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  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Brought to you by: </li></ul><ul><li>Cassie, Diana, Sergio, Gabriela, Pierre, Tiffany, Diane & Lynn </li></ul>
  2. 31. RELIGION <ul><li>A SOCIAL institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred. </li></ul>
  3. 32. Sacred <ul><li>Extraordinary </li></ul>Inspiring Awe & Reverence
  4. 33. Profane An ordinary element of everyday life.
  5. 34. Ritual <ul><li>Formal or ceremonial behaviors holding symbolic meaning. </li></ul>Communion Confessionals
  6. 35. FAITH <ul><li>The belief in a higher power by conviction and not science. </li></ul>
  7. 36. Theoretical Approaches to Analyzing Religion Diana Chia
  8. 37. Three Approaches 1. Structural Functional Approach 2. Symbolic Interaction 3. Social Conflict
  9. 38. St ru ct ur al Fu nc ti on al Ap pr oa ch <ul><li>Social Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Social Control </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose in Life </li></ul>
  10. 39. Pilgrimage to Mecca Islam Kumbh Mela Hindu Pilgrimage (Holy bath) Social Cohesion
  11. 40. Social Control Judgment Day 10 Commandments
  12. 41. Gives Life Purpose and Meaning
  13. 42. Symbolic Interaction Approach <ul><li>Rituals give everyday life sacred meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred symbols provide comfort in times of crisis or uncertainty. </li></ul>Tibetan sky burial
  14. 43. Social Conflict Approach <ul><li>A form of social control. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is used to promote social inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>Kings rule by divine right. </li></ul>King Charles
  15. 44. <ul><li>Gender Inequality </li></ul>
  16. 45. By: Sergio Cornejo
  17. 46. Max Weber: Protestantism & Capitalism <ul><li>Religious is usually thought of as a conservative force that does not embrace change but at times in history religion has caused dramatic social change. (Protestants in 1500’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Max Weber believed that certain religious ideas caused a wave of change that brought about the Industrial Revolution in Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism which was a movement within the Protestant Reformation unknowingly encouraged industrial capitalism. </li></ul>
  18. 47. Basis of Calvinism <ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li>Only God knew </li></ul><ul><li>Signs from God’s </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity was God’s blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Religious conviction & rigid devotion lead to great wealth </li></ul>
  19. 48. Groundwork of Capitalism <ul><li>Against selfish spending and giving to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>They would reinvest and adopt technology </li></ul><ul><li>Non-protestants followed becoming a profane belief </li></ul><ul><li>No longer Protestant beliefs but capitalism beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist ideas lead to Industrial revolution in Western Europe </li></ul>
  20. 49. Liberation Theory <ul><li>Liberation theory: the combining of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea to reach out to oppressed people urging all to a stronger faith in a better life to come. </li></ul>
  21. 50. Background of Liberation Theory <ul><li>Started In 1960s in Latin American Roman Catholic Churches. </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression runs counter to Christian morality </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace Christianity </li></ul>
  22. 51. Against Liberation Theory <ul><li>Mixing religion and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Benedictine XVI, like Pope John Paul II condemned the liberation theory for distorting the church doctrine with left-winged politics. </li></ul>
  23. 52. Types of Religious Organizations By: Gabriela Rodriguez
  24. 53. Church
  25. 54. Sects
  26. 55. Cults
  27. 56. Heaven’s Gate/ People’s Temple
  28. 57. Jim Jones Manson Family
  29. 58. World Religions <ul><li>6 most known religions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>together it makes up two-thirds of humanity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(approximately 4 billion believers). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 59. Christianity <ul><li>Most widespread religion with 2 billion followers </li></ul><ul><li>Began as a cult </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built on the personal charisma of the leader Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He preached of personal salvation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By the fourth century it was the official religion of the Holy Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most dominant religions </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity draws elements from Judaism, a much older religion </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Symbol </li></ul>Cult : a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions.
  31. 60. Islam <ul><ul><li>1.2 billion followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(one-fifth of humanity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of the people in the Middle East are known as Muslims. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims follow the word of God as revealed to Muhammad- the prophet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Origins :The word of God revealed to Muhammad who was born in the city of Mecca at around 570 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Qur’an (Koran) is the sacred text. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socially oppressed women. </li></ul></ul></ul>4
  32. 61. Five Pillars of Islam: <ul><ul><li>recognizing Allah as the one, true God and Muhammad as God’s messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritual Prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving alms to the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during the month of Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making a pilgrimage at least once in one’s life to the Sacred House of Allah in Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  33. 62. <ul><li>picture A : Many people in the United States view Muslim women as socially oppressed. </li></ul><ul><li>picture B : The scared text of Muslims, known as the Qur’an (Koran). </li></ul><ul><li>picture C : The Crescent Moon is the symbol of Islam. </li></ul>Text Pictures of Islam
  34. 63. <ul><li>15 million followers worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews make up the majority of the population in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Jews believe in the concept of the covenant which implies a duty to observe Gods law, especially the Ten Commandments. ] </li></ul><ul><li>Torah: Bible’s first five books </li></ul><ul><li>Three Main Denominations </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination: share a history of oppression as a result of prejudice and discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul>Judaism Covenant : a special relationship with God by which the Jews became God’s “chosen people”.
  35. 64. Hinduism <ul><li>The oldest of all the world religions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of 800 million members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Envisions God as a universal moral force rather than a specific entity. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus believe in the principles of: dharma : the moral responsibilities karma : the belief in the spiritual progress of the human soul. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 65. Buddhism <ul><li>Consists of 350 million people. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist teachings are similar to that of Hindu beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama who became the Buddha. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha taught that meditation can help us move beyond selfish concerns and material desires. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By connecting with the power of the universe, people can reach nirvana - the state of enlightenment and peace. </li></ul>
  37. 66. Confucianism <ul><li>Was a state church - the official religion of China until the beginning of the twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius instructed his followers to engage the world according to a code of moral conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Jen meaning “humaneness” is the central idea of Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning we must always place moral principle above our self-interest . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 67. Religion: East and West West East <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clear focus on God as a distinct entity. </li></ul><ul><li>Form congregations, worshipping together in a special place at a regular time. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the divine power and spiritual beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Express their religion anywhere without a schedule. </li></ul>
  39. 68. Religion In the United States By Dianne Lee
  40. 69. Religious Membership across the U.S. Religious diversity across the U.S. Religiosity In Global Perspective
  41. 70. Religion in a Changing Society Lynn Truong Group 5/ Religion
  42. 71. Secularization <ul><li>Secularization - the historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred commonly associated with modern, technologically advanced societies in which science is the major way of understanding </li></ul>VS.
  43. 72. <ul><li>US is becoming a postdenomination society. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, people are seeking spiritual development outside of established religious organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Five core values of “New Age” Seekers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Seekers believe in a higher power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seekers believe we’re all connected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seekers believe in a spirit world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seekers want to experience the spirit world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seekers pursue transcendence. </li></ul></ul>“New Age” Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion
  44. 73. <ul><li>TREND : As many churchlike organizations become more worldly, many people leave them in favor of more sect-like communities offering a more intense religious experience. </li></ul>Religious Revival: “Good Old-Time Religion”
  45. 74. Fundamentalism <ul><li>Fundamentalism - a conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodations in favor of restoring traditional, other worldly religion </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalism is distinctive in 5 ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Fundamentalists take the words of sacred texts literally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Fundamentalists reject religious pluralism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Fundamentalists pursue the personal experience of God’s presence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Fundamentalists oppose “secular humanism.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Many fundamentalists endorse conservative political goals. </li></ul></ul>