វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​

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វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​

  1. 1. sTÞanuRkmesdækic© Economic Lexicon PaKTI 1³ Gg;eKøs - Exµr Part One: English – Khmer PaKTI 2³ Exµr - Gg;eKøs Part Two: Khmer – English erobcMeday Epñke)aHBum<pSay énviTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa viTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa Cambodia Development Resource Institute PMñeBj/ tula 2006
  2. 2. Economic LexiconCopyright © 2006 Cambodia Development Resource InstituteAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the written permission of the CambodiaDevelopment Resource Institute.ISBN 99950-52-00-8Cambodia Development Resource Institute 56 Street 315, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh PO Box 622, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (855-23) 881-384/881-701/881-916/883-603 (855-23) 880-734e-mail: cdri@camnet.com.kh website: http://www.cdri.org.khEditing: Publishing TeamDesign and Layout: Em Sorany and Oum ChanthaPrinted and bound in Cambodia by JSRC Printing House
  3. 3. ForewordI am pleased to introduce a new edition of CDRI’s Economic Lexicon, an English-Khmer and Khmer-English guide to technical terms in economics and related fieldssuch as accounting, banking, finance, and development. CDRIs recent experiencein publishing, and contributing to a range of publications, conferences, seminarsand workshops, has shown that there is a real need for such a resource to assiststakeholders in Cambodias development to use more standard and easilyunderstood terms in Khmer and English when writing about development issues.Our new 2006-10 Strategic Plan includes a commitment to produce researchproducts that are more flexible and appropriate for Cambodia. This new edition ofthe Economic Lexicon is an expression of that commitment. We hope that it willhelp promote the expansion of development material originally written in Khmer,and the quality of translation from English material into Khmer.The lexicon is in two parts. Part 1: The English-Khmer Lexicon, is a revision andexpansion of the last edition published in 1995. Over the past 10 years there havebeen many developments in technical language. This is especially true for theKhmer language, where many new words have been created and many others havechanged their meaning or become more specific. Also, many more technicalKhmer documents are being produced by various institutions taking differentapproaches to the use of language.CDRI, like many other institutions, publishes technical and policy documents on awide range of development-related topics. Wherever possible, CDRIs editorialteam makes great efforts to use words that are already in use in official documentsand to refrain from creating new words. This is not always easy as officialdocuments may use different Khmer words to express the same meaning, sochoices have to be made as to what would be the most commonly understood wordor term. Sometimes a new word or term needs to be used for a new concept which -i-
  4. 4. does not yet have a specific translation in Khmer. Wherever possible acombination of simple words is used to express any new idea or concept.Part II, The Khmer-English Lexicon, is new. It has been compiled in response torequests from many of our readers who may have some difficulty with Khmertechnical terms, especially new ones. Where there is no exact equivalent, thislexicon provides the nearest translation. It does not contain a detailed explanationfor each word, and the reader is advised to use the English word to further researchits meaning. The reason the lexicon contains many headwords of Pali or Sanskritorigin is that their meaning is not immediately obvious to the general public.Wherever any one particular word is not very much in use, the reader is referred toanother word more frequently used or more readily understandable.Extensive research and the opinions of many people have gone into thecompilation of this lexicon. CDRI would like to thank everyone who hascontributed to this final product. We hope this lexicon will serve as a tool to helpreaders to make better use of both CDRI publications and the broader developmentliterature. We see the lexicon as a continuous work in progress so would welcomeany comments or suggestion from readers to help improve and expand on thecurrent edition. Larry Strange Executive Director CDRI October 2006 -ii-
  5. 5. buBVkfa ´manesckþIrIkraysUmENnaMbgðajCUnnUv sTÞanuRkmecjpSayfµIeday vbsG EdlCabNþúMBakübkERb Gg;eKøs-Exµr nig Exµr-Gg;eKøs kñúgvis½yCMnajbec©keTsCaeRcIn dUcCaxagKNenyü FnaKar hirBaØvtßú nigkarGPivDÆn_CaedIm . bTBiesaFn_naeBlfµI²rbs; vbsG kñúgkare)aHBum<pSay nigkarcUlrYmeFVIGtßbTpSBVpSaysnñisIT sikçasala )anbgðajfa ÉksarEbbenHmantMrUvkareRcIn sMrab;CYydl;mCÄdæanGñkBak;B½n§nwgkargarGPivDÆn_RbeTskm<úCa kñúgkareRbIR)as;BaküExµr nigGg;eKøs [)anÉkPaBKña niggayyl; enAeBlsresrGtßbTBIbBaðaGPivDÆn_ .enAkñúgEpnkaryuT§saRsþ vbsG qñaM2006-10 manEcgBIkartaMgcitþksagplitplRsavRCavEdlsmRsbsMrab;RbeTskm<úCa . sTÞanuRkmenH KWCalT§plmYyénkartaMgcitþenH ehIysgÇwmfa nwgGacCYyCMrujkarsresrGtßbTedIm CaPasaExµrEtmþg RBmTaMgCYybegáInKuNPaBkarbkERbÉksarGg;eKøsCaPasaExµr . snÞanuRkmenHmanEbgEckecjCaBIrPaK . PaK1 KWCasnÞanuRkmGg;eKøs-Exµr EdlCaÉksarBRgIkbEnßm elIsnÞanuRkme)aHBum<pSayelIkTI2 eday vbsG enAqñaM1995 . kñúgry³eBl10qñaMknøgmk BaküeBcn_bec©keTsmankarvivtþn_Evgq¶ayNas; . edayELkenAkñúgPasaExµr mankarbegáItBaküfµICaeRcIn nigmanBaküBImunCaeRcIneTotEdl)anERbRbYln½y rWk¾mann½ykan;EtCak;lak;EfmeTot . mü:ageTot sßab½nnanak¾ksag ÉksarCaPasaExµr)aneRcInNas;Edr edaymanEbbbTxus²KñakñúgkareRbIR)as;BaküeBcn_ . vbsG k¾dUcsßab½nÉeTotEdr )ane)aHBum<pSayÉksarbec©keTsmYycMnYnFM EdlBak;B½n§nwgRbFanbTCaeRcIn . RkumGñkniBn§sTÞanuRkmenH )anxwtxMkt;RtaykBaküNaEdlmaneRbIrYcehIyenAkñúgÉksarpøÚvkarnana nigeCosvagkarbegáItBaküfµI . b:uEnþviFIenHminGacGnuvtþ)anCab;rhUteT BIeRBaHmanÉksarpøÚvkarmYycMnYn)aneRbIBaküxusKñaedIm,IbBa¢ak;BIn½yEtmYydUcKña . dUecñHehIy k¾RtUvmankareRCIserIsykBaküNaEdleKGacyl;n½y)anCaTUeTACag . CYnkaleTotBaküfµIRtUvEtbegáIteLIgedIm,IsMKal;Gtßn½ymYyEdlminTan;manBaküExµrsMrab;ehAy:agCak;lak; .kñúgkrNIEbbenH nigtamlT§PaBGaceFVIeTA)an KWEtgGnuvtþykBaküsamBaزmkpÁMúKña edIm,IbegáItCaBakümann½yfµImYyeTot . -iii-
  6. 6. PaK2³ snÞanuRkm Exµr-Gg;eKøs³ PaKenHKWCaÉksarcgRkgfµITaMgRsug edIm,IeqøIytbnwgsMNUmBrrbs;GñkGanCaeRcIn Edl)anCYbbBaðaxøH²Bak;B½n§nwgBakübec©keTsExµr CaBiessBaküfµI² . kñúgkrNIBMuGacrk)anBaküesµI snÞanuRkmenHmanpþl; BakübkERbEdlmann½yEk,rKñabMput . snÞanuRkmenHBMumanpþl;karBnül;n½ylMGitelIBakünImYy²eT b:uEnþGñkGanGaceRbIR)as;BaküGg;eKøs edIm,IeFVIkarRsavRCavn½ybEnßmeTot)an . mü:ageTot snÞanuRkmmankt;RtaBaküCaeRcInEdlmanb£sKl;ecjBI)alI rWsMRsáwt BIeRBaHmanGñkGanCaeRcInminGacyl;n½yrbs;va)anPøam²eT . kñúgkrNIBaküNamYyminsUvmaneKeRbIR)as;snÞanuRkmmancuHBakümYyeTotEdlRkumGñkniBn§yl;famankareRbIR)as; jwkjab;Cag rWk¾Gacqab;yl;)anCag . snÞanuRkmenH)ancgRkgeLIg edaymankarRsavRCavy:agTUlMTUlay nigkarCYymtiBIGñkmancMeNHdwgCMnajCaeRcInnak; . vbsG sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;RKb;²KñaEdl)ancUlrYmcMENkCYyeRCamERCg[smiT§iplfµIenHelcecjCarUbrageLIg . vbsG sgÇwmfa snÞanuRkmenHkøayCa]bkrN_mYyCYydl;GñkGannanakñúgkareRbIR)as;ÉksarepSg²rbs; vbsG RBmTaMgÉksarxagGPivDÆn_epSg²eTot . vbsG cat;TukÉksarenHCa {kargarbnþeTAmuxCanic©} ehIysUmsVaKmn_RKb;mtieyabl;BIGñkGan edIm,IeFVIkarEklMG nigBRgIksTÞanuRkm[)aneCOnelOneTAmuxeTot . PñMeBj/ Extula qñaM2006 LarI e®sþn© naykRbtibtþi vbsG -iv-
  7. 7. PaKTI 1 Gg;eKøs-ExµrPart One: English–Khmer Part One: English–Khmer
  8. 8. Economic Lexicon Part 1 abuse of trust karrMelaPesckþITukcitþA, a abuse of process karbMBanelInItiviFI accelerate v. BenøÓna posteriori kñúgbcäakal accelerated depreciation methodabacus n. k,ac; ¬]bkrN_buraNsMrab; viFIKitrMls;bgçMKitelx¦ accept (a bill of exchange) TTYlRBmabandonment of a trade (occupation) ¬rUbiyaNtþi>>>¦kare)aHbg;muxCMnYjGVImYy accept deposit v. TTYl R)ak;beBaØI¼R)ak;abatement karbnßy ¬éfø/ Bn§>>>¦ tMkl;aberration karXøatBIsPaBFmµta/ acceptance karTTYlRBm/ notification ofkMritxusKña/ karP½nþRcLM ~ lixitCUndMNwgkarTTYlRBm/ present a billabeyance karp¥ak/ goods in ~ TMnijKµan for ~ bgðajrUbiyaNtþiedIm,IsMukarbBa¢ak;GñkTTYl TTYlsÁal;/ ~ in full karTTYlRBmTaMgRsugabide v. eKarB/ eFVItam/ ~ by a promise acceptance certificate viBaØabnb½Rtkan;Baküsnüa TTYlRBmabolish v. lubecal access 1> lT§PaB)aneRbIR)as;above-mentioned dUcmanEcgxagelI 2> lT§PaB¼pøÚv eTAdl;abrogate v. TukCanarakrN_ accessible price éføEdlGacTijdUr)anabsolute acceptance karTTYlRBmTaMg accession n. 1> ])aKmn_ ¬kar)anCaRsug kmµsiT§inUvvtßúrNb¦ 2> karcUlCasmaCikabsolute advantage ]tþmPaBdac;xat accident insuranceabsolute majority vote sMelgPaKeRcIn karFanar:ab;rgelIeRKaHfñak;dac;xat ¬CagBak;kNþaléncMnYnGñkmke)aH acclimate v. pSa‘¿nwgGakasFatufµIeqñat¦ accord karRBmeRBogabsolute poverty PaBRkIRkCak;Esþg/ accordance karGnuBaØateGay/ in ~ withPaBRkIRkdac;xat edayGnuelameTAtamabsolute (total) loss kMhatsrubsuT§ account KNnIabsorption karRsUbcUl/ karbBa©ÚlCasaxa account amended KNnI)anEksMrYlabsorptive capacity smtßPaBRsUbyk account book esovePAKNnIabstain Gnub,vaT account currency rUbiyvtßúTUTat;abstract n. & v. 1> sMrg;GtßbT 2> eFVI account day éf¶TUTat;GrUbIykmµ 1
  9. 9. Economic Lexicon Part 1account holder m©as;KNnI accrued (interest/rent...) incomeaccount payable KNnIRtUvsg cMNUl ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßmaccount payee only sMrab;EtsgcUlKNnI accrued interest karR)ak;)anKitbEnßmaccount receivable KNnIRtUvTar/ KNnI accumulate bgÁrTuk/ smac½y/ bUkRtYt/GtifiCn accumulated depreciation rMls;bgÁrTukaccount, sales r)aykarN_lk;TMnij accuracy PaBCak;lak;/ PaBRtwmRtUvaccount, unit of ÉktaKit accused n. CnCab;ecaTaccount, domestic KNnIépÞkñúg acknowledge receipt (of a cheque...)account, expense KNnIcMNay TTYlsÁal;karTTYl ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt>>>¦account, outstanding acknowledge v. TTYlsÁal;KNnIenAminTan;sg acknowledgment (of receipt)accountability KNenyüPaB ¬PaBTTYl esckþIbBa¢ak;fa)anTTYlxusRtUv¦/ to demand ~ from TamTar acquire v. eFVIlT§kmµKNenyüPaBBI acquisition lT§kmµ/ kar)anmkCakmµsiT§iaccountancy KNenyü (GB)/ KNenyükic© acquittance roll b½NÑsgR)ak;accountant KNenyükr/ chartered ~ or act of war ehtuekIteLIgedays®gÁam/public ~ (US) KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; sßanPaBsßitkñúgs®gÁamaccounting KNenyü (US)/ financial ~ acting chairman/woman RbFansþITIKNenyühirBaØvtßú/ tax ~ KNenyüBn§dar activate eFVIeGayskmµeT,Igaccounting analysis karviPaKKNenyü activity skmµPaB/ business ~ skmµPaBaccounting cycle vdþKNenyü GaCIvkmµaccounting period RKaKNenyü/ actor tYGgÁ/ economic ~ tYGgÁesdækic©KNenyükal act of God RbFanskþiaccounting plan bøg;KNenyü actual Cak;Esþg/ ~ delivery karRbKl;accounting price éføKNenyü Cak;Esþg/ ~ order karbBa¢aTijCak;Esþgaccounting statement ad hoc committee KN³kmµaFikarcMeBaHkic©r)aykarN_KNenyü ad valorem duty Bn§yktaméføaccounting system RbB½n§KNenyü ad valorem freight éfødwkCBa¢ÚnyktaméføTMnijaccreditation karEtgtaMg/ karTTYlsÁal; addendum, law on c,ab;sþIBIc,ab;bEnßmaccredited party PaKITTYlsarNTan additional bEnßm/ ~ insurance karFanaaccrued (interest/rent...) expense r:ab;rgbEnßm/ ~ premium buBVlaPbEnßmcMNay ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßm 2
  10. 10. Economic Lexicon Part 1additional profit tax (APT) ¬svnakarEdlKUkþItTl;Kña¦Bn§elIR)ak;cMeNjbEnßm adverse minl¥/ minGMeNaypl/ ~ factor/addressee GñkTTYl ¬lixit¦/ GñkEdlRtUvTTYl trade balance ktþa¼CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµadequate smlµm minGMeNaypladjourn v. elIkvarkal/ p¥ak advertise v. pSayBaNiC¢kmµadjudicate CMrHkþI advertisement, advertisingadjusting entries (accounting) karpSayBaNiC¢kmµelxnaEktMrUv advertising campaign yuT§nakarpSayadjustment kMENtMrUv/ ~ account KNnI BaNiC¢kmµEktMrUv/ ~ factor (AF) ktþaEktMrUv/ ~ value advice note lixitCUnB½t’man/ lixitCUneyabl;tMélEktMrUv advice, collection lixitCUndMNwgkaradministrative expenses cMNayrdæ)al RbmUlR)ak;administrative-economic entity advice, debit/credit Rbkas NBn§¼GgÁPaBesdækic©rdæ)al NTanadmissible evidence PsþútagRbevsnI/ advice, dispatch/shipmentPsþútagTTYlyk)an /forwarding lixitCUndMNwgbBa¢ÚnTMnijadult eBjv½y/ ~ citizen RbCaBlrdæeBjv½y adviser (advisor) TIRbwkSa/ financial ~advance buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIk[mun¦/ TIRbwkSahirBaØvtßú~ deposit R)ak;kk;mun advising bank FnaKarCUndMNwgadvance money R)ak;buerRbTan/ R)ak; advisory function muxgarpþl;eyabl;pþl;eGaymun advocacy karts‘Umtiadvance notice karpþl;dMNwgCamun affidavit lixitEføgsc©a ¬GHGagsc©PaBadvance on documents buerRbTan cMeBaHmuxc,ab;¦sMGagelIÉksar affiliated company (or associatedadvance on securities buerRbTaneday company) Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½n§/ Rkumh‘unmanvtßúFana Bak;B½n§ ¬Rkumh‘unemkþab;PaKh‘unticCag 50°¦advance payment karTUTat;Camun affiliation, political ninñakarneya)ayadvancement kareCOnelOneTAmux/ affinity n. Bn§úPaB/ ¬PaBdUcKña rW manTMnak;karrIkcMerIn TMngCamYyKña¦advantage ]tþmPaB AFTA-ASEAN Free Trade Areaadversary proceeding svnakarRbtibkS tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘an 3
  11. 11. Economic Lexicon Part 1after-tax income cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§ ~ coordination mechanism ynþkaraftercost cMNaybEnßm sMrbsMrYlCMnYy/ ~ programme kmµviFICMnYyage group RkumGayu air bill of lading b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasagency TIPñak;gar/ employment ~ kariyal½y air cargo/freightTMnijbBa¢ÚntamynþehaHrkkargareGayeFIV/ pre-investment ~ TIPñak;gar air-consignment note b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasBintülT§PaB muneBlvinei yaK i airport tax Bn§RBlanynþehaHagenda rebobvar³/ kargarEdlRtUveFVI airway bill b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasagent Pñak;gar/ sole ~ tMNagpþac;mux alien CnbreTsagglomerate pþMúcUlKña alien act c,ab;sþIBICnbreTsaggregate GgÁpSM/ tYelxRbmUlpþúM/ ~ demand/ alienation karepÞrkmµsiT§isupply tMrUvkar¼karpÁt;pÁg; srub alienator n samIbrivtþ/ Gñklk; rW epÞrsiT§i[eKaggregate, monetary xn§b,maNrUbiyvtßú/ alimony R)ak;]btßmÖ ¬BIbþIeTARbBn§ rWBIRbBn§rUbiyvtßúTaMgGs; eTAbþI/ eRkayeBlElgKña¦aggregation karpþúM/ xn§b,aT/ karpÁúMGgÁpSM allegation karecaTRbkan;edaymin)anaggrieved person Gñkminsuxcitþ bgðajPsþútagagrarian éndIFøI/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;dIFøI allegiance (politics) karesµaHsµ½RKagrarian society sgÁmksikmµ allegiance, oath of sc©aRbNiFanagreed (price) ¬éfø¦ RBmeRBog alliance sm<½n§PaBagreement kic©RBmeRBog/ verbal ~ kic© all-in price éføsBVRKb; ¬TMnij/ Fanar:ab;rg/®BmeRBogpÞal;mat;/ ~ on the exchange of dwkCBa¢Ún>>>¦goods kic©RBmeRBogsþIBIkarpøas;bþÚrTMnij/ ~ in allocate v. (fund) élEck/ eFVIviPaCn_/principle kic©RBmeRBogCaeKalkarN_ allocated resources FnFanEdl)anélEckagribusiness ksi-BaNiC¢kmµ allocation 1> karélEck/ karviPaCn_/agricultural product ksipl proportional ~ karélEcksmamaRtagriculture ksikmµ/ Ministry of 2> R)ak;viPaCn_Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries allotment of shares karEbgEckPaKh‘unRksYgksikmµ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT allowance R)ak;]btßmÖ/ TayC¢Tan/agro-industry ksi-]sSahkmµ depreciation ~ TayC¢Tan[dl;rMls;/agronomist ekSRtviTU family ~ R)ak;]btßmÖRKÜsar/ make an ~agronomy ekSRtsaRsþ/ ekSRtviTüa eFVIkarbBa©úHéføkñúgkarlk;eGayGñkTijaid CMnYy/ economic ~ CMnYyEpñkesdækic©/ ~ all-risks insurance/policy kar¼b½NÑagreement kic©RBmeRBogpþl;CMnYy/ Fanara:b;rghaniP½yRKb;RbePT 4
  12. 12. Economic Lexicon Part 1alteration karEk ¬Bakü¼elx¼bBa¢I life ~ CIvFnlaPKNenyü>>> edayekaslub¼sresrRtYt>>>¦ annulment emaXkmµ/ karcat;TukCaGasasUnüalternative CMerIs¼meFüa)ayepSgeTot/ ~ antedate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/ cuHkalbriecäTtechnology bec©kviTüaEbbepSg ¬Gac GtItkaleRbICMnYs)an¦ anthropology mnusSsaRsþ/ nrviTüaamalgamation karbBa©Úl ¬Kña¦ anti- RbqaMg/ anti-personnel mineambition karR)afñad¾elIslub/ mhicäta mInRbqaMgmnusSamelioration n. kareFIVeGayRbesIreT,Ig/ anticipated profit R)ak;cMeNjeRBogTuksuvuDÆikmµ anti-dumping karRbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚcamendment 1> viesaFnkmµ ¬c,ab;>>>¦/ éfø/ ~ duty Bn§RbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø~ of a contract viesaFnkmµkic©snüa/ anti-inflation measure/programme~ advice lixitCUndMNwgsþIBIkarEksMrYl viFankar¼kmµviFI Tb;Tl;GtiprNaviesaFnkmµ 2> c,ab; b¤ maRtaénc,ab;Edl anti-trust law c,ab;RbqaMgnwgRtwsþRtUv)anEkERbehIy apellate court sala]T§rN_amicable settlement dMeNaHRsay apparatus briFan/ bznP½NÐRbkbedaykareyaKyl; ¬min)ac;eTAtulakar¦ appeal 1> bNþwgtv:a/ ]T§rN_amnesty karelIkElgeTas 2> karGMBavnavamortisation of a debt ¬kar¦rMls;bMNul appliance eRKOgeRbIR)as;amount TwkR)ak;/ gross ~ TwkR)ak;dul/ applicant Gñkdak;BaküsMu~ of invoice TwkR)ak;énvikáybRt applicant for a letter of creditamount past due TwkR)ak;hYskalkMNt;sg Gñkdak;BaküsMu¼GñkesñIsMu ebIksarNTananalysis karviPaK/ cost ~ karviPaKBIéføedIm/ ~ applied economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©of job requirements karviPaKtMrUvkarkargar apply v. ¬dak;¦ Gnuvtþ/ applied researchanalysis, discounted cash flow (DCF) karRsavRCavsMrab;GnuvtþkarviPaKcracrsac;R)ak; appointed days, on naéf¶)ankMNt;analytical thinking KMnitviPaK appointment karEtgtaMg/ permanent ~ancestor buBVCn to the rank of administrative agentancillary services esvakmµbnÞab;bnSM kartaMgs‘ubkñúgzannþrskþiPñak;garrdæ)alannual RbcaMqñaM/ ~ budget KMeragfvikaRbcaMqñaM apportion v. EbgEckannualised adj. KitelImUldæanRbcaMqñaM apportionment bMENgEckannuity FnlaP/ R)ak;sMNgRbcaMqñaM/ appraisal karvaytémø 5
  13. 13. Economic Lexicon Part 1appreciation 1> kareLIg éfø¼tMél area, free trade tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrI2> mUlvicar ¬karvaytMél¦ area-based frame eRKagelImUldæantMbn;3> karTTYlsÁal;KuNPaB 4>GMNrKuN arid area tMbn;s¶ÜtEhgapproach viFIsaRsþ arithmetic nBVnþ/ ~ mean mFümnBVnþappropriate adj. smRsb/ ~ size TMhM arm’s length sale karlk;KµankareyaKsmRsb/ ~ technology bec©kviTüasmRsb yl;Biessappropriation (financial) ¬R)ak;¦ viPaCn_ arrears bMNulyWty:avminTan;sg/ to be in¬R)ak;élTukenAmçagsMrab;eKaledAedayELk¦ ~ yWty:avkñúgkarsgbMNulappropriation accounts KNnIcMNUl- art work sñaédsil,³cMNay article of copartnershipapproval karyl;RBm/ on ~ etagman kic©snüacUlh‘un/ maRtashPaKkmµkaryl;RBm articles of association (GB) or by-approximately RbEhl/ RbmaN laws (US) lkçnþik³aquaculture, aquatic culture varIvb,kmµ articles of incorporation (US) oraquatic product Clpl memorandum of association (GB)aquatic resources FnFanClpl GnusSarN³begIátRkumh‘unarable land dIGacdaMduH articulate v. bBa¢ak;CaBaküeBCn_arbiter mCÄtþkr ¬GñkmanGMNac¼T§iBl as provided, as stated, set forthedIm,IeFVIkarkat;kþI³ ]> kñúgkic©karrdæ¦ dUcmanEcg ¬kñúgc,ab;¦arbitrage 1> mCÄtþkmµ 2> karepÞrTunBIpSar Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)mYyeTApSarmYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘anarbitrageur GñkepÞrTunBIpSarmYyeTApSar assembly line ExSplitkmµ ¬tMelIgeRKOgcRk¦mYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér assessed taxes Bn§)ankMNt;arbitrary tamEtGMeBIcitþ assessment karvaytMélarbitration mCÄtþPaB/ mCÄtþvinicä½y/ assessor of taxes GñkkMNt;Bn§¼vayBn§karkat;kþIedayGaCJakNþal/ ~ committee asset RTBüskmµ/ RTBüsm,tiþ/ current ~KN³kmµkarmCÄtþkmµ RTBüskmµcrnþ/ foreign ~ RTBüskmµCaarbitrator mCÄtþkr ¬xagBaNiC¢kmµ¦ rUbiyb½NÑ ¬FnaKar¦/ RTBüenAbreTs, fixedarchitectural company Rkumh‘unsikSa (capital) ~ RTBüskmµCab;lab; ¬ÉksarxøHKMeragbøg; ehAfa GclnRTBü EdlRtUvnwgBaküarchitecture sßabtükmµ/ nimµabnkmµ immovable property), tangible ~area unit ÉktatMbn; RTBürUbI/ frozen ~ RTBüp¥ib/ intangible ~ 6
  14. 14. Economic Lexicon Part 1RTBüGrUbI/ financial ~ RTBühirBaØvtßú attorney 1> GaNtþiKahk ¬GñkTTYlGaNtþi¦assign (property) epÞrsiT§ieRbIR)as;Gclnvtßú 2> tMNagkarBarkþI 3> emFavIassignable credit sarNTanGacepÞr)an attractive adj. Tak;Taj/ ~ pricesassignee 1> Gnub,Tanik ¬GñkTTYlsiT§i¼ éføTak;TajGtifiCnRTBüsm,tþi¼karEtgtaMg ¦ auction karedjéfø2> GñkTTYlsiT§iRbTan/ GaNtþiKahk auction sale karlk;edjéføassignee in bankruptcy GñkRtUv)an audit n. & v. 1> svnkmµ/ external ~cat;taMg[RKb;RKgRTBüsm,tþiGñkkS½yFn svnkmµBIxageRkA/ internal ~ svnkmµépÞkñúgassignor 1> Gnub,TayI ¬GñkepÞrRTBüsm,tþi/ 2> eFVIsvnkmµ ¬Binitü¼Eqk bBa¢IKNenyü¦GñkeFVIkarcat;taMg¦ auditing svnkmµ/ National Auditing2> GñkRbKl;siT§i/ GaNtþiTayk Authority GaCJaFrsvnkmµCati/ ~ proceduresassimilation smankmµ ¬kareFVI[RCYtRCab¦ nItiviFIsvnkmµassistance kar]btßmÖ/ CMnYy/ CMnYy]btßmÖ auditor svnkr ¬GñkRtYtBinitübBa¢I/ sñgkarassistant CMnYykar/ brivcäkarI/ ]bkarI KNenyü¦/ independent/external ~assistant accountant KNenyükrCMnYykar svnkrÉkraCü auspices kar]btßmÖ/ under the ~ enAeRkamassistant manager Gñkcat;karrgassociated company (see affiliated »vaT ¬sßab½n¦ austerity PaBt,itet,ót/ PaBtwgrwg/ tbkmµcompany) Rkumh‘unBak;B½n§ autarchy GMNac¼RbeTskan;rbb pþac;karassociation smaKm/ bar ~ KN³emFavI autarky sV½yaFibetyü/ esdækic©m©as;karassurance 1> karFanar:ab;rg2> PaBR)akdkñúgcitþ ¬KµankarsgS½y¦ xøÜnÉgpÞal;/ ¬minBwgEp¥kelI karnaMecj-naMcUl rWat call, money kMcIEdlm©as;bMNulGacTar CMnYyesdækic©¦ authentic deed/act lixityfaPUtykvij)anPøam authenticate eFVInItüanukUlkmµ ¬bBa¢ak;faBit¦at par, share PaKh‘unEdlmantMélenA authenticity yfaPaBpSarh‘unesµIKñanwgtMélcuHelIsnøwkb½NÑPaKh‘un authorised bank FnaKarmankarGnuBaØat/at sight draft rUbiyaNtþiRtUvsgR)ak;enAeBlbgðaj FnaKarRbtiRsuti authorised capital edImTuncuHbBa¢Iat sight, to pay sgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar authoritarianism GMNacniymATM (automatic teller machine) authority siT§iGMNac/ GaCJaFr/ rdæGMNacm:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ authorisation 1> esckþIGnuBaØatattitude riyabf 7
  15. 15. Economic Lexicon Part 12> lixitGnuBaØatauthorised representative tMNagmansiTRi§ bTan/ GaCJanukarI ¬tMNagmankarGnuBaØat¦ back out v. dkxøÜnecj/ ~ from aautomatic teller machine (see ATM) contract dkxøÜnecjBIkic©snüam:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ back to back xñgTl;xñg/ ~ creditautomatic drawing right NTanxñgTl;xñgsiT§idkR)ak;sV½yRbvtþi back up v. KaMRT/ bBa¢ak;KaMRT/ ~ a claimautonomous economic entity bBa¢ak;KaMRTkarGHGagGgÁPaBesdækic©sVy½t backbone infrastructure ehdæarcnaautonomous enterprise shRKassVy½t sm<½n§q¥wgxñg ¬ehdæarcnasm<½n§eKal¦autonomy sV½yPaB/ sVy½tPaB/ economic backdate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/~ sV½yPi)alesdækic© cuHkalbriecäTGtItkalaverage mFüm/ ~ annual growth rate backer GñkbeBa©jedImTun/ GñkKaMRTGRtakMeNInmFümRbcaMqñaM/ ~ cost tMél¼ background 1> Rbvtþi/ savtaéføedIm mFüm 2> épÞxageRkayaverage collection period (ACP) backing, financial karKaMRTxaghirBaØvtßúry³eBlRbmUlbMNulCamFüm backlog kargarenAKrminTan;eFVIavoidance, tax karecosvagBn§ backup eRtombMrugaward n. & v. 1> esckIþsMercrbs;GaCJa backwardness PaBGn;fykNþal 2> rgVan; 3> pþl;rgVan;[/ ~ a contract bad debt NeTyüTarmin)an ¬xUc¦/RbKl;kic©snüa[awareness kardwgsÁal;/ raise public ~ NeTyüBi)akTar ¬Cab;sgS½y¦bMpuskaryl;dwgdl;saFarNCn bad faith GsT§a/ KMnitevocevr bad title b½NÐkmµsiT§iykCakarmin)an bad workmanship TwkédGn;/ kareFVIminB, b )anl¥ ¬plitpl¦ bail R)ak;Fana ¬]> R)ak;bg;[tulakaredIm,I[baccalaureate (degree) CnCab;ecaT)anenAeRkAXMu¦/ ~ bond b½NÑFana¬sBaØab½Rt¦mFümsikSaTutiyPUmi bail out v. 1> se®gÁaHRkumh‘unCYbkarlM)akbachelor’s degree fñak;briBaØab½Rt xaghirBaØvtßú 2> bg;R)ak;FanaxøÜnback eRkay/ xageRkay/ ~ interest karR)ak; bailiff n. GaCJasalaminTan;sg/ ~ a bill cuHhtßelxaFanaelI bail cover R)ak;Fana 8
  16. 16. Economic Lexicon Part 1bailment karepJITuk ¬dak;TMnij[GñkepSg eTotsgR)ak;eTAbuKÁlNamñak;¦kan;kab; b:uEnþGñkenaHBMuEmnCam©as;kmµsiT§ieT¦ bank financing hirBaØb,TanFnaKarbait n. nuy/ use money as ~ eRbIluyCanuy bank note RkdasR)ak;balance n. 1> tulüPaB 2> smtulü/ credit/ bank of deposit FnaKarTTYlR)ak;beBaØIdebit ~ smtulü NTayI¼ Nayik/ closing bank reconciliation karepÞógpÞat;FnaKar~ smtulücugRKa/ pay the ~ sgR)ak;CMBak;/ ¬GgÁPaBsamIepÞógbBa¢Irbs;xøÜneTAnwgRbkaspositive ~ smtulü viC¢man/ ~ on goods and NBn§¼NTan rbs;FnaKar/ kargarenHEtgservices smtulüTMnijnigesva eFVIenAcugEx¦balance of payments CBa¢IgTUTat;/ bank reference TIsMGagbBa¢ak;BIxagFnaKar~ deficit/surplus »nPaB¼Gtierk CBa¢IgTUTat; bank statement r)aykarN_¼Rbkasbalance of trade CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµ FnaKar/ sMrg;KNnIBIFnaKarbalance sheet taragtulükar/ off- ~ bank transfer karepÞrR)ak;enAFnaKaritems xÞg;eRkAtaragtulükar/ ~ date éf¶ bank v. dak;R)ak;enAFnaKareFVItaragtulükar bank-credit guarantee schemebalance v. eFVIeGaymantulüPaB kmµviFIFanaNTanrbs;FnaKarbalance v. an account bUksrubKNnI banker FnaKarikbalance v. the budget eFVItulükarfvika banker’s draft (see bank draft)bale KIb/ eb ¬vtßúGVImYymancMnYneRcIndUcCa banking muxCMnYjFnaKar/ muxviC¢aFnaKarRkNat; Rkdas esµA>>> EdlcgCa dMu¼kNþab;¦ bankrupt kS½yFn/ FnkS½y/ niT§½nbank FnaKar/ central ~ FnaKarkNþal/ bankruptcy PaBkS½yFn/ niT§nPaB/deposit money bank FnaKarTTYl discharge in ~ karrYcputBIkarkS½yFnR)ak;beBaØI/ national ~ FnaKarCati bar association KN³emFavIbank acceptance b½NÑTTYlRBmedayFnaKar barefoot doctor RKUeBTüCnbTbank account KNnIFnaKar bargain and sale kic©snüaTij-lk;bank book esovePAFnaKar/ esovePAepJI bargain v. téfø/ (free) collectiveR)ak;enAFnaKar bargaining karcrcaBIkartMelIgR)ak;QñÚlbank charge esah‘uyFnaKar rvagnieyaCit nignieyaCkbank clearing karTUTat;tamFnaKar barrier r)aMg/ ]bsKÁ/ customs/tariff ~bank deposit R)ak;beBaØIenAFnaKar r)aMgBn§Ky/ lift trade ~ dkr)aMgBaNiC¢kmµ/bank draft rUbiyaNtþiFnaKar rW b½NÑFnaKar non-tariff ~s ( NTBs) r)aMgminEmnBn§Ky¬lixitecjedayFnaKarbBa¢aeGayFnaKarmYy barrister emFavI ¬Gg;eKøs¦ 9
  17. 17. Economic Lexicon Part 1barter karedaHdUrTMnijnigTMnij KµaneQµaH ¬elImUlb,Tanb½RtKµancuHeQµaH¬karpøas;bþÚrTMnijedaymineRbIluy¦ GñkRtUvebIkR)ak;eT KWfaGñkkan;mUlb,Tanb½Rtbase mUldæan/ exOn/ ~ level of GacebIkR)ak;)an¦consumption kMritmUldæanénkareRbIR)as; bearer instrument/paper lixitUbkrN_base rate GRtaeKal/ GRtamUldæan sMrab;Kahkbase year qñaMeKal beginning inventory sareBIP½NÐedIm qñaM¼RKabaseline survey GegátCamUldæan behave v. kan;criyabasic CamUldæan/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBog behaviour Gakb,kiriyaCamUldæan/ ~ price éføeKal/ ~ research below cost TabCagéføedImkarRsavRCavCamUldæan benchmark kMriteKal/ ~ survey GegáteKalbasic commodities plitplksikmµ benefactor ]bkarI ¬GñkTMnukbMrg/ Gñkp©gepþm¦ u ú ICamUldæan ¬ksiplFmµtaEdlpliteRcIn² beneficiary GñkTTYlpl/ GtßKahkdUcCaRsUv/ eBat>>>¦ benefit GtßRbeyaCn_/ R)ak;]btßmÖ/ medicalbasic discount GbhareKal ¬Gbhar ~ R)ak;]btßmÖéføBüa)alFmµtaedayKµanbEnßmPaKryGVIeTot¦ benefit-cost ratiobasic human needs (BHN) tMrUvkarCa smaPaKplcMeNjeFobcMNaymUldæanrbs;mnusS bequeath v. eFVIGc©½yTanCaclnvtßúbasic salary/wage ebovtSr_eKal bequest n. Gc©½yTanCaclnvtßú/ GMeNay¬ebovtSr_FmµtaedayKµanbUkR)ak;bEnßm¦ tamry³mrtksasn_basin (Mekong River) Gag ¬TenøemKgÁ¦ best interest ]tþmRbeyaCn_basket n. k®nþk/ consumer ~ or best-seller esovePAlk;dac;bMputconsumption ~ k®nþkTMnijeRbIR)as; biannual BIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM/ ~ monitoringbatch LÚt_ ¬GIv:an;EdlplitenAeBlEtmYy¦/ karXøaMemIlBIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM bias lMeGog~ number elxLÚt_ bid v. & n. 1> edjéfø 2> karedjéføBCC (business cooperation contract) bilateral eTVPaKI/ ~ aid/assistancekic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµbear Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij¼rUbiyvtßú Edl CMnYyeTVPaKI bill 1> vikáybRt 2> rUbiyaNtþieCOfaGIv:an;eKnwgcuHéfø/ ~ market TIpSarEdl bill at sight vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsgeKeCOfaGWv:an;nwgcuHéføbear v. interest pþl;nUvkarR)ak; enAeBlbgðaj bill in transit vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi kMBugbBa¢Únbearer Gñkkan;/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt 10
  18. 18. Economic Lexicon Part 1bill of entry RbtievTn_Ky ¬lixitRbkas board of directors RkumRbwkSaPi)albg;Bn§Ky¦ board of inquiry KN³kmµkaresuIbGegátbill of lading (B/L) GBaØtb½NÑ rW board of investment (BOI)GBaØtb½Rt/ lixitpÞúkTMnijnava/ b½NÑdwkCBa¢Ún RkumRbwkSavinieyaKTMnij/ direct ~ GBaØtb½NÑedaypÞal; board of management RkumRbwkSaRKb;RKgbill payable vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsg boat TUk/ Clyan/ ~ log book esovePAbill sent for collection skmµPaBClyanb½NÑepJI[RbmUlR)ak; body xøÜn ¬mnusS>>>¦/ tY ¬rfynþ>>>¦/ ~ of rulesbill/letter of exchange rUbiyaNtþi/ lixitpøas;bþÚr and regulations GgÁc,ab; ¬nigbTb,BaØtþi¦billion Ban;lan bona fide esµaHRtg;/ ~ purchaserbin tag pøakFug GñkTijesµaHRtg;bind v. cg/ mantMélGnuvtþ/ P¢ab;katBVkic© bond sBaØab½NÑ/ government/treasury ~biodiversity CIv³cMruH b½NÑrtnaKar/ bearer ~ sBaØab½NÑKµaneQµaH/biogas CIv]sµ½n goods (held) in ~ TMnijrkSaTukenAXøaMgKybiomass CIvm:as ¬rg;caMkarbg;Bn§¦/ mortgage ~ b½NÑniekçbbiosphere reserve, Tonle Sap ¬b½NbNlmanvtßbBa©a¦/ take goods out of ÑM u ú MzbnIyCIvmNÐlbwgTenøsab ~ bg;Bn§elITMnijedIm,IGacykvaecjBIXøaMgKy/birth certificate sMbuRtkMeNIt ~ yield TinñplsBaØab½NÑ ¬cMNUl)anBIsBaØab½NÑbirth rate GRtakMeNIt/ GRtaRbsUtikmµ KitCaPaKryénéføTijsBaØab½NѦbirth spacing karBnüakMeNIt bonded warehouse XøaMgsþúkTMnijRKb;black market pSarggwt/ ~ price éføpSarggwt RKgedayPñak;garKyblacklist bBa¢IexµA bonus R)ak;bEnßm/ buBVlaP ¬]> R)ak;rgVan;¦/blank enAs¥at/ minTan;sresr/ ~ cheque cost of living ~ R)ak;bEnßmsMrab;RTRTg;mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh ¬cuHhtßelxaehIy EtKµan CIvPaB/ incentive ~ R)ak;elIkTwkcitþ/cuHTwkR)ak; rW eQµaHGñkTTYl¦ productivity ~ rgVan;plitkmµblank endorsement carxñgcMh book of investment esovePAbnÞúkénblock bøúk karvinieyaKblock fund mUlniFipþúM book value (accounting) tMélkñúgbBa¢I/blocked account KNnI bBaÄb;¼p¥ib tMélKNenyü¬min[dkR)ak;ecj¦ bookkeeper Gñkkan;bBa¢I/ KNenyükrblue-collar union shCIBhtßkr 11
  19. 19. Economic Lexicon Part 1bookkeeping karcuHbBa¢IKNenyü/ single brainstorming karBiPakSabMpusKMnitentry ~ karcuHbBa¢IÉkPaK/ double entry ~ branch (of a company) saxa ¬Rkumh‘un¦karcuHbBa¢IeTVPaK brand sBaØa/ sBaØasMKal;/ rUb/ m:ak ¬TMnij¦books of accounts bBa¢IKNenyü brand name eQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ/ yIehaboom v. rIkduHdaly:agrh½s/ ~ industry breach of contract karelµIskic©snüa]sSahkmµEdlrIkduHdalya:grh½s/ breach of discipline karelµIsvin½ybooming sector vis½ykMBugrIkduHdal breakages GIv:an;)ak;Ebk ¬minrab;CaRTBüboost v. CMruj/ rujeLIg skmµeTenAeBleFVIsareBIP½NЦbooty C½yP½NÐ ¬rbs;EdldeNþImrWbøn;BIeK¦/ break-even point cMNucrYcedImGcäinRTBü breakthrough karTMlayPaBTal;Rckborder price éføenARBMEdn bribe v. & n. 1> sUkborrow v. x©I¼sMux©I/ borrowed reserves 2> sMNUk/ take a ~ sIusMNUkR)ak;bMrug)anx©I ¬EdlFnaKarnana)anx©IBI bridging loan kMcIry³eBlxøI ¬sMrab;TijFnaKarkNþal¦ pÞHfµI enAeBllk;pÞHcas;minTan;dac;¦borrower Gñkx©I/ Nvnþ broadcast v. pSBVpSay ¬tamviTüú/ TUrTsSn_>>>¦borrowings karx©Ibul brochure n. esovePAesþIg/ kUnesovePAboss n. bri)al/ ecAhVay/ GñkRtYtRta/ pSBVpSaybossy EdlcUlcitþRtYtRtaeK broker eCIgsarCMnYj/ KYkeCBOT (build, operate, transfer) sagsg;- brokerage 1> kMéreCIgsar 2> kargareCIgsarGaCIvkmµ-epÞr brought forward (accounting) eyagmkbotany n. PUtKamsaRsþ ¬karsikSaBIrukçCati¦ bring in (assets as investment)bottleneck PaBraMgsÞH/ PaBkkkuj eFVI]bharit/ ykcUlbottom out v. cuHTabbMput budget fvika/ ~ control karRtYtBinitü¬RbEhlminGacFøak;cuHeToteT¦ fvika/ ~ credit NTanfvika/ ~ fundbottom-up BIeRkameLIgelI/ mUlniFifvika/ ~ prices éføTab² ~ development karGPivDÆn_BIeRkameLIgelI buffer RTnab;/ ~ zone tMbn;RTnab;bourgeois KhbtI buffer stock sþúksMrab;Tb;karERbRbYl ¬éfø/bourgeoisie or middle class karpÁt;pÁg;>>¦/ ~ facility (BSF)vNѳKhbtI b¤ vNѳkNþal ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;Tb;snñiFiboycott Bhikar ¬karRbqaMgedayminRBmTij built-in stabilisers ktþaeFVIeGaymanminRBmcUlrYm>>>¦ sßirPaBCasV½yRbvtþibrain drain kar)at;bg;GñkmanCMnaj bulk buying karTijduM 12
  20. 20. Economic Lexicon Part 1bulk order bBa¢aTijdMu by-product plitplbnÞab;bnSM/ nisSnÞvtßúbull Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij>>>EdleCOfamuxGIv:an;eKnwgeLIgéføbull market TIpSarEdleKeCOfaGIv:an;nwgeLIgéfø C, cbulletin 1> RBwtþib½Rt/2> esckþIRbkasCapøÚvkar ¬BIerOgsMxan;GVImYy¦ cabinet xuTÞkal½y/ political ~ KN³rdæm®nþIburden bnÞúk/ ~ of proof bnÞúkPsþútag/ tax cable transfer karepÞrR)ak;edayTUrKmn_~ bnÞúkBn§ cadastre surieyadIbureau kariyal½y/ employment ~ cadre Rkbx½NÐ/ public ~ Rkbx½NÐkariyal½ykargar m®nþIraCkar/ ~ of administrative agentbureaucracy kariyaFibetyü Rkbx½NÐPñak;garrdæ)albureaucrat kariyaelxanukar/ GñkeFVIkar calculus KNnaGtüaNUkariyal½y calendar RbtiTin/ ~ year qñaMRbtiTinbusiness Furkic©/ GaCIvkmµ/ kic©karCMnYj/ call deposit R)ak;beBaØIcrnþ call loan/money NTanKµankalkMNt;karrksuI/ ~ card namb½NÑ ¬RtUvsgvijenAeBleKTar¦business cooperation contract called-up capital mUlFn)anehA(BCC) kic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµ ¬)anbg;cUlRkumh‘unehIy¦business format franchising campaign yuT§nakar/ sales ~ yuT§nakarlk;drUkarpþl;siT§ieGayrksIupþac;muxtamEbbbTeK cancel v. lubecal/ ~ an entry bdiesFbusiness licence tax ¬Bn§¦ )a:tg; elxna ¬KNenyü¦/ ~ an order lubecalbusiness name namkrN_GaCIvkmµ karbBa¢aTijbusiness undertaking kareFVIkic©karCMnYj cancellation karlubecalbusinessman/woman GaCIvkr/ FurCn canvass 1> sÞabsÞg; ¬mti¦buy v. Tij/ ~ back Tijykvij/ ~ time 2> eXasnaTak;TajkarKaMRTBnüaeGay)anyUr capability smtßPaB ¬eFVIGVImYy¦buyer’s price éføGnueRKaHdl;GñkTij capacity 1> smtßPaB/ earning ~buying order karbBa¢aTij smtßPaBrkR)ak;/ in a legal ~ kñúgsmtßPaBbuying power GMNacTij tampøÚvc,ab;/ load-carrying ~ smtßPaBpÞúkby-election kare)aHeqñateLIgvij ¬GIv:an;¦/ production ~ smtßPaBplitbylaws (see also articles of association) 2> cMNuHc,ab;bEnßm ¬RbcaMtMbn;¦/ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg 13
  21. 21. Economic Lexicon Part 1capital mUlFn/ Tun/ authorised ~mUlFn mUlFnRbkbkarEdl)anGnuBaØat/ paid in ~ mUlFnEdl capitalism mUlFnniym)anbg;/ ~ accumulation smac½yTun capitalist mUlFnik/ nayTuncapital account KNnI mUlFn¼Tun capitalisation mUlFnPavUnIykmµcapital adequacy ratio smaPaKsm capitalise v. eqøótykcMeNj/ qk;»kas/lµménmUlFn mUlFnkmµcapital amortisation rMls;mUlFn captive market TIpSarpþac;muxcapital asset RTBümUlFn/ RTBüskmµCab;lab; card b½NÐ/ sMbuRt/ business ~ namb½NÑcapital assistance kar]btßmÖTun ¬GaCIvkmµ¦/ cash ~ b½NÑsac;R)ak;/ cheque ~capital contributor GñkcUlh‘un/ PaKTunik³ mUlb,Tanb½NÑ/ credit ~ b½NÑNTan/capital endowment edImTunEdlRtUvbg; identity ~ GtþsBaØaNb½NÑcapital expenditure/investment/ career GaCIB outlay cMNayelIRTBümUlFn/ vinieyaK caretaker (of a motor vehicle) Gñkkan;capital expense cMNayCamUlFn kab;EfTaM ¬]> yanynþ¦/ ~ governmentcapital gains (accounting) tMélelIs rdæaPi)alsMrab;RKb;RKgbeNþaHGasnñcapital goods TMnij mUlFn¼CaTun cargo navaPNÐ/ TMnijdwktamnava/ nava¬TMnijsMrab;plitTMnijepSg²eTot¦ ¬dwkTMnij¦/ ~ documents ÉksarsMrab;capital intensive RbBlvb,kmµedImTun kardwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij¬EdleRbITun¼m:asIuneRcIn¦ cargo list bBa¢ITMnijdwkCBa¢Úncapital levy Bn§elIRTBübuKÁl cargo outturn report r)aykarN_erITMnijcapital loss (accounting) tMélxVH carriage forward éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;edaycapital market pSarTun GñkTTYlcapital movement clnaTun/ karepÞrTun carriage paid éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;edayGñkepJIcapital productivity plitPaBénTun carried forward (accounting) eyageTAcapital reserves TunbMrug ¬]> eyageTATMB½rmYyeTotnUvtYelxbUksrubcugcapital revenue cMNUlCamUlFn snøwkbBa¢IKNenyü¦capital, authorised TunGtibrimaEdlRtUv carrying value (accounting))anGnuBaØat[manenAkñúgRkumh‘un/ TuncuHbBa¢I tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyücapital, frozen mUlFnpw¥b cartel n. karEtl/ shRkumh‘uncapital, risk (venture capital) case study karsikSakrNI ¬rW krNIsikSa¦TunvinieyaKpSgeRKaHfñak; cash 1> ebLa ¬RkdasR)ak; + R)ak;kak;¦capital, working TunbgVil/ 2> sac;R)ak; ¬ebLa + FnaKar¦/ ~ substitute 14
  22. 22. Economic Lexicon Part 1CMnYssac;R)ak;3> rtnvtßú ¬KNenyü¦ cash reserves sac;R)ak;bMrugcash account 1>KNnIebLa 2>KNnIrtnvtßú cash voucher b½NÑcMNayebLacash advance R)ak;buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIkmun¦ cash with order (CWO) bg;R)ak;eBlcash against document (CAD) bBa¢aTijRbKl;R)ak;eBl)anTTYlÉksar cash-disbursement book esovePAcash book (CB) n. bBa¢IR)ak;ecjcUl cMNayR)ak;cash budget EpnkarcMNUlcMNaysac;R)ak; cashier ebLakr/ ebLaFikarcash credit NTansac;R)ak; cash-receipt book esovePAcMNUlR)ak;cash crop dMNaMlk;ykR)ak; casting vote sMelg]tþmanuPaBcash discount karlk;cuHéføtamkarbg;Ca ¬e)aHeqñat¦sac;R)ak; casual labourer BlkrGENþtcash down sale karlk;ykR)ak;Pøam ¬ry³eBlxøI¦¬Casac;R)ak; rW mUlb,Tanb½Rt b:uEnþminyk casualty at sea mhnþrayenAsmuRTb½NÑNTaneT¦ cataclysm n. mhavinascash economy esdækic©eRbIR)ak;kas catalogue kataLúk ¬esovePAbgðaj rUb¼vtßúcash flow lMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ analysis epSg²¦karviPaKlMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ statement catalyst katalIkr/ ~ role tYnaTICakatalIkrr)aykarN_lMhUrsac;R)ak; ¬bnSúI/ CMruj¦cash in on eqøótykcMeNjBIelI catchment area EdnrgTwkePøógcash in hand (GB), cash on hand catalyse v. bnSúI ¬Kña¦/ BenøÓn(US) sac;R)ak;kñúg ebLa¼éd/ ebLa categorisation of goods karkMNt;cash in/with bank sac;R)ak;enAFnaKar RbePTTMnijcash on delivery (COD) RbKl;TMnij category RbePT/ BYk/ EpñkRbKl;R)ak;/ bg;R)ak;eBlTTYlTMnij causal sehtu ¬EdlR)ab;BIkarTak;Tgehtucash over and short R)ak;elIsxVH nigpl¦¬bnþicbnþÜckñúgebLa¦ CD-ROM suIDIr:mcash paid book esovePAsgR)ak; ceiling price éføGtibrma/ éføx<s;bMputcash price éfølk; ¬efak¦ Kittamkarbg; celebrity n. Gñkl,IeQµaHCasac;R)ak; census 1> karCMerOn ¬RbCaCn¦/cash rebate cMnYncuHéføeGaytamkarbg;Ca ~ sample KMrUtagCMerOn/ 15
  23. 23. Economic Lexicon Part 12> r)ab; ¬karrab;¦ chairman RbFan/ ~ of the meetingcensus-enumeration area tMbn;rab; RbFanGgÁRbCMu/ GFibtIbBa©ÚlCMerOn challenge bBaðaRbQmcentral kNþal/ mCÄwm/ ~ administration chamber of commerce sPaBaNiC¢kmµrdæ)al mCÄwm¼kNþal chance of selection P½BVénCMerIscentral bank FnaKarkNþal change 1> bMErbMrYl/ karpøas;bþÚr/ sm,rivtþn_/centralisation mCÄkar 2> R)ak;Gab;/ ~ fund R)ak;Gab;centralised eFVImCÄkar/ ~ economy channel Rckesdækic©mCÄkar/ ~ record kMNt;RtamCÄkar/ chaos PaBRcbUkRcbl;~ system RbB½n§mCÄkar chapter CMBUkcentrally planned economy esdækic© character critEpnkarRbmUlpþúM charge bnÞúk/ bnÞúkcMNay/ éfø ¬RtUvbg;¦ceramics kulalPaCn_/ ceramic product charge v. a commission ykkMéreCIgsarplitplkulalPaCn_ charge/credit account KNnIeCOcertificate viBaØabnb½Rt/ ~ of approval ¬GtifiCnGacykrbs;EdlxøÜnTij edaybg;lixitGnuBaØat/ ~ of processing viBaØabnb½Rt R)ak;TUTat;smtulüKNnIenAéf¶eRkay¦bBa¢ak;plitkmµ/ ~ of deposit viBaØabnb½Rt charges, overhead bnÞúkcMNayTUeTAbeBaØI¼ epJIR)ak;/ ~ of origin viBaØabnb½Rt charity sb,úrsFm’/ kuslkic©RbPBedImTMnij/ ~ of quality viBaØabnb½Rt chart tarag/ KMnUssißti/ EpnTI/ BinÞúerxIy/ bøg;/bBa¢ak;KuNPaB/ ~ of quarantine viBaØabnb½Rt organisation ~ GgÁkarelx/ sale ~ KMnUsBinitüeraKqøg/ ~ of registration viBaØabnb½Rt taglk;/ ~ of accounts taragKNnI/ ~ ofGnusidæ/ ~ of weight viBaØabnb½RtTMgn; general accounting bøg;KNenyüTUeTAcertified cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rtr:ab;rg charter 1> FmµnuBaØ 2> lkçnþik³ (US)edayFnaKar rWmUlb,TanbR½tFanacMNay charter plane ynþehaHCYldwkBiesscertified public accountant (US) ¬eCIgehaHehIrmineTogTat;¦KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; chattel mortgage (US) karbBa©aMRTBücessation karQb;/ ~ of business sm,tþipÞal;xøÜnkarbBaÄb;GaCIvkmµ check karRtYtemIl/ karEqkeqr/ ]bsKÁ/cession n. Gnub,Tan/ karRbKl;eGay karbg¥g;/ put a ~ on imports bg¥g;karnaMcUl¬]> kat;eGayeTAm©as;bMNul¦ check v. the accounts BinitüKNnIceteris paribus (other things being checkoff RbB½n§kat;R)ak;dak;shCIBedayequal) GVIepSgeTotenAdEdl nieyaCk 16
  24. 24. Economic Lexicon Part 1checks and balances karRtYtemIl nig circulation cracr/ ~ of capital cracr¼føwgGMNac karbgVil Tun/ ~ of goods cracrTMnijcheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt/ bouncing/dud/ citizen Blrdærubber ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtKµanR)ak; ¬RKb;RKan; civics viC¢anaTIBlrdæ/ elaknItikñúgKNnI¦/ blank ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh/ cash civil suIvil/ ~ disobedience karbdiesFa ~ ebIkR)ak;elImUlb,Tanb½Rt/ crossed ~ c,ab;rdæ/ ~ law c,ab;rdæb,evNI/ ~ libertymUlb,TanbR½tqUt ¬eRbIsMrab;EtbBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúg esrIPaBénBlrdæ/ ~ servant m®nþIraCkarsuIvilKNnI¦/ dishonoured ~ mUlb,TanbR½tKµan ¬tamFmµtaminrab;bBa©ÚlTahaneT¦/R)ak;kñúgKNnI/ traveller’s ~ mUlb,Tanb½Rt ~ society sgÁmsuIvileTscrN_¼eFVIdMeNIr/ open/ uncrossed ~ civil status GRtanukUldæan/ ~ bookmUlb,TanbR½ttmanqUt ¬bBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúgKNnI esovePAGRtanukUldæan/ certificate of ~k¾)an ebIkR)ak;k¾)an¦/ ~ book esovePA sMbuRtGRtanukUldæanmUlb,TanbR½t/ ~ to bearer mUlb,Tanb½Rt civilian n. & adj. 1> CnsuIvilKµaneQµaH/ ~ crossed specially mUlb,TanbR½t 2>énCnsuIvilqUtBiess ¬Ca mUlb,Tanb½RtEdlbBa¢ak;lGtMi claim 1> NeTyü ¬R)ak;eKCMBak;¦/ ~ onbEnßmnUvlkçxNÐ epSg²dUcCa eQµaHFnaKarrbs; the government NeTyüelIrdæaPi)alGñkTTYlCaedIm¦/ ~ stubs Kl;mUlb,TanbR½t/ 2> kar tv:a¼TamTar 3> karGHGag~ voucher b½NÑcMNaymUlb,Tanb½Rt claim v. compensation TamTarsMNgchronic ruaMér:/ ~ unemployment PaBGt; karxUcxat¼R)ak;b:Hb:UvkargareFVIraMuér: claimant GñkTamTar/ edImecaTchronological order tamlMdab;éf¶Ex/ clarify v. bMPøWlMdab;erogtamkal class 1> fñak;/ vNѳ/ social ~ vNѳsgÁm/CIF (cost, insurance, freight) economy/business/first ~ fñak;eGkUnUmI¼éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún CMnYj¼elxmYy ¬fñak;ekAGIynþehaHdwkcircular saracr GñkdMeNIr¦circular adj. EdlepJIeTAbuKÁlCaeRcIn/ classical Ebbkøasuik/ ~ view TsSn³Ebb~ letter of credit b½NÐNTanepJIeTARKb;saxa køasuik/ ~ economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©køasIuk¬énFnaKarEdlecjva¦ classification cMNat;fñak;/ system of ~circular systematic sampling RbB½n§eFVIcMNat;fñak;karykKMrUtagCaRbB½n§vil classify v. cat;fñak;/ eFVIcMNat;fñak;circulating capital TunbgVil clause 1> lkçxNÐ/ ~ of a contract 17
  25. 25. Economic Lexicon Part 1lkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ 2> x ¬]> xTI1/ xTI2>>>¦/ close v. an account biTKNnIspecial ~ xviessénc,ab;/ terminate ~ x ¬eFVI[KNnImansmtulüsUnü¦bBa©b;kic©snüa close company Rkumh‘unbiTCitclaw back v. R)ak;dkykmkvij ¬Gñkkan;kab;PaKh‘unmanticnak;Nas;¦clean adj. s¥at/ ~ development closed economy esdækic©biTCitmechanism ynþkarGPivDÆn_s¥ats¥M ¬rdæRtYtRtatwgruwgelIBaNiC¢kmµ nighirBaØvtßú¦clean bill of health viBaØabnb½RtbBa¢ak; closing entries elxnabiTbBa¢IsuxPaBl¥ closing price éføTMnijeBlehobbiThagclean bill of lading b½NÑpÞúkTMnij RtwmRtUv closing rate GRtabiT¬KµankMNt;RtaBITMnijxus¼xUceT¦ ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak;eBlbiTRbtibtþikarRbcaMéf¶¦clean collection EbbEpnTUTat;BaNiC¢kmµ closing the books karbiTbBa¢IKµanP¢ab;Éksar ¬KWeyagelIlixitCMBak;R)ak; club køib/ regional industry ~ køibb¤mUlb,TanbR½tEdleFVItamry³FnaKar¦ ]sSahkmµtMbn;clear v. a cheque dak;mUlb,Tanb½Rt cluster kBa©úMeGayRbB½n§FnaKarcat;karepÞrR)ak; clustering of elements smasFaturYmCakBa©úMclear v. goods through customs coaching karbgVwk/ karbgðat;bMeBjEbbbTKy ¬edIm,InaMcUl b¤naMecjTMnij¦ co-chair shRbFanclear profit R)ak;cMeNjsuT§ co-creditor n. shNTaykclearance certificate code Rkm/ commercial ~ RkmBaNiC¢kmµ/b½NÑRtYtBinitürbs;Ky ~ of conduct/ethics RkmsIlFm’clearance inwards TMnijEdlKyXat;Tuk code kUd/ elxkUdclearance outwards TMnijEdlputBIKyBinitü co-defendant shcugecaTclearance sale karlk;LayLúgbegðIysþúk coding kardak;elxkUdclearing account KNnIpat;Tat; coefficient of variation emKuNbMErbMrYlclearing bank FnaKarTUTat; cognitive level kMrityl;dwgclearing house (banking) sPapat;Tat; coherence PaBrlUn/ PaBsuIKñaclearing the arrears eFVIkarTUTat;R)ak; cohesion karrYmsM)ac;/ karrYbrYmKña/ siniT§BlEdlBMuTan;)ansg ¬kMlaMgpSarP¢ab;Kña¦clerk esµón/ bank ~ buKÁlikFnaKar coin n. & v. 1>R)ak;kas 2>e)aHR)ak;kasclientele n. Gtifita ¬GtifiCnTaMgGs; coincidence n. karKab;CYn/ Ékb,harPaBrbs;hagNamYy¦ collaboration kic©shkarclinic KøInik collate v. 1> RbmUlB½t’manmkBinitü 18
  26. 26. Economic Lexicon Part 1eRbobeFob 2> erobcMtamlMdab; ¬Éksar¦ commercial BaNiC¢/ énBaNiC¢kmµ/ non ~collateral loan kMcImanrbs; bBa©aM¼dak;Fana bank FnaKarGBaNiC¢/ ~ aircraft ynþehaHcollateral vtßú bBa©aM¼dak;Fana/ sc©karP½NÐ CMnYj ¬dwkGñkdMeNIr rWTMnij¦/ ~ attachécolleague shesvik GnuB½n§BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ bank FnaKarBaNiC¢/collect v. payment Tar ¬RbmUlR)ak;¦ ~ bill rUbiyaNtþi/ ~ court tulakarBaNiC¢kmµ/collecting agent/bank Pñak;gar¼FnaKar ~ credit NTanBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ dealingRbmUlR)ak; esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ enterprise shRKascollecting charges esah‘uyCYyRbmUlR)ak; BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ impracticability GRbtibtiþPaBcollection smuc©½y/ karRbmUl/ karTar/ debt BaNiC©kmµ/ ~ invoice vikáybRtBaNiC¢kmµ/~ agency TIPñak;garTarbMNul/ ~ of stamps ~ paper RkdassñamBaNiC¢kmµ/ lixitTTYlkarsnSMTukEtm/ debit ~ karRbmUlbMNul CMBak;/ ~ port kMBg;EpBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ registercollective CasmUhPaB/ rYm/ ~ bargaining bBa¢IBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ traveller tMNagBaNiC¢kmµ/karcrcarCa rYm¼smUhPaB/ ~ farm ksidæanrYm/ ~ usage TMenomTMlab;BaNiC¢kmµshkrN_ksikr/ ~ ownership kmµsiT§irYm/ commercialisation BaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµ~ work sñaédCasmUhPaB commercialise v. eFVIBaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµcollectivity smUhPaB commission 1> kMéreCIgsar/ ~ agentcollectivisation smUhPavUbnIykmµ Pñak;garTTYlkMéreCIgsar/ ~ buyer/sellercollector n. GñkRbmUl/ farm produce ~ Pñak;gartMNag Tij¼lk;/ ~ sale karlk;ykGñkRbmUlTijplitplksikmµ/ money ~ kMéreCIgsar 2> KN³kmµkarGñkRbmUlR)ak; commitment karebþCJa ¬karsnüadac;Nat;¦column xÞg;/ xÞg;bBaÄr ¬tarag¦ committed credit (state budget)combine KYbpSM/ lay/ ~ business and NTanP¢ab;snüa ¬fvikardæ¦pleasure KYbpSMCamYyKñanUvBaNiC¢kmµ nigkarkMsanþ committee KN³kmµaFikar/ standing ~combustion n. cMehH ¬kareqH¦ KN³kmµaFikarGcié®nþy_/ ~ of inspectioncome v. into effect/force cUlCaFrman KN³kmµaFikarRtYtBinitü/ steering ~come v. into line RBmeRBogCamYyKña KN³kmµaFikar dwknaMkargar¼naykcome v. to an agreement QaneTAdl; commodity plitpl ¬EdleKlk;¼Tijkic©RBmeRBog eRcIn²CaBiess vtßúFatuedIm niges,óg¦/comfort pasukPaB/ letter of ~ lixitKaMRT ~ accounts KNnIplitplRKwHsßansaxa ¬kñúgkarrkx©IR)ak;¦ Common Effective Preferentialcommerce BaNiC¢kmµ Tariff (CEPT) taragGnueRKaHBn§Kyman 19
  27. 27. Economic Lexicon Part 1 RbsiT§iPaBrYm smtßkic©/ ~ party PaKImansmtßkic©common property resources (CPR) competing lines muxTMnijRbkYtRbECgFnFanRTBürYm competition karRbkYtRbECg/ sarmÖ/ freecommon sense suPnicä½y ~ karRbkYtRbECgesrIcommon stock PaKh‘unsamBaØ competitive EdlRbECg/ ~ advantagecommonwealth shFn ¬RkumrdæFøab; ]tþmPaBRbECg/ ~ examinationenAkñúgcRkPBGg;eKøs¦/ ~ of independent karRblgRbECg/ ~ market pSarRbkYtRbECg/states shFnrdæÉkraCü ~ price éføRbkYtRbECgcommunication karR)aRs½yTak;Tg/ competitiveness PaBRbkYtRbECg/~ of information KmnaKmn_B½t’man PaBedjeCIgKñacommunist adj. kumµúynisþ competitor GñkRbECg ¬éfø/ TIpSar>>¦community property RTBürYmsM)ac; compile v. cgRkgbþIRbBn§ ¬Cam©as;rYmKña¦ complain v. t¥ÚjEt¥r/ tv:acompany Rkumh‘un/ affiliated (or complainant Gñkbþwgtv:aassociated) ~ Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½næ/ joint complaint bNþwg/ BakübNþwgstock ~ Rkumh‘unGanamik/ limited liability complementary EdlbMeBj[KñaeTAmk~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvmanx½NÐsIma/ ~ union completion karbBa©b;/ karbegðIy/ ~ of ashPaBRkumh‘un/ subsidiary ~ Rkumh‘unsaxa/ contract karbBa©b;kic©snüaunlimited ~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvKµankMNt;/ complex adj. misSPaK ¬sµúKsµaj¦~ promoter sßabnikRkumh‘un/ trading ~ superiority ~ esyümanH/ inferiority ~Rkumh‘unBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ies act c,ab;Rkumh‘un hInmanH/ complexity misSPaBcomparative advantage ]tþmPaB complex business plan bøg;GaCIvkmµeRbobeFob sµúKsµajcompatibility smitPaB ¬PaBcUlKñacuH¦ complex multi-stage design bøg;eRcIncompatriot CnrYmCati dMNak;minsamBaØcompensating errors el¥ógb:Hb:UvKña complexity PaBsµúKsµaj/ PaBsaMjúaMcompensation karb:Hb:Uv/ sMNg compliance with, in RsbCamYycompensatory financing facility (CFF) complicate v. eFVIeGaysµúKsµaj]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;b:Hb:UvxaghirBaØvtßú complicity karcUlédcompete v. RbkYtRbECg complimentary 1> EdlsesIrcompetent adj. mansmtßkic©/ 2> EdleGayTeT ¬tKitéfø¦mansmtßPaB/ ~ authority GaCJaFrman comply Rbtibtþitam/ eFVItam 20
  28. 28. Economic Lexicon Part 1component smasPaK/ FatupSM ¬edIm,IsMerceKaledAGVImYy¦composition smasPaB concerted economic action skmµPaBcompound entry elxnapÁúM esdækic©manvKÁmanesñI¬elxnamaneRbIcab;BIbIKNnIeLIgeTA¦ concession sm,Tan/ forest ~ sm,Tancompound growth vDÆnPaBsmas éRBeQI/ ~ holder sm,Tanik/ social land ~compound interest karR)ak;smas sm,TandIsgÁmkic©/ price ~ sm,Tanéføcomprehensive adj. RKb;RCugeRCay/ concessionaire sm,Tanik/ forest ~TUlMTUlay/ ~ analysis karviPaKRKb;RCugeRCay éRBsm,Tanikcompromise karRsuHRsYl concessional, concessionary Edlcomptroller GñkRtYtBinitüxaghirBaØvtßú pþl;sm,Tan¼GnueRKaH/ ~ loan kMcIpþl;compulsory CakatBVkic©/ Edlxanmin)an/ sm,Tan/ ~ terms lkçxNÐsm,Tan~ inspection GFikarkic©CakatBVkic© conciliate v. pSHpSacomputable EdlGacKNna)an conclusion n. snñidæan/ Gvsankfacomputer virus vIrus¼visaNU kMuBüÚT½r ¬PaKbBa©b;énr)aykarN_¦comrade n. smmitþ/ shCIvin/ BYkm:ak concrete measure viFankarCak;Esþgconceal v. lak;elom concurrence 1> karyl;RBm/ karÉkPaBconcealment karlak;elom 2>karekItdMNalKña ¬RBwtþikarN_¦concentration karRbmUlpþúM/ land ~ condition lkçxNÐ/ working ~ lkçxNÐkarRbmUlpþúMdIFøI/ ~ level of a substance eFVIkargar/ ~ precedent lkçxNÐbegáItkMritkMhab;énsarFatu katBVkic©/ ~ subsequent lkçxNÐbBa©b;concept eKalKMnit/ TsSnaTan katBVkic©conception TsSnaTan conditional edaymanlkçxNÐ/ ~conceptual error el¥ógEpñkTsSnaTan acceptance karTTYlRBmedaymanlkçxNÐconceptualise v. KitKUrbegáItfµI conditionality PaBmanlkçxNÐconcern kgVl;/ RBYy)armÖ/ business ~ conducive to GMeNaypldl;RKwHsßan ¬CMnYj¦/ his business is a going conduct kiriyamayaT/ karRbRBwtþi¬xøÜn¦~ muxCMnYjrbs;Kat;kMBugdMeNIrkareTAmux conduct v. & n. 1> dwknaM/ eFVI/ dMeNIrkar¬nigmancMeNj¦ 2> ~ of business kic©dMeNIrkareFVIGaCIvkmµconcerned EdlBak;B½n§/ ~ ministry conference snñisITRksYgBak;B½n§ confession n. karsarPaB/ sc©avIkrN_concert, act in v. eFVIskmµPaBrYmKña confidential sMgat; 21
  29. 29. Economic Lexicon Part 1confirmation karbBa¢ak;/ ~ of order consistency 1> sgÁtPaB/ PaBsuIKñakarbBa¢ak;nUvkarbBa¢aTij/ ~ of price karbBa¢ak;éfø 2> PaBminpøas;bþÚrconfirmed letter of credit consolidated (information) ¬B½t’man¦sarNTanGnusiT§i Rc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñaconfirming bank FnaKarbBa¢ak; consolidated balance sheet taragconfiscate rwbGUs ¬ykRTBü¦/ dkhUt tulükarsrub¬bUkcUlEfmnUvbuRtsm<½n§>>>¦conflict TMnas;/ ~ of interest TMnas;pl consolidation of balance sheetsRbeyaCn_ karRc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñanUvtaragtulükarconfrontation n. karRbTl;muxKña/ consortium kugs½rsüÚm/ smaKmsmµúxIkmµ/ ~ meeting karRbCMuTl;muxKña conspiracy n. karKitk,t;/ shk,dconfusing RcLMbl;/ gayP½nþRcLM ¬karrYmKMnitk,t;¦confusion karP½nþRcLM/ karRcLMbl;/ constant efr/ ~ price éføefrkarRcbUkRcbl; constituency mCÄdæanGñkKaMRT/ mNÐle)aHeqñatconglomerate Rkumh‘unBhuplitpl constitution rdæFmµnuBaØconscience mnsikar Constitutional Council RkumRbwkSaFmµnuBaØconscientious Edlmanmnsikar/ Edlyk constitutionality FmµnuBaØPaBcitþTukdak; constraint kMhit ¬]bsKÁ¦consensus karmUlmti/ kugsg;s‘us constructive CalkçN³ksag/ ~ criticismconsent v. & n. 1> RBm 2> karyl;RBm karTietonCalkçN³ksagconsequential EdlCavi)ak consultancy karpþl;eyabl;ÉkeTsconservation GPirkS/karrkSa/ ~ of consultant GñkBieRKaHeyabl;nature GPirkSFmµCati/ soil ~ GPirkSdI consultation karBieRKaHeyabl;conservative adj. GPirkS Consultative Group (CG)consideration karBicarNa/ under ~ kMBug RkumBieRKaHeyabl;BinitüBicarNa consumables vtßúFatueRbIR)as;consignee GñkTTYlTMnij consume v. eRbIR)as; ¬es,ógGahar/ n§n³>>>¦consignee’s account, all charges to consumer GñkeRbIR)as;/ ~ basket k®nþkral;esah‘uycMNayCabnÞúkrbs;GñkTTYlTMnij TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ credit NTansMrab;Tijconsignment n. 1> karbBa¢ÚnTMnij/ TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ goods TMnijeRbIR)as;/~ note lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij 2> GIv:an;mYyRkum ~ price éføTMnijeRbIR)as; ¬éfølk;ray¦/¬]>mYykugtWn½r¦EdlbBa¢ÚneTA ~ price index (CPI) snÞsSn_éføTMnijeRbIconsignor GñkbBa¢ÚnTMnij R)as;/ ~ surplus plcMeNjénGñkeRbIR)as; 22
  30. 30. Economic Lexicon Part 1consumption kareRbIR)as;/ ~ expenditures contract v. out of an agreement dk b¤cMNayeRbIR)as;/ home (domestic) ~ kareRbI lubkic©snüa ¬edaymankaryl;RBmCaR)as;kñúgRsuk/ ~ curve ExSekageRbIR)as; laylkçN_GkSrBIPaKImçageTot¦contact karCYbTak;Tg/ ~ person mnusS contract v. 1> cuHkic©snüa 2> rYmcuH ¬esdækc©¦ isMrab;CYbTak;Tg contract, under Cab;kic©snüa/ eRkamkic©snüacontainer kugtWn½r ¬pÞúkTMnij¦ contracting party PaKIcuHkic©snüacontemporary shkal/ shsm½y contractor GñkcuHkic©snüa/ Gñkem:Akar/contempt karemIlgay/ ~ of court sub-contractor Gñkem:AkarbnþkarRbmaftulakar contractual business GaCIvkmµQrelIcontent 1> xøwmsar 2> matika kic©snüacontest n. karRbECg/ karRbkYt/ contradiction bdivaTkmµ/ PaBpÞúyKña~ a decision CMTas;tva:nwgesckþIsMerc contradictory EdlpÞúyKñacontext bribT/ brikarN_ contrast n. PaBpÞúyKña/ Bütierkcontingency yfaPaB/ kartRBagTuk/ contra-transfer cuHbRBa©as/ eFVIRbtiRkanþ~ beneficiary GtßKahkCayfaehtu/ elxna~ plan EpnkarTukGnuvtþCayfaehtu contravene v. elµIs/ bMBancontingent adj. GaRs½yelI ¬RBwtþikarN_GVI contribute v. rYmviPaKTan/ rYmcMENkmYyEdlGacekIteLIg rWminekIteLIg¦/ Gnimitþ contribution viPaKTan/ karrYmcMENk/continuity nirnþrPaB ~ in kind viPaKTanCasMPar³continuous adj. bnþrhUt/ bnþCab; control v. RtYtBinitü/ RtYtRtacontra account KNnIbdiPaK controllable expenses cMNayRKb;RKg)ancontra entry elxnabRBa©as controlled selection CMerIsmankarRtYtBinitü¬edIm,IlubecalnUvelxnamun¦ controller GñkRtYtBinitücontraband TMnijrt;Bn§ controlling interest, have acontraception karbgáarkMeNIt mancMENkPaKh‘unRtYtRta ¬KWmanelIsBIcontract kic©snüa/ ~ of insurance 50°énPaKh‘unsrubrbs;Rkumh‘un¦kic©snüaFanar:ab;rg/ ~ of sale kic©snüalk;/ controversy vaTb,divaT ¬rW vaTRbtivaT rW~ of work kic©snüakargar karCECkrkxusRtUvCasaFarN³¦contract (public) employee contumacy n. TudæPaBbuKÁlik¬rdæ¦Cab;kic©snüa ¬karminRBmcUlxøÜneTAtulakar¦contract law c,ab;kic©snüa convenience food Gaharevcx©b;Rsab; 23
  31. 31. Economic Lexicon Part 1¬EdlRsYl erobcM¼cMGin¦ Tak;TgxagCMnYj/ lixiteqøIyqøgGaCIvkmµconvention 1> GnusBaØa 2> snñi)at correspondent bank FnaKareqøIiyqøg3> snµtikmµ¼karsnµt corridor rebog/ Efv/ economic ~conversation karsnÞna/ snÞnakar rebogesdækic©conversion karbþÚr/ ~ price/rate GRtabþÚr corroborate v. bBa¢ak;¼GHGag bEnßm/¬edIm,IKitbþÚrrUbiyvtßúmYyeTACarUbiyvtßúbreTs¦ eFVIbmaNIykrN_convertible currency rUbiyvtßúEdlGac corruption n. GMeBIBukrlYybþÚrykrUbiyvtßúepSg)an cost 1> tMél 2> briyaTan 3> éføedImconveyance 1> karepÞr ¬kmµsiT§i¦ 4> bnÞúkcMNay/ cMNay2> ÉksarepÞr cost accounting KNenyüéføedIm/convict TNÐit ¬GñkCab;Bn§naKar¦ KNenyüviPaKcooperate v. eFVIshRbtibtþikar cost and freight (C & F)cooperative adj. & n. éføTMnijbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún1> EdleFVIshRbtibtþikar 2> shkrN_ cost of goods sold or cost of salescoordinates niyamkar ¬ry³TTwg¼ry³beNþay¦ éføedImTMnijlk;ecjco-owner, co-proprietor shkmµsiT§ikr/ cost of living éføRTRTg;CIvPaBm©as;kmµsiT§irYmKña cost price éføedImco-ownership shkmµsiT§i cost, historical tMélTijcUlco-property RTBüsm,tiþrYmKña cost, insurance, freight (CIF)copyright siT§icMlg/ rkSasiT§i éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Úncore sñÚl/ ~ budget fvikasñÚl/ ~ funding cost, manufacturing éføedImplitkmµmUlniFisñÚl/ ~ resources FnFansñÚl cost-benefit analysis karviPaKcMNaycorn n. (US) eBat/ baby ~ esñóteBat ¬bEnø¦ nigplcMeNjcorporate state rdæshRKin cost-effective adj. EdlmanRbsiT§PaBcorporation saCIvkmµ/ multinational ~ cMNaysaCIvkmµBhuCati/ ~ tax (GB) Bn§elIR)ak; costing karKNnaéføedImcMeNjRkumh‘un Council of Ministers TIsþIkarKN³rdæm®nþIcorrect adj. RtwmRtUv counter bBa¢rcorrelated response variance v:arIy:g; counter party bdiPaKIcMelIyTak;Tin counter valuation bdiekaslvic©½ycorrelation shsm<½n§/ TMnak;TMng counterbalance v. raMgxÞb;T§iBlcorrespondence, business karsresr countermand bdiesFbgÁab;munecal/ 24
  32. 32. Economic Lexicon Part 1ecjRbtiGaNtþi credit bank FnaKarNTancounter-offer kareGayéføelI ¬edIm,IRbECgTij¦ credit bureau kariyal½ypþl;B½t’mancounterpart smPaKI BIkitþinam ¬énshRKas>>>¦counterpart adj. bdiPaK/ ~ entry credit in kind NTanvtßú ¬minEmnCaR)ak;¦elxnabdiPaK/ ~ fund mUlniFibdiPaK credit institution sßab½nNTancounter-revolution n. Rbtibdivtþn_ credit market TIpSarNTancountry report r)aykarN_sþIBIRbeTs credit n. & adj. & v. 1> NTancountry-representative office 2> NTayI 3> kt;RtaxagNTankariyal½ytMNagRbcaMRbeTs credit plus NTanbUk ¬NTanEdlcountry-risk analysis karviPaKeRKaHRbeTs KitKUrTaMgkarCYyCaR)ak;kas nigbec©keTs¦coupe, forest éRBKub credit rating cMNat;fñak;NTan/court clerks RkLabBa¢I smtßPaBsgbMNulrbs;Gñkx©Icourt or lawcourt sala kat;kþI¼CMrHkþI credit restrictions kMhiténNTancovenant karRBmeRBogCapøÚvkar credit risk haniP½yénNTancover note (insurance) kMNt;sMGag credit sale karlk;eCO¬Fanar:ab;rg¦ credit slip b½NÑsMeNANTan/ skçIb½Rtcover price éføelIRkb ¬éfølk;raycuHelI NTanRkbesovePA/ TsSnavdþI >>>¦ credit solvency lT§PaBsgbMNulcover, banking R)ak;Fana credit status CMhrNTancover, full (insurance) b½NÑFanar:ab;rgelI credit terms lkçxNÐNTanhaniP½yRKb;RbePT credit worthiness PaBKYr)anTTYlNTancover, temporary (insurance) credit worthy borrower Gñkx©IR)ak;b½NÑFanar:ab;rgbeNþaHGasnñ EdlKYreGayTukcitþcoverage kar¼TMhM RKbdNþb; credit, open NTanKµandak;vtßúFana¬]> edayb½NÑFanar:ab;rg¦ ¬sMrab;GtifiCnl¥rbs;FnaKar¦craftsmanship n. htßekaslü credit, tax NTanBn§creation n. karbegáIt/ mabnkmµ/ nimiµtkmµ/ credit, trade NTanCMnYj ¬pþl;[shRKasmabnvtßú manTMnak;TMngCMnYjCamYyKña¦creative thinking KMnitécñRbDit creditor NTayk/ m©as;bMNulcreativity KMnitécñRbDit credulity n. PaBgayeCO/ sT§aluPaBcredibility PaBKYr[eCO/ kitþinam creeping inflation GtiprNasnSwm² 25
  33. 33. Economic Lexicon Part 1crime bTelµIsRBhµT½NÐ currency operation RbtibtþikarelIcriteria, criterion lkçN³vinicä½y rUbiyvtßú ¬dUcCakarbþÚrR)ak;CaedIm ¦crop n. dMNaM/ pldMNaM/ supplementary ~ current account or checkingdMNaMrYmpSM account (US) KNnIcrnþcross check epÞógKñaeTAvijeTAmk current adj. crnþ/ ~ expenditures cMNaycrnþcross class fñak;qøg current assets RTBüskmµ crnþ¼cl½tcross rate, exchange cross rate current liabilities RTBüGkmµcrnþGRtabþÚrrUbiyb½NÑepÞógpÞat; ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak; current price éføcrnþ/ éføbc©úb,nñ/ ~ listeFobtam rUbiyvtßúTI3 dUcCa duløar¦ taragéføcrnþcross border (trade) qøgkat;RBMEdn current revenue cMNUlcrnþ¬BaNiC¢kmµ¦ ¬cMNUlCaRbcaM kñúgÉksarxøH¦crossed cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtqUt current account holder m©as;KNnIcrnþcross-examine v. karsYrbBa¢ak;sakSI current market rate GRtaéføTIpSarRbcaMéf¶epÞógpÞat;nwgcMelIyeBlmun curtailment karkat;bnßycross-voting n. kare)aHeqñateGayKNbkS curve ExSekag/ aggregate supply ~epSg ¬minEmnKNbkSxøÜn¦ ExSekagpÁt;pÁg;srubcrude oil eRbgeqA custody (keeping) karrkSaTukculprit n. BiruT§ikCn custom of the port (COP)cultivated land dIdaMduH TMenomTMlab;Epculture vb,Fm’/ ~ of impunity vb,Fm’ custom-built/made ksag¼eFVI BiessrYceTas sMrab;GtifiCnNamñak;cumulated list bBa¢IbUkRtYt customer GtifiCncurb v. Tb;sáat; customs house TIcat;karKycurfew bMrameKacr customs Ky/ ~ agent Pñak;garKy/currency rUbiyvtßú/ hard ~ rUbiyvtßúxøaMg ~ Department TIcat;karKynigrdæakr/¬rbs;RbeTsmanesdækic©maMmYn niggaybþÚr ~ breach bTelµIsc,ab;Ky/ ~ declarationykrUbiyvtßúepSgeTot¦/ soft ~ rUbiyvtßúexSay RbtievTn_Ky/ ~ examination karRtYtBinitücurrency in circulation rUbiyvtßúkñúgcracr énPñak;garKy/ ~ frontier RBMEdnKy/currency of account rUbiyvtßúykmkKitKUr ~ invoice vikáybRtKy/ ~ permit lixitcurrency of payment rUbiyvtßúTUTat; GnuBaØatBITIcat;karKy/ ~ regulationscurrency of the contract rUbiyvtßúén bTbBaØtþiKy/ ~ tariff taragBn§Ky/kic©snüa ~ territory tMbn;RtYtBinitüKy ¬tMbn;EdlKy 26
  34. 34. Economic Lexicon Part 1Gactamcab;TMnij)an¦ date, interest to R)ak;karmkTl;bc©úb,nñcustoms broker buKÁl¼Rkumh‘un EdlnaM day éf¶/ settlement ~ éf¶TUTat;bBa¢I/ éf¶CMrHbBaI¢TMnijqøgkat;Ky ¬bMerIeGayRkumh‘undwkCBa¢Ún¦ day labourer BlkrsuIR)ak;éf¶/ TinikCncustoms duties (or dues) Bn§Ky day-release 1> éf¶rYcput ¬Bn§¦cycle vdþ/ suIkø/ xYb/ CMu/ ~ of poverty 2> RbB½n§EdlGnuBaØat[nieyaCitsMrakBIkargarvdþénPaBRkIRk edIm,IeronsURt DCB (Domestic Competitive Bidding) karedjéføedayRbkYtRbECgkñúgRsukD, d de facto tamkarCak;Esþg/ tamRBwtþin½y/ ~ management karRKb;RKgtamRBwtþin½ydaily RbcaMéf¶/ ~ sales return cMNUllk; de jure tampøÚvc,ab;RbcaMéf¶ dead account KNnIQb;eRbI/ KNnIgab;damage karxUcxat/ Gnþray/ ~ by dead loss karxatbg;srubseawater GnþrayedaysarTwksmuTÞ dead money R)ak;gab;/ R)ak;minykeTAeFVIdamages R)ak;sMNgcMeBaHkarxUcxat karrksuIdanger money R)ak;pþl;bEnßmsMrab;kargar dead season rdUvs¶b;skmµPaBmaneRKaHfñak; ¬]> rdUvlk;dUrminsUvdac;¦DARE (Demand and Resource deadline kalkMNt;/ kalbriecäTdl;kMNt;Evaluation) karvaytMélFnFan nigtMrUvkar deadlock PaBTal;Rck break the ~data Tinñn½y/ enter v. ~ bBa©ÚlTinñn½y TMlayPaBTal;Rckdata processing karcat;EcgTinñn½y dead-weight 1> TMgn;nicl/ TMgn;gab;database mUldæanTinñn½y ¬KµanCYybMerIkar¦data-collection stage dMNak;kalRbmUl deal karRBmeRBogxagCMnYj/ GabNsBaØa/Tinñn½y get a good ~ Tij)anefak/ package ~date kalbriecäT/ éf¶Ex/ interest to ~ karRBmeRBogCakBa©b;karR)ak;mkTl;bc©úb,nñ dealer BaNiC¢krdate a cheque forward cuHkalbriecäT dealership TMnak;TMngCMnYjpþac;muxGnaKtelImUlb,Tanb½Rt dealing karlk;dUrh‘unenApSarh‘un/ CMnYj,date of maturity éf¶dl;kMNt;sgR)ak;/ commercial ~ esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ fair ~ CMnYjNRbtiTan/ Rsbc,ab;/ insider ~ karCYjdUrh‘unedaydate, by the due dl;éf¶kMNt; GñképÞkñúg ¬EdldwgB½t’mansMgat;BIRkumh‘un¦ 27
  35. 35. Economic Lexicon Part 1dear éfø ¬pÞúynwgefak¦ decent smrmü/ ~ livelihood CIvPaBsmrmüdear money R)ak;x©ImanR)ak;karx<s; decentralisation n. vimCÄkardearth of investment kgVHvinieyaK decentralise v. eFVIvimCÄkar/ decentraliseddeath mrNPaB/ karsøab;/ ~ certificate power GMNacvimCÄkarsMbuRtmrNPaB/ ~ in service benefit deciding vote sMelg]tþmanuPaB ¬e)aHeqñat¦R)ak;bMNac;mrNPaB decile n. TsPaK ¬sßiti¦death rate GRtamrN³ decimal n. & adj. 1> elxTsPaKdebate karCECkedjedal ¬]> enAsPa¦ 2> TsPaKdebenture sBaØab½NÑ ¬ry³eBlEvg²¦/ decision esckþIsMerc/ ~ maker GñkeFVIlixitbMNul/ register of ~ bBa¢IeQµaHGñk esckþIsMerc/ ~ making kareFVIesckþIsMerc/kan;sBaØab½NÑrbs;Rkumh‘un/ ~ holder ~ tree KMnUsedImeQIénRbB½n§sMercGñkkan;sBaØab½NÑ declaration 1> kar¼esckþI Rbkasdebit n. & adj. & v. 1> NBn§ 2> lixitRbkas/ RbtievTn_/ customs ~2> Nayik 3> kt;RtaxagNBn§ RbtievTn_Ky/ tax ~ lixitRbkassareBIBn§debit/credit memorandum or declared value tMél)an Rbkas¼RbtievTn_debit/credit memo kMNt;ehtu NBn§¼ decline n. karFøak;cuHyWt²NTan b¤ Rbkas NBn§¼NTan declining balance method ofdebt bMNul/ ~ holder embMNul/ bad ~ depreciation viFIrMls;fyCalMdab;bMNul GaRkk;¼Bi)akTar/ doubtful ~ bMNul decoding karbkRsayelxkUdsgS½y/ irrecoverable ~ bMNulTarmin)an/ ¬ERbCaPasaFmµtavij¦~ crisis vibtþibMNul/ ~ ratio smaPaKbMNul/ deconcentration vishmCÄkarsecured/unsecured ~ bMNul man¼Kµan decrease karFøak;cuH/ karfycuH/ ~ in pricedak;RTBüFana karFøak;éfødebt-collection letter lixitTarR)ak; decree Rkwtüdebt-for-nature swaps bMNuledaHdUr de-dollarisation bdiduløarUbnIykmµnwgFmµCati deduct v. kat;kg/ pat;ecj/ after deductingdebtor kUnbMNul/ Nvnþ depreciation eRkay)anpat;rMls;decadence n. PaBcuHGab;»n/ GtßgÁt deductible adj. EdlGackat;kgecj/ taxdecapitalise n. dkTunecj ~ EdlGackat;kgecjBIcMNUlCab;Bn§deceased n. Gñksøab; deductive method viFITajehtupl/decennial population census viessanumanviFICMerOnRbCaCnRbcaMTsvtSr_ 28
  36. 36. Economic Lexicon Part 1deed 1> kic©snüaCalaylkçN_GkSr deflator (GDP) snÞsSn_britþprNa ¬pss¦2> GMeBI ¬l¥ rW GaRkk;¦/ good ~ kuslkic© deforestation karkab;éRBeQI/ vivnkardeed of assignment lixitepÞrkmµsiT§ defrauder GñkbnøM ¬]> Bn§¦¬BIkUnbMNuleTAm©as;bMNul¦ defray ecjcMNayCYsdeed of conveyance lixitepÞrkmµsiT§i degradation TuBVlPaB/ karbBa©úHKuNPaBGclnRTBü del credere R)ak; ¬bUkbEnßmsMrab;¦default karxusqÁg/ karxVHxat/ karKµan FanakarTUTat;/ ~ clause RbkarFanaTUTat;/lT§PaBsg ~ commission kMéreCIgsarFanakarTUTat;default of acceptance karminTTYlRBm delay 1> karyWty:av/ ry³kalkMNt;defendant n. cugecaT yWty:av/ ~ in delivery karRbKl;yWty:av/deferred payments karsgR)ak;bNþak; 2> karBnüaeBl/ grant a ~ pþl;karBnüaeBl¬eRcInelIk¦ delegate power eFVIRbtiPUkmµGMNac/deferred share PaKh‘unEdlTTYlPaKlaP rMElkGMNac/ epÞrGMNaceRkayeK delegation 1> karepÞr ¬siT§iGMNac¦deferred/unearned revenue ¬R)ak;¦ 2> KN³RbtiPU deliberation karBiPakSaedjedalcMNUlTTYlmun ¬KWRtUveyageTAbBa©Úlkñúg delinquent adj. 1> hYskalkMNt;kariybriecäTeRkay²¦deficiency PaBminRKb;RKan;/ ~ in weight 2> min)anbMeBjkatBVkic©edayectna delinquent n. GnItiCnRbRBwtþelµIsPaBxVHTMgn; deliver v. RbKl;deficient reserves R)ak;bMrugxVH delivered at duty paid RbKl;enAkEnøgdeficient supply karpÁt;pÁg;mankgVHxatdeficit »nPaB/ balance of payments/ )anbg;Bn§ehIy delivered at frontier RbKl;enARBMEdntrade ~ »nPaBCBa¢Ij TUTat;¼BaNiC¢kmµ/ budget delivery karRbKl;/ ~ against payment~ »nPaBfvika/ meet v. a ~ bMeBj»nPaBdeficit financing hirBaØb,Tan»nPaB RbKl;TMnijeBlmankarTUTat;/ ~ order b½NÑdeflate the economy eFVIbritþprNa bBa¢aeGayRbKl;TMnij/ ~ by instalmentsesdækic© ¬tamry³karkat;bnßysac;R)ak;pÁt;pÁg; RbKl;TMnijtamdMNak;kal/ ~ note lixitrW cMNayrdæaPi)al¦ RbKl;TMnij ¬[eTAGtifiCn CamYyKñanwgTMnij¦ demagogue n. GñkbeBa©IcraRsþ/ RbCaPiftik³deflation britþprNa ¬sPaBkarN_TMnij demand tMrUvkar/ sMNUmBr/ ~ bill/draftcuHéføCaTUeTA ¦deflationary gap KMlatbritþprNa lixitbþÚrykR)ak; ¬eBlbgðajFnaKar¦/ 29
  37. 37. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ curve ExSekagtMrUvkar/ ~ deposit R)ak; dependability PaBGacBwgBak;)anbeBaØIcrnþ/ ~ exceeds supply tMrUvkarelIs depletion karfycuHeRcIn²/ kareRbIGs;/ tnukmµkarpÁt;pÁg;/ ~ loan kMcIKµankalkMNt; depletive asset RTBüfycuHtamkareRbIR)as;¬eBlTarRtUvsg¦ deport v. nireTsdemand, to be in poor minsUvmantMrUvkar deposit R)ak;beBaØI/ nikçitP½NÐ/ certificate ofdemarcation (boundary) karkMNt; ~ RbkasnIyb½RtbeBaØI/ demand ~ R)ak;RBMRbTl; beBaØIcrnþ/ guaranteed ~ nikçitP½NÐFana/demilitarise v. dkT½Becj/ eFVIvieyaFkmµ savings ~ R)ak;beBaØIsnSM/ fixed/time ~de-mining kare)assMGatmIn R)ak;beBaØImankalkMNt;/ ~ bank FnaKardemise 1> Ptisnüa/ kic©snüaCYl TTYlR)ak;beBaØI/ ~ guaranty account KNnI2> mrNPaB R)ak;tMkl;Fana/ ~ in transit R)ak;beBaØIkMBugdemobilise v. rMsay ¬kgT½B¦ epÞr/ ~ receipt bgáan;édTTYlR)ak;beBaØI/democratisation ~ slip b½NÑsresrepJIR)ak;RbCaFibetyüPavUbnIykmµ/ RbCanuvDÆn¾ deposit R)ak;kk;demographic rate (birth, death ...) deposit (minerals...) RsTab;Er:GRtaRbCasaRsþ ¬kMeNIt/ mrN³ >>>¦ deposit v. 1> kk; 2> tMkl;R)ak;/ epJIR)ak;demonetise karbBa©b;tMéleRbIR)as;én ¬enAFnaKar¦RkdasR)ak;¼kak; depositor GñkepJIR)ak;denationalisation niCatUbnIykmµ/ karbþÚr depreciate v. Føak;éføRTBüsm,tþirdæeTACaÉkCn depreciation 1> karFøak;éfø¼tMéldenial, flat karRbEkkdac;Ghgáar 2> ¬kar¦ rMls; 3> karswkercdenominated in USD (cheque) depreciation allowance (accounting)carwkCaduløarGaemrik ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦ TayC¢TaneGaydl;rMls;denomination ÉktatMélénRkdasR)ak; depress v. sgát;cuH ¬TIpSar/ GarmµN_/¬rW kak;¦ Qñan;RhVaMgrfynþ >>>¦denominator (fraction) PaKEbg depression, economic vism<aFesdækic©density dg;sIuet deputy prime minister ]bnaykrdæm®nþIDepartment of Overseas Trade deputy chairman GnuRbFannaykdæanBaNiC¢kmµeRkARbeTs deputy manager naykrg/ bNÑaFikarrgDepartment of Public Prosecution deregulate v. eFVIbdiniy½tkmµGgÁkarGyükar dereliction of duty kare)aHbg;Parkic©department store PNÐaKar 30
  38. 38. Economic Lexicon Part 1derivative instrument (banking) diagram KMnUsbMRBYj]bkrN_nisSnÞ differentiate v. Ejkdescendant bcäaCn differentiation karEjkeGayeXIjPaBxusKñadescription 1> karBiBN’na digit elx/ single ~ inflation GtiprNa2> RbePTTMnij/ ~ of goods karraymuxTMnij mantYelxEtmYyxÞg;desertification rehadæanIykmµ ¬kareFVI[ digital EdlbgðajCaelx/ DIhSúItal;eTACavalrehadæan¦ digitalised economy esdækic©erxUbnIykmµdesign karrcnatak;Etg/ bøg;/ ~ effect dignitary sSrCnT§iBlénbøg;/ ~ weight TMgn;bøg; dignity PaBéføfñÚr/ sSrPaBdesign v. rcnatak;Etg dilemma n. sßanPaBRtUveFVICMerIsd¾Bi)akdesignation letter lixit]eTÞsnam dimension TMhM/ TidæPaB ¬énsPaBkarN_GVImYy¦¬GñktMNag>>>¦ direct adj. pÞal;/ foreign ~ investmentdesk study karsikSaenAkariyal½y (FDI) vinieyaKpÞal;BIbreTs/ ~ cost tMéldetailed adj. lMGit/ ~ instructions plitpÞal;/ briyaTanpÞal;/ ~ exchangebTbBa¢alMGit karedaHdUredaypÞal;/ ~ export karnaMecjdeteriorated Gn;KuNPaB ¬TMnij¦ edaypÞal;/ ~ tax Bn§pÞal;deterioration karGn;fy ¬KuNPaB/ éfø>>>¦ direct v. tMrg;Tisdetermine v. kMNt; direction 1> Tis/ TisedA 2> esckþIENnaM/detriment karxUcRbeyaCn_ provide ~ and guidance pþl;TisedAdetrimental Edl eFVIeGayxUcRbeyaCn_¼ nigkarENnaM ¬[eFVIGVImYy¦bgáeRKaHfñak; directive karcg¥úlTis/ bTENnaM/ ~ ondevalue v. bBa©úuHtMélrUbiyvtßú ¬eFobnwg wages and prices bTENnaMsþIBIebovtSr_nigéførUbiyvtßúÉeTot²¦ direct-lending schemes kmµviFINTanpÞal;development karGPivDÆn_/ karlUtlas;/ ~ director nayk yuT§saRsþGPivDÆn_/ ~ aid CMnYyGPivDÆn_/strategies director-general GKÁnayk/ deputy ~~ project KMeragGPivDÆn_/ Development Triangle GKÁnaykrgZone tMbn;GPivDÆn_RtIekaN directory 1> bBa¢IrayeQµaHdeviation 1> kargakecj 2> KMlat 2> ftdak;Tinñn½y ¬kMuBüÚT½r¦devise n. Gc©½yTanCaGclnRTBü direct-transit trade BaNiC¢kmµqøgkat;pÞal;¬tammrtksasn_¦ disability BikarPaBdiagnosis n. eraKvinicä½y disadvantage plvi)ak/ KuNvibtþi 31

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