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- 1. SRI SAIBABA NATIONAL COLLEGE::ANANATPUR (Autonomous) Department of Electronics B.Sc., Electronics I Year Practicals Prepared By Dr.C.Saritha Dr.V.Sukanya
- 2. SSBN DEGREE (Autonomous) COLLEGE Department of Electronics B.Sc., I year - List of Experiments1. Conversion of Basic meter into ohm meter2. Verification of Kirchoff”s Laws3. Verification of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems4. Measurement of voltage (ac and dc) and frequency using CRO5. Verification of Maximum power transfer theorem6. Frequency response of CR circuit7. Conversion of basic meter into voltmeter8. VI characteristics of PN junction diode9. VI characteristics of Zener diode10. Zener diode voltage and current regulation characteristics
- 3. 1. Conversion of Basic meter into ohm meterAim:To convert the given micro ammeter into ohm meter and also to determine the unknownresistance values by using the ohm meter.Apparatus:Battery eliminator (1.5V), micro ammeter (0-200μA), Resistance box (2), multimeter, plugkey, bread board, connecting wires etc.Circuit diagram:Model Graph:
- 4. Tabular Column:S.No. Resistance in ohms Deflections in divisions1 5002 10003 15004 20005 25006 30007 35008 40009 450010 500011 550012 600013 650014 700015 750016 800017 850018 900019 950020 1000021 R1( )22 R2( )23 R3( )24 R4( )25 R5( )Result :
- 5. The given micro ammeter is converted into ohmmeter and the values of unknownresistances are determined by using the graph.S.No. Resistors of different values Resistance in Ω From From From colour code multimeter Graph1 R1( )2 R2( )3 R3( )4 R4( )5 R5( )
- 6. 2. Verification of Kirchoff”s LawsAim :To verify the kirchoff’s voltage and current laws by arranging simple electric circuits.Apparatus :Resistors of different values, Battery eliminator, multimeter, bread board and connectingwires etc.General circuit diagrams:Kirchoff’s Current Law:Kirchoff’s Voltage Law:
- 7. Circuit diagram:Observation Table for Kirchoff’s Voltage Law :S.No. Input Voltage Voltage Voltage Voltage Total ouput voltage voltage Vi VAB VBC VCD VDE Vo = VAB + VBC + VCD + VDE in volts in volts in volts in volts in volts1 12 23 34 45 56 67 7
- 8. 8 8 9 9 10 10Observation Table for Kirchoff’s Current Law :S.No. V AB V BC V BC VCD V DE V DE I2 + I3 I5 + I6 I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 = I5 = I6 = R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 in mA in mA in mA in mA in mA in mA in mA in mA12345678910Result :Kirchoff’s voltage law and Kirchoff’s current law are verified by arranging simple electriccircuit.S.No. I 1 in mA I 2 + I 3 in mA I4 in mA I 5 + I 6 in mA12345678910 3. Verification of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theoremsAim:
- 9. To state and verify Norton’s theorem and Thevenin’s theorem by using the suitable electriccircuits.Apparatus :Resistors 100Ω (2), Resistance Box (1), multimeter, Battery eliminator, voltmeter (0-10V),milliammeter (0-10mA), bread board and connecting wires etc.General Circuit :To find Thevenin’s Resistance :Observation Table to find Thevenin’s Resistance (Rth):
- 10. S.No. Resistance in Ω Thevenin’s Resistance Rth in Ω R1 R2 R3 Experimental Value Theoretical Value R1R 2 Rth = R3 + in Ω R1 + R 21 100 100 1002 100 200 1003 100 300 1004 100 400 1005 100 500 1006 100 600 1007 100 700 1008 100 800 1009 100 900 10010 100 1000 100To find Thevenin’s Voltage:Observation Table to find Thevenin’s Voltage (Vth) :S.No. Resistance in Ω Thevenin’s Voltage Vth in Volts R1 R2 R3 Experimental Theoretical Value Value R2 Vth = ⋅ V in volts R1 + R 21 100 100 100
- 11. 2 100 200 1003 100 300 1004 100 400 1005 100 500 1006 100 600 1007 100 700 1008 100 800 1009 100 900 10010 100 1000 100To find Norton’s Current ( IN ):Observation Table to find Norton’s Current ( IN ) :S.No. Resistance in Ω Norton’s Current IN in mA R1 R2 R3 Experimental Theoretical Value Value Vth IN = in mA Rth1 100 100 1002 100 200 1003 100 300 1004 100 400 1005 100 500 1006 100 600 100
- 12. 7 100 700 1008 100 800 1009 100 900 10010 100 1000 100Result:Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems are verified by arranging suitable electrical circuits.Thevenin’s voltage and Norton’s current are also measured and they are in good agreementwith the calculated values.4. Measurement of voltage (ac and dc) and frequency using CROAim :To measure the alternating voltage (AC) , direct voltage (DC) and frequency of the givenAC signal.Apparatus :CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope), battery eliminator, AFO (Audio frequency oscillator orFunction generator ), multimeter and connecting wires etc.Block diagram of CRO :
- 13. Measurement of Direct Voltage (DC) :Observation table to measure DC voltage :S.No. Length of vertical Reading on Measured voltage Actual DC voltage line in X cm Volts/Div Vo= X.N in volts Vi in volts Scale (N)1 0.52 1.03 1.54 2.05 2.56 3.0
- 14. Measurement of Alternating Voltage (AC) :Observation table to measure AC voltage :S.No. Length of Reading on Peak to Peak RMS Actual vertical line Volts/Div Peak voltage voltage voltage AC in X cm Scale (N) VPP=X.N V PP VP voltage Vi VP = Vrms = in volts 2 2 in volts in Volts in volts1 0.52 1.03 1.54 2.05 2.56 3.0
- 15. Measurement of frequency :Observation table to measure frequency :S.No. Actual Distance Reading on Time period Measured frequency between two Time/Div T=X.N msec frequency in Hz successive Scale (N) 1 f = Hz T peaks X in cm1 502 1003 1504 2005 2506 300Result :
- 16. By using CRO the alternating voltage, direct voltage and frequency of the given AC signalare measured and the resultant values are in good agreement with the calculated values. 5. Verification of Maximum power transfer theoremAim :To state and verify maximum power transfer theorem by arranging simple electric circuit.Apparatus :Batteries 1.5V – (2), Resostpr 100Ω –(1), Resistance box – (1), multimeter and connectingwires etc.Circuit diagram :
- 17. Model Graph :Calculation : E2Maximum Power Pmax = 4 RLObservation Table :
- 18. S.No. Load Resistance RL in Ω Voltage across the load V L2 Power P = in mW resistance VL in Volts RL1 102 203 304 405 506 607 708 809 9010 10011 11012 12013 13014 14015 15016 16017 17018 18019 19020 200Result :Maximum power is delivered when load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of thesource.Maximum power Pmax = ________________Value of Resistance at maximum powerFrom graphActual value 100Ω
- 19. 6. Frequency response of CR circuitAim :To study the frequency response of high pass and low pass filters and also to determine thecutoff frequency by constructing suitable CR circuits.Apparatus :Function generator -1, multimeter, capacitors and resistors of suitable values, connectingwires etc.Design : 1Cutoff frequency f 0 = 2ΠR C Where f0 = 100Hz, C=0.1μF 1Now R = = 2Πf 0 C
- 20. Circuit diagram for High pass filter :Model Graph :
- 21. Observation table for high pass filter : Input voltage Vi = 1VS.No. Frequency in Hz Output voltage V0 Gain = V0 in volts Vi1 202 303 404 505 606 707 808 909 10010 20011 30012 40013 50014 60015 70016 80017 900
- 22. 18 100019 200020 300021 400022 500023 600024 700025 800026 900027 10000Design : 1Cutoff frequency f 0 = 2ΠR C Where f0 = 500Hz, C=0.1μF 1Now R = = 2Πf 0 CCircuit diagram for Low pass filter :Model Graph :
- 23. Observation table for low pass filter : Input voltage Vi = 1VS.No. Frequency in Hz Output voltage V0 Gain = V0 in volts Vi1 202 303 404 505 606 707 808 909 10010 20011 30012 40013 50014 60015 70016 80017 90018 100019 200020 300021 400022 500023 600024 700025 800026 9000
- 24. 27 10000Result :The frequency response of low pass and high pass filters is studied by arranging suitableCR circuits. Also the cutoff frequencies are found experimentally and are tabulated below. S.No. Filter type Cutoff frequency in Hz Theoretical value Experimental value 1 High pass filter 100 2 Low pass filter 500
- 25. 7. Conversion of basic meter into voltmeterAim :To study the given basic meter into voltmeter of required range by determining its internalresistance.Apparatus :Galvanometer, battery eliminator, keys -2, commutator, resistance box, multimeter,connecting wires etc.Circuit diagram 1 :Formulas : EMaximum current I m = where E = 1.2V R + Rm R = Resistance for full scale deflection Rm = Internal resistance of the meter
- 26. VSeries Resistance Rs = − Rm where V= Range of voltmeter Im Im = maximum current Rm = Internal resistance of the meterObservation table 1: To find internal resistance Resistance in resistanceS.No. Resistance in R for full scale Deflection in box for half scale deflection in ohms galvanometer in deflection in ohms divisions Left Right Mean Left Right Left Right Mean1 50 502 40 403 30 30 EMaximum current I m = where E = 1.2V R + Rm VSeries resistance Rs = − Rm Im
- 27. Circuit diagram 2 :Observation table 2:S.No. Resistance in Ω Voltage measured with Calculated voltage Voltage measured converted meter V = E. Q Volts with multimeter P +Q in volts P Q Deflections Voltage in division in volts1 1000 50 52 1000 40 43 1000 30 34 1000 20 25 1000 10 1Result :The given basic meter is connected into voltmeter of range = _________The internal resistance of the meter Rm =___________The maximum current passing through the meter Im = __________________The series resistance require to convert given basic meter into voltmeter is Rs = _________
- 28. 8. VI characteristics of PN junction diodeAim :i) To study the VI characteristics of PN junction diode in forward and reverse biasconditions.ii) To determine the resistance of diode in both forward and reverse bias.iii) To find threshold voltage of the diode.Apparatus :PN junction diode, Battery eliminator, resistance box, resistor 100Ω, voltmeters (0-1V,0-10V), milliammeter (0-10mA), milliammeter (0-1mA), connecting wires, multimeter etc.
- 29. Circuit diagram for forward bias :Observation Table 1:S.No. Input voltage Voltage across the diode Current through the diode Vi in volts Vd in volts Id in mA1 0.12 0.23 0.34 0.45 0.56 0.67 0.78 0.89 0.910 1.0
- 30. Circuit diagram for reverse bias :Observation Table 2:S.No. Input voltage Voltage across the diode Current through the diode Vi in volts Vd in volts Id in mA1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 10
- 31. Model graph :Result :The characteristics of the given diode are studied both in forward and reverse biasconditions. Also, the forward resistance and threshold voltage are determined from thegraph and they are tabulated below.Parameter Experimental value Theoretical valueResistance in forward bias, ≈ 100 ΩRf in ΩResistance in reverse bias, ≈∞Rr in ΩThreshold voltage VT in ≈ (0.3 – 0.4)volts 9. VI characteristics of Zener diode
- 32. Aim :To study the VI characteristics of zener diode in forward and reverse bias conditions andalso to determine its threshold and breakdown voltages.Apparatus :zener diode, Battery eliminator, resistance box, resistor 100Ω, voltmeters (0-1V, 0-10V),milliammeter (0-10mA), connecting wires, multimeter etc.Circuit diagram for forward bias :
- 33. Observation Table 1:S.No. Input voltage Voltage across the diode Current through the diode Vi in volts Vd in volts Id in mA1 0.12 0.23 0.34 0.45 0.56 0.67 0.78 0.89 0.910 1.0Circuit diagram for reverse bias :
- 34. Observation Table 2:S.No. Input voltage Voltage across the diode Current through the diode Vi in volts Vd in volts Id in mA1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 910 10Model graph :
- 35. Result :The characteristics of the given diode are studied both in forward and reverse biasconditions. Also, the forward resistance and threshold voltage are determined from thegraph and they are tabulated below.Parameter Experimental value Theoretical valueResistance in forward bias, ≈ 100 ΩRf in ΩResistance in reverse bias, ≈∞Rr in ΩThreshold voltage VT in ≈ (0.3 – 0.4)volts
- 36. 10. Zener diode voltage and current regulation characteristicsAim: To study the voltage and current regulation characteristics of a zener diode.Apparatus: Zener diode, battery eliminator, voltmeter (0-10V), milliammeter (0-20mA),bread board, connecting wires etc.Circuit diagram for voltage regulation :Observation Table :S.No. Input voltage Vi in volts Output voltage Vo in volts 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10Model graph :
- 37. Circuit diagram for Current regulation :Observation Table:S.No. Current through the zener Output voltage Vo in volts diode IL in mA 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12
- 38. 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20Model graph:Result:The voltage and current regulation characteristics of a given zener diode are studied andthe graphs are plotted.

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