in organizations. In fact, illegal practices in the workplace have become an established theme in criminology studies. These crimes involve not only the robberies and shootouts inside malls or kidnappings in schools that we hear in the news. It involves high-stakes corporate crimes such as tax evasion and money laundering, fraud, bribery, workplace harassment, or even those similar to street crimes such as thieves sneaking inside offices. With corporate crime becoming a growing area of concern, the increasing role of private security in crime prevention is becoming more evident. This further highlights the need for increased competence and 6

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