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  1. 1. Presented by: Shinette P. Salazar
  2. 2. SUB SAHARAN AFRICA is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. Politically, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara (excluding Sudan). It contrasts with North Africa, which is considered a part of the Arab world. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically part of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also part of the Arab world. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa)
  3. 3. In recent times, Africa has come to be seen both by itself and by others, as more than a mere geographic entity. Its states share a history of foreign desire for economic autonomy and development. Symbolic of their conviction of common heritage and destiny is their participation in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), as well as coordinated diplomatic action on issues affecting Africa as a whole. In 1415 Portuguese soldiers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to establish small outputs on the Moroccan Coast. From the modest beginning, a momentous historical process of European subjugation of Africa was initiated. The forces of intrusion gathered momentum over the centuries, reaching their peak with the “scramble of Africa” late in the 19th century.
  4. 4. EFFECTS OF COLONIALISM  The social map was changed beyond recognition, with novel categories of class stratification and transformation of lines of racial, ethnic, and religious differentiation. Colonialism defined the boundaries of the contemporary political units; dominant political forces and leaders in many countries began as moments of nationalist resistance.  Economic infrastructure and production of patterns were shaped by the interests and needs of the colonial powers.
  5. 5. LEGACY OF THE COLONIAL STATE The contemporary African state system is affected in a number of ways by its colonial origins.  The territorial definition of the state reflects the administrative boundaries of the colonial partition.  The colonial state was organized as a structure of institutionalizing alien rule; its vocation was domination of a subjugated population.  Tradition of centralized, highly regulatory, and interventionist management of the economy.
  7. 7. TABLE 1. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUB SAHARAN AFRICA COUNTRIES WITH ITS CORRESPONDING CONSTITUTIONAL FORMS, HEAD OF STATE, AND BASIS OF EXECUTIVE LEGITIMACY Country Constitutional Form Head of State Basis of Executive Legitimacy Algeria, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Zimbabwe R E P U B L I C E X E C U T I V E Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
  8. 8. Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia R E P U B L I C E X E C U T I V E Presidency is independent of legislature TABLE 1. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUB SAHARAN AFRICA COUNTRIES WITH ITS CORRESPONDING CONSTITUTIONAL FORMS, HEAD OF STATE, AND BASIS OF EXECUTIVE LEGITIMACY
  9. 9. Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement South Africa, Botswana Swaziland Republic Absolute Monarchy Executive Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence All authority vested in absolute monarch Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Somalia Lesotho Republic Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence TABLE 1. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUB SAHARAN AFRICA COUNTRIES WITH ITS CORRESPONDING CONSTITUTIONAL FORMS, HEAD OF STATE, AND BASIS OF EXECUTIVE LEGITIMACY
  10. 10. Semi-presidential systems (Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence) In semi-presidential systems, there is usually both a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but some of the role of a head of government is exercised by the prime minister. Full presidential systems (Presidency is independent of legislature) In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists he or she serves purely at the pleasure of the president. Transitional (Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement) States which have a system of government which is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.
  11. 11. Mixed republican systems (Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence) A combined head of state and government is elected by the legislature, however they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during their term (although their cabinet is). Absolute monarchies (All authority vested in absolute monarch) The head of state and head of government is a monarch with unlimited legal authority Parliamentary republics (Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence) A parliamentary republic is a system in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The president's degree of executive power may range from being reasonably significant (e.g. Pakistan) to little (e.g. India) or none at all (e.g. Ireland). Where the president holds little executive power, his or her function is primarily that of a symbolic figurehead.
  12. 12. Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial monarchs Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence. The head of state is a constitutional monarch who only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government, the people or their representatives.
  14. 14. TABLE 2. LIST OF CURRENT HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT STATE HEAD OF STATE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT Algeria President Abdelaziz Bouteflika Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal Angola President José Eduardo dos Santos Benin President Yayi Boni Prime Minister Pascal Koupaki Botswana President Lieutenant General Ian Khama Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaoré Prime Minister Luc-Adolphe Tiao Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza Cameroon President Paul Biya Prime Minister Philémon Yang Cape Verde President Jorge Carlos Fonseca Prime Minister José Maria Neves Central African Republic President Michel Djotodia Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye Chad President General Idriss Déby Prime Minister Djimrangar Dadnadji Comoros President Ikililou Dhoinine Congo President Denis Sassou Nguesso Congo, Democratic Republic Of The President Joseph Kabila Prime Minister Augustin Matata Ponyo
  15. 15. Djibouti President Ismaïl Omar Guelleh Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Prime Minister Vicente Ehate Tomi Eritrea President Isaias Afewerki Ethiopia President Girma Wolde-Giorgis Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn Gabon President Ali Bongo Ondimba Prime Minister Raymond Ndong Sima Gambia President Yahya Jammeh Ghana President John Dramani Mahama Guinea President Alpha Condé Prime Minister Mohamed Said Fofana Guinea-Bissau Acting President Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo Acting Prime Minister Rui Duarte de Barros Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara Prime Minister Daniel Kablan Duncan Kenya President Uhuru Kenyatta Lesotho King Letsie III Prime Minister Tom Thabane Liberia President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Madagascar President of the High Authority of Transition Andry Rajoelina Prime Minister Omer Beriziky Malawi President Joyce Banda Mali Acting President Dioncounda Traoré Acting Prime Minister Django Sissoko Mauritania President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz Prime Minister Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf
  16. 16. Mozambique President Armando Guebuza Prime Minister Alberto Vaquina Namibia President Hifikepunye Pohamba Prime Minister Hage Geingob Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou Prime Minister Brigi Rafini Nigeria President Goodluck Jonathan Rwanda President Paul Kagame Prime Minister Pierre Habumuremyi Sao Tome And Principe President Manuel Pinto da Costa Prime Minister Gabriel Costa Senegal President Macky Sall Prime Minister Abdoul Mbaye Seychelles President James Michel Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma Somalia President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon South Africa President Jacob Zuma Sudan President Omar al-Bashir Swaziland King Mswati III Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini Tanzania President Jakaya Kikwete President Jakaya Kikwete Togo President Faure Gnassingbé Prime Minister Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu Uganda President Yoweri Museveni Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi Zambia President Michael Sata Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai
  21. 21. are four African countries that have made remarkable progress in the last few years in establishing peace, building democracy, and laying the groundwork for economic prosperity. Sierra Leone Senegal Malawi Cape Verde are four African countries that have made remarkable progress in the last few years in establishing peace, building democracy, and laying the groundwork for economic prosperity.
  22. 22. THEIR LEADERS Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone Pres. Macky Sall of Senegal Pres. Joyce Banda of Malawi Prime Minister José Maria Pereira Neves of Cape Verde
  23. 23. At a public event sponsored by the U.S. Institute of Peace, the African leaders discussed how they are consolidating democratic gains and promoting economic prosperity in their countries. Building strong, independent, democratic institutions, nurturing civil society and entrepreneurship, promoting human rights and women’s rights, involving youth in leadership roles, and creating investor confidence were the common themes that ran through their discussions.
  24. 24. SIERRA LEONE “We consider the youth factor so important,” said Sierra Leone President Koroma, "[that] I have committed my second term to developing youths, ensuring that … they are empowered with what it take[s] for them to realize the benefits of the new opportunities that are imagined in the country.”
  25. 25. SENEGAL Education, according to Senegal President Sall, remains “the cross-cutting issue” for his county. “There's a proverb,” he said via interpreter, “that says that if you train a man, you train a citizen. If you train a woman, you train a society because a trained and educated woman has her entire family … benefit from her status.” This means, Sall said, “everybody in society will be educated and trained.”
  26. 26. MALAWI “ We also have implemented social programs with the help of the IMF [International Monetary Fund] to make sure that we cushioned the shock of the devaluation of 49 percent that we were forced to implement last year in order to bring our economy back on track,” Banda said. “It also meant introducing austerity measures, including selling the presidential jet and reducing my own salary by 30 percent.”
  27. 27. CAPE VERDE “Africa is the continent of the future,” proclaimed Cape Verde Prime Minister Neves. It can make that claim, he said speaking through an interpreter, only because of its rich past and enormous current pool of talented and capable citizens and abundant natural resources. But he added that there cannot be economic development without stability, democracy, and political and social plurality. “I think the most important thing we can do for Africa is to build capable governments,” he said.
  29. 29. POLITICAL PARTIES OF AFRICA  Partido Republicano de Angola (PREA), Republican Party of Angola. The founder and President is Dr. Carlos Contreiras. "The Republican Party of Angola- (Partido Republicano de Angola-PREA) is a voluntary political, nonprofit organization formed in March 14 1988, and founded in August 1994 in the United States of America (USA). PREA party is the third Angola’s largest political party.  Southern Cameroon Youth League, SCYL Organization opposed to the present government of Cameroon. "The SCYL is not a Political Party. It is not a Njangi Group or a tribal or regional group of Southern Cameroonians. It is a Non-Profit Political Freedom Fighting Organisation, open not just for Southern Cameroonians alone but for all who cherish freedom and supports the Southern Cameroons Total Independence Drive."
  30. 30.  Alliance Republicain Congo, ARC-Congo Created in December 2000 as an organization to help promote republican values." "Our mission is to build a free market society in the Congo." Its President is Voka Mankenda. Has the ARC Manifesto.  Eritrean People's Democratic Party, EPDP Opposition party supporting democratic change through nonviolent struggle. "The EPDP was formed on January 1, 2010 through the merger of mainstream Eritrean opposition organizations which originated from the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) formed in 1961 and the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF)" "EPDP is a product of three political organizations, Eritrean People’s Party, Eritrean Democratic Party, and Eritrean People’s Movement“. POLITICAL PARTIES OF AFRICA
  31. 31.  Democratic Socialist Movement "An independent mass working people's political party with a socialist programme to provide an alternative to the existing capitalist parties." In the 2003 election, supports the National Conscience Party (NCP) "led by the lawyer and fighter for human rights, Chief Gani Fawehinmi, who is also the party's presidential candidate.“  Movement for Democratic Change, MDC The main opposition party. Its President is Morgan Tsvangirai, former Secretary General of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions. Has news, the party manifesto, policy papers, profiles of leaders. POLITICAL PARTIES OF AFRICA
  32. 32. African National Congress (ANC) POLITICAL PARTIES OF AFRICA ANC is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party, supported by its Tripartite Alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP), since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a "disciplined force of the left".
  33. 33. The ANC deems itself a force of national liberation in the post-apartheid era; it officially defines its agenda as the National Democratic Revolution. The ANC is a member of the Socialist International. It also sets forth the redressing of socio-economic differences stemming from colonial- and apartheid-era policies as a central focus of ANC policy. AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC)
  35. 35. JACOB GEDLEYIHLEKISA ZUMA Significant economic improvements have been made since the attainment of democracy, President Jacob Zuma has said during his keynote address.  Zuma became the President of the ANC on 18 December 2007 after defeating incumbent Thabo Mbeki at the ANC conference in Polokwane.  Zuma was also a member of the South African Communist Party (SACP), briefly serving on the party's Politburo until he left the party in 1990.
  36. 36. JACOB GEDLEYIHLEKISA ZUMA “For a man who trades on personal popularity and emollience, President Jacob Zuma's case for his continued leadership of South Africa is strikingly negative. Instead of setting out a vision of future achievement, he stresses the mistakes he will avoid.” One writer entitled his article: “Analysis: Jacob Zuma has some achievements but needs a vision for the future” Zuma has faced significant legal challenges.  In December 2005, Zuma was charged with raping a 31-year old woman at his home in Forest Town, Gauteng, but was acquitted.  Zuma became embroiled in a corruption related controversy.  Alleged abuses by bodyguards  Failure to disclose assets after taking office as President of South Africa
  37. 37. NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA  born 18 July 1918  is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.  He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multiracial election.  His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation.  Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997.
  38. 38. LEGACY  Mandela is widely considered to be "the father of the nation",  and "the founding father of democracy",  being seen as "the national liberator, the saviour, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one". NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA
  39. 39. IMAGE  Across the world, Mandela came to be seen as "a moral authority" with a great "concern for truth“.  Considered friendly and welcoming, Mandela exhibited a "relaxed charm" when talking to others, including his opponents. NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA
  40. 40. POLITICAL IDEOLOGY  Mandela was an African nationalist, an ideological position he held since joining the ANC. Also being "a democrat, and a socialist".  He held a conviction that "inclusivity, accountability and freedom of speech" were the fundamentals of democracy, and was driven by a belief in natural and human rights.  A democratic socialist, Mandela was "openly opposed to capitalism, private land- ownership and the power of big money“. NELSON ROLIHLAHLA MANDELA