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- 1. DECIMATION INTIME AND FREQUENCY Dr. C. Saritha Lecturer in Electronics SSBN Degree & PG College ANANTAPUR
- 2. INDEX INTRODUCTION TO FFT DECIMATION IN TIME(DIT) DECIMATION IN FREQUENCY(DIF) DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES
- 3. Fourier TransformA fourier transform is an useful analytical tool that is important for many fields of application in the digital signal processing. In describing the properties of the fourier transform and inverse fourier transform, it is quite convenient to use the concept of time and frequency. In image processing applications it plays a critical role.
- 4. Fast fourier transform Fast fourier transform proposed by Cooley and Tukey in 1965. The fast fourier transform is a highly efficient procedure for computing the DFT of a finite series and requires less number of computations than that of direct evaluation of DFT. The FFT is based on decomposition and breaking the transform into smaller transforms and combining them to get the total transform.
- 5. Discrete Fourier Transform The DFT pair was given as N −1 1 N− 1 X [ k ] = ∑ x[n]e − j ( 2π / N ) kn x[n] = ∑ X[k ] e j( 2π / N) kn N k=0 n= 0Baseline for computational complexity:Each DFT coefficient requires N complex multiplications N-1 complex additionsAll N DFT coefficients require N2 complex multiplications N(N-1) complex additions
- 6. What is FFT? The fast fourier is an algorithm used to compute the DFT. It makes use of the symmetry and periodicity properties of twiddle factor wN to effectively reduce the DFT computation time. It is based on the fundamental principle of decomposing the computation of DFT of a sequence of length N into successively smaller DFT.
- 7. Symmetry and periodicity kn ∗ − kn Symmetry (W ) = W N N k (n+ N ) (k + N )n Periodicity W kn N =W N =W N − kn k ( N −n) n( N −k ) W N =W N =W N W nk N =W mnk mN , W nk N =W nk / m N /m ( k + N/ 2 ) W N N/ 2 = −1, W N = −W k N
- 8. FFT algorithm provides speed increase factors, when compared with direct computation of the DFT, of approximately 64 and 205 for 256 point and 1024 point transforms respectively. The number of multiplications and additions required to compute N-point DFT using radix-2 FFT are Nlog2N and N/2 log2N respectively.
- 9. Example:The number of complex multiplications required using direct computation is N2=642 =4096The number of complex multiplications required using FFT is N/2log2 N=64/2log2 64=192Speed improvement factor =4096/192= 21.33.
- 10. FFT Algorithms There are basically two types of FFT algorithms. They are:1. Decimation in Time2. Decimation in frequency
- 11. Decimation in time DIT algorithm is used to calculate the DFT of a N-point sequence. The idea is to break the N-point sequence into two sequences, the DFTs of which can be obtained to give the DFT of the original N-point sequence. Initially the N-point sequence is divided into N/2-point sequences xe(n) and x0(n) , which have even and odd numbers of x(n) respectively.
- 12. The N/2-point DFTs of these two sequences are evaluated and combined to give the N-point DFT. Similarly the N/2-point DFTs can be expressed as a combination of N/4-point DFTs. This process is continued until we are left with two point DFT. This algorithm is called decimation-in-time because the sequence x(n) is often split into smaller sequences.
- 13. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm Radix-2: the sequence length N satisfied: N = 2L L is an integer To decompose an N point time domainsignal into N signals each containing asingle point. Each decomposing stage usesan interlace decomposition, separating theeven- and odd-indexed samples; To calculate the N frequency spectracorresponding to these N time domainsignals.
- 14. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm1 signal of 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15points2 signals of 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15points4 signals of 4 0 4 8 12 2 6 10 14 1 5 9 13 3 7 11 15points8 signals of 2 0 8 4 12 2 10 6 14 1 9 5 13 3 11 7 15points16 signals of 1 0 8 4 12 2 10 6 14 1 9 5 13 3 11 7 15point
- 15. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm Algorithm principle To divide N-point sequence x(n) into two N/2-point sequence x1(r) and x2(r) Nx1 ( r ) = x( 2r ); x 2 ( r ) = x ( 2r + 1) , r = 0,1,2, − 1 2 To compute the DFT of x1(r) and x2(r) N N −1 −1 2 2 NX 1 ( k ) = ∑ x1 ( r )W rk N = ∑ x ( 2r )W rk N (k = 0 ~ − 1) r =0 2 r =0 2 2 N N −1 −1 2 2 NX 2 ( k ) = ∑ x 2 ( r )W rk N = ∑ x ( 2r + 1)W rk N (k = 0 ~ − 1) r =0 2 r =0 2 2
- 16. To compute the DFT of N-point sequence x(n) N −1 N −1 N −1X ( k ) = ∑ x( n)W nk N = ∑ x(n)W nk N + ∑ x(n)W nk N n= 0 n = 0 ( even ) n = 0 ( odd ) N N −1 −1 2 2= ∑ x ( 2r )W N rk + ∑ x( 2r + 1)W N2 r +1) k r =0 2 r =0 ( N N −1 −1 2 2= ∑ x (r )W r =0 1 rk N +W k N ∑ x (r )W r =0 2 rk N 2 2= X 1 (k ) + W N X 2 (k ) k ( k = 0,1,2, N − 1)
- 17. N X ( k ) = X 1 ( k ) + W X 2 ( k ) ( k = 0,1, − 1) k N 2 N N N (k+ ) N X (k + ) = X 1 (k + ) + W N 2 X 2 (k + ) 2 2 2 N = X 1 (k ) − W N X 2 (k ) k ( k = 0,1, − 1) 2 x1 ( r ) X 1 (k )x(n) X (k ) x2 (r ) X 2 (k )
- 18. Butterfly computation flow graph N X (k ) = X 1 (k ) + W X 2 (k ) k N ( k = 0,1, − 1) 2 N N X (k + ) = X 1 (k ) − W N X 2 (k ) k ( k = 0,1, − 1) 2 2X 1 (k ) X 1 (k ) + W N X 2 (k ) k k WNX 2 (k ) X 1 (k ) − W N X 2 (k ) k −1There are 1 complex multiplication and 2 complex additions
- 19. X 1 ( 0) x1 (0) = x (0) X ( 0) X (1) x1 (1) = x ( 2) N/2- 1 X (1)x1 ( r ) point X ( 2) x1 ( 2) = x (4) 1 X ( 2) DFT X 1 ( 3) x1 ( 3) = x (6) X ( 3) 0 X 2 ( 0) WN x 2 (0) = x (1) −1 X ( 4) 1 X 2 (1) WN x 2 (1) = x ( 3) N/2- −1 X ( 5)x2 ( r ) point X 2 ( 2) 2 WN x 2 ( 2) = x ( 5) −1 X ( 6) DFT 3 X 2 ( 3) WN x 2 ( 3) = x ( 7 ) −1 X (7) N-point DFT
- 20. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm The computation complexity for N = 2 3 x (n) X (k ) 2-point Synthesize DFT the 2-point 2-point DFTs into a DFT 4-point DFT Synthesize the 4-point 2-point Synthesize DFTs into a DFT the 2-point 8-point DFT 2-point DFTs into a DFT 4-point DFT3-stage synthesize, each has N/2 butterfly computation
- 21. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm•At the end of computation flow graph at anystage, output variables can be stored in thesame registers previously occupied by thecorresponding input variables.•This type of memory location sharing is calledin-place computation which results in significantsaving in overall memory requirements.
- 22. The distance between two nodes in a butterfly For N = 2 L there are L stages Stage Distance stage 1 1 stage 2 2 stage 3 4 stage L 2 L −1
- 23. Radix-2 DIT- FFT Algorithm Bit-reversed orderIn the DFT computation scheme, the DFT samples X(k)appear at the output in a sequential order while the inputsamples x(n) appear in a different order: a bit-reversedorder.Thus, a sequentially ordered input x(n) must be reorderedappropriately before the fast algorithm can be implemented.Let m, n represent the sequential and bit-reversed order inbinary forms respectively, then:m: 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111n: 000 100 010 110 001 101 011 111
- 24. Why is the input bit-reversed order n0 n1 n2 0 x (000) x (0) 0 0 1 x (100) x (4) 0 1 x (010) x (2)x ( n2 n1n0 ) 1 x (110) x (6) 0 0 x (001) x (1) 1 1 x (101) x (5) 0 1 x (011) x (3) 1 x (111) x (7 )
- 25. How to get the bit-reversed order Let n represent the natural order, the ˆ n represent the bit-reversed order, then: if n > n , ˆ x ( n) ⇔ x ( n) ˆ A(0) A(1) A( 2) A( 3) A(4) A(5) A(6) A(7 )n x (0) x (1) x ( 2) x ( 3) x ( 4) x ( 5) x ( 6) x(7)ˆn x ( 0) x ( 4) x ( 2) x ( 6) x (1) x ( 5) x ( 3) x(7)
- 26. Decimation-In-Frequency It is a popular form of FFT algorithm. In this the output sequence x(k) is divided into smaller and smaller subsequences, that is why the name decimation in frequency, Initially the input sequence x(n) is divided into two sequences x1(n) and x2(n) consisting of the first n/2 samples of x(n) and the last n/2 samples of x(n) respectively
- 27. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm Algorithm principle To divide N-point sequence x(n) into two N/2-point sequence NThe former N/2-point x( n), 0 ≤ n ≤ −1 2 N NThe latter N/2-point x( n + ), 0 ≤ n ≤ − 1 2 2
- 28. x (n) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 butterfly computation 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 butterfly computation butterfly computation 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 butterfly butterfly butterfly butterflyX (k ) 0 4 2 6 1 5 3 7
- 29. To compute the DFT of N-point sequence x(n) N −1 N −1 2 N −1X ( k ) = ∑ x ( n)W nk N = ∑ x(n)W nk N + ∑ x(n)W nk N n=0 n=0 N n= 2 N N −1 −1 2 2 N N ( n+ ∑ x(n)W + ∑ x ( n + )W N )k= nk N 2 n=0 n=0 2 N −1 2 N N nk= ∑ x ( n) + W N x ( n + )W N k 2 n=0 2 N −1= ∑ 2 x ( n) + ( −1) k x ( n + N )W nk ( k = 0,1, N − 1) n=0 2 N
- 30. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm To separate the even and odd numbered samples of X(k) N let k = 2r , k = 2r + 1, ( r = 0,1, , − 1) 2 N −1 2 x ( n) + x ( n + N )W nr ( r = 0,1, N − 1) X ( 2r ) = ∑ n=0 2 N 2 2 N −1 2X ( 2r + 1) = ∑ x ( n) − x ( n + N )W nW nr ( r = 0,1, N − 1) n=0 2 N N 2 2
- 31. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm N x1 ( n) = x ( n) + x ( n + 2 ) Nlet n = 0,1, − 1 N n 2 x 2 ( n) = x ( n) − x ( n + )W N 2 N −1 2 N X ( 2r ) = ∑ x (n)W n= 0 1 nr N 2 ( r = 0,1, − 1) 2 N −1 2 N X ( 2r + 1) = ∑ x (n)W n=0 2 nr N 2 ( r = 0,1, − 1) 2
- 32. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm Butterfly computation flow graph x(n) N x1 ( n) = x( n) + x( n + ) 2 n N WN N nx( n + ) x 2 ( n ) = x ( n ) − x ( n + ) W N 2 −1 2 There are 1 complex multiplication and 2 complex additions
- 33. for N = 2 3 x1 (0)x ( 0) X ( 0) x1 (1)x(1) N/2- X ( 2) point x1 ( 2)x ( 2) X ( 4) DFT x1 ( 3)x ( 3) X ( 6) 0 WN x 2 ( 0)x ( 4) −1 X (1) 1 WN x 2 (1)x ( 5) N/2- X ( 3) −1 2 WN x 2 ( 2) pointx ( 6) −1 X ( 5) 3 DFT WN x 2 ( 3)x(7) −1 X (7)
- 34. for N = 2 3x ( 0) X ( 0) 0 WNx (1) X ( 4) 0 −1 WNx ( 2) X ( 2) −1 2 0 WN WNx ( 3) X ( 6) −1 −1 0 W Nx ( 4) X (1) −1 1 0 WN WNx ( 5) X ( 5) −1 −1 2 0 WN WNx ( 6) X ( 3) −1 −1 3 2 0 WN WN WNx(7) X (7) −1 −1 −1
- 35. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm The comparison of DIT and DIF The order of samplesDIT-FFT: the input is bit- reversed order and the outputis natural orderDIF-FFT: the input is natural order and the output is bit-reversed order The butterfly computationDIT-FFT: multiplication is done before additionsDIF-FFT: multiplication is done after additions
- 36. Radix-2 DIF- FFT Algorithm Both DIT-FFT and DIF-FFT have the identical computation complexity. i.e. for N = 2 L , there are total L stages and each has N/2 butterfly computation. Each butterfly computation has 1 multiplication and 2 additions. Both DIT-FFT and DIF-FFT have the characteristic of in-place computation. A DIT-FFT flow graph can be transposed to a DIF- FFT flow graph and vice versa.

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