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វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
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វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​
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វចនានុក្រមបច្ចេកទេស ១​

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  • 1. sTÞanuRkmesdækic© Economic Lexicon PaKTI 1³ Gg;eKøs - Exµr Part One: English – Khmer PaKTI 2³ Exµr - Gg;eKøs Part Two: Khmer – English erobcMeday Epñke)aHBum<pSay énviTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa viTüasßanbNþúHbNþal nig RsavRCavedIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa Cambodia Development Resource Institute PMñeBj/ tula 2006
  • 2. Economic LexiconCopyright © 2006 Cambodia Development Resource InstituteAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the written permission of the CambodiaDevelopment Resource Institute.ISBN 99950-52-00-8Cambodia Development Resource Institute 56 Street 315, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh PO Box 622, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (855-23) 881-384/881-701/881-916/883-603 (855-23) 880-734e-mail: cdri@camnet.com.kh website: http://www.cdri.org.khEditing: Publishing TeamDesign and Layout: Em Sorany and Oum ChanthaPrinted and bound in Cambodia by JSRC Printing House
  • 3. ForewordI am pleased to introduce a new edition of CDRI’s Economic Lexicon, an English-Khmer and Khmer-English guide to technical terms in economics and related fieldssuch as accounting, banking, finance, and development. CDRIs recent experiencein publishing, and contributing to a range of publications, conferences, seminarsand workshops, has shown that there is a real need for such a resource to assiststakeholders in Cambodias development to use more standard and easilyunderstood terms in Khmer and English when writing about development issues.Our new 2006-10 Strategic Plan includes a commitment to produce researchproducts that are more flexible and appropriate for Cambodia. This new edition ofthe Economic Lexicon is an expression of that commitment. We hope that it willhelp promote the expansion of development material originally written in Khmer,and the quality of translation from English material into Khmer.The lexicon is in two parts. Part 1: The English-Khmer Lexicon, is a revision andexpansion of the last edition published in 1995. Over the past 10 years there havebeen many developments in technical language. This is especially true for theKhmer language, where many new words have been created and many others havechanged their meaning or become more specific. Also, many more technicalKhmer documents are being produced by various institutions taking differentapproaches to the use of language.CDRI, like many other institutions, publishes technical and policy documents on awide range of development-related topics. Wherever possible, CDRIs editorialteam makes great efforts to use words that are already in use in official documentsand to refrain from creating new words. This is not always easy as officialdocuments may use different Khmer words to express the same meaning, sochoices have to be made as to what would be the most commonly understood wordor term. Sometimes a new word or term needs to be used for a new concept which -i-
  • 4. does not yet have a specific translation in Khmer. Wherever possible acombination of simple words is used to express any new idea or concept.Part II, The Khmer-English Lexicon, is new. It has been compiled in response torequests from many of our readers who may have some difficulty with Khmertechnical terms, especially new ones. Where there is no exact equivalent, thislexicon provides the nearest translation. It does not contain a detailed explanationfor each word, and the reader is advised to use the English word to further researchits meaning. The reason the lexicon contains many headwords of Pali or Sanskritorigin is that their meaning is not immediately obvious to the general public.Wherever any one particular word is not very much in use, the reader is referred toanother word more frequently used or more readily understandable.Extensive research and the opinions of many people have gone into thecompilation of this lexicon. CDRI would like to thank everyone who hascontributed to this final product. We hope this lexicon will serve as a tool to helpreaders to make better use of both CDRI publications and the broader developmentliterature. We see the lexicon as a continuous work in progress so would welcomeany comments or suggestion from readers to help improve and expand on thecurrent edition. Larry Strange Executive Director CDRI October 2006 -ii-
  • 5. buBVkfa ´manesckþIrIkraysUmENnaMbgðajCUnnUv sTÞanuRkmecjpSayfµIeday vbsG EdlCabNþúMBakübkERb Gg;eKøs-Exµr nig Exµr-Gg;eKøs kñúgvis½yCMnajbec©keTsCaeRcIn dUcCaxagKNenyü FnaKar hirBaØvtßú nigkarGPivDÆn_CaedIm . bTBiesaFn_naeBlfµI²rbs; vbsG kñúgkare)aHBum<pSay nigkarcUlrYmeFVIGtßbTpSBVpSaysnñisIT sikçasala )anbgðajfa ÉksarEbbenHmantMrUvkareRcIn sMrab;CYydl;mCÄdæanGñkBak;B½n§nwgkargarGPivDÆn_RbeTskm<úCa kñúgkareRbIR)as;BaküExµr nigGg;eKøs [)anÉkPaBKña niggayyl; enAeBlsresrGtßbTBIbBaðaGPivDÆn_ .enAkñúgEpnkaryuT§saRsþ vbsG qñaM2006-10 manEcgBIkartaMgcitþksagplitplRsavRCavEdlsmRsbsMrab;RbeTskm<úCa . sTÞanuRkmenH KWCalT§plmYyénkartaMgcitþenH ehIysgÇwmfa nwgGacCYyCMrujkarsresrGtßbTedIm CaPasaExµrEtmþg RBmTaMgCYybegáInKuNPaBkarbkERbÉksarGg;eKøsCaPasaExµr . snÞanuRkmenHmanEbgEckecjCaBIrPaK . PaK1 KWCasnÞanuRkmGg;eKøs-Exµr EdlCaÉksarBRgIkbEnßm elIsnÞanuRkme)aHBum<pSayelIkTI2 eday vbsG enAqñaM1995 . kñúgry³eBl10qñaMknøgmk BaküeBcn_bec©keTsmankarvivtþn_Evgq¶ayNas; . edayELkenAkñúgPasaExµr mankarbegáItBaküfµICaeRcIn nigmanBaküBImunCaeRcIneTotEdl)anERbRbYln½y rWk¾mann½ykan;EtCak;lak;EfmeTot . mü:ageTot sßab½nnanak¾ksag ÉksarCaPasaExµr)aneRcInNas;Edr edaymanEbbbTxus²KñakñúgkareRbIR)as;BaküeBcn_ . vbsG k¾dUcsßab½nÉeTotEdr )ane)aHBum<pSayÉksarbec©keTsmYycMnYnFM EdlBak;B½n§nwgRbFanbTCaeRcIn . RkumGñkniBn§sTÞanuRkmenH )anxwtxMkt;RtaykBaküNaEdlmaneRbIrYcehIyenAkñúgÉksarpøÚvkarnana nigeCosvagkarbegáItBaküfµI . b:uEnþviFIenHminGacGnuvtþ)anCab;rhUteT BIeRBaHmanÉksarpøÚvkarmYycMnYn)aneRbIBaküxusKñaedIm,IbBa¢ak;BIn½yEtmYydUcKña . dUecñHehIy k¾RtUvmankareRCIserIsykBaküNaEdleKGacyl;n½y)anCaTUeTACag . CYnkaleTotBaküfµIRtUvEtbegáIteLIgedIm,IsMKal;Gtßn½ymYyEdlminTan;manBaküExµrsMrab;ehAy:agCak;lak; .kñúgkrNIEbbenH nigtamlT§PaBGaceFVIeTA)an KWEtgGnuvtþykBaküsamBaزmkpÁMúKña edIm,IbegáItCaBakümann½yfµImYyeTot . -iii-
  • 6. PaK2³ snÞanuRkm Exµr-Gg;eKøs³ PaKenHKWCaÉksarcgRkgfµITaMgRsug edIm,IeqøIytbnwgsMNUmBrrbs;GñkGanCaeRcIn Edl)anCYbbBaðaxøH²Bak;B½n§nwgBakübec©keTsExµr CaBiessBaküfµI² . kñúgkrNIBMuGacrk)anBaküesµI snÞanuRkmenHmanpþl; BakübkERbEdlmann½yEk,rKñabMput . snÞanuRkmenHBMumanpþl;karBnül;n½ylMGitelIBakünImYy²eT b:uEnþGñkGanGaceRbIR)as;BaküGg;eKøs edIm,IeFVIkarRsavRCavn½ybEnßmeTot)an . mü:ageTot snÞanuRkmmankt;RtaBaküCaeRcInEdlmanb£sKl;ecjBI)alI rWsMRsáwt BIeRBaHmanGñkGanCaeRcInminGacyl;n½yrbs;va)anPøam²eT . kñúgkrNIBaküNamYyminsUvmaneKeRbIR)as;snÞanuRkmmancuHBakümYyeTotEdlRkumGñkniBn§yl;famankareRbIR)as; jwkjab;Cag rWk¾Gacqab;yl;)anCag . snÞanuRkmenH)ancgRkgeLIg edaymankarRsavRCavy:agTUlMTUlay nigkarCYymtiBIGñkmancMeNHdwgCMnajCaeRcInnak; . vbsG sUmEføgGMNrKuNdl;RKb;²KñaEdl)ancUlrYmcMENkCYyeRCamERCg[smiT§iplfµIenHelcecjCarUbrageLIg . vbsG sgÇwmfa snÞanuRkmenHkøayCa]bkrN_mYyCYydl;GñkGannanakñúgkareRbIR)as;ÉksarepSg²rbs; vbsG RBmTaMgÉksarxagGPivDÆn_epSg²eTot . vbsG cat;TukÉksarenHCa {kargarbnþeTAmuxCanic©} ehIysUmsVaKmn_RKb;mtieyabl;BIGñkGan edIm,IeFVIkarEklMG nigBRgIksTÞanuRkm[)aneCOnelOneTAmuxeTot . PñMeBj/ Extula qñaM2006 LarI e®sþn© naykRbtibtþi vbsG -iv-
  • 7. PaKTI 1 Gg;eKøs-ExµrPart One: English–Khmer Part One: English–Khmer
  • 8. Economic Lexicon Part 1 abuse of trust karrMelaPesckþITukcitþA, a abuse of process karbMBanelInItiviFI accelerate v. BenøÓna posteriori kñúgbcäakal accelerated depreciation methodabacus n. k,ac; ¬]bkrN_buraNsMrab; viFIKitrMls;bgçMKitelx¦ accept (a bill of exchange) TTYlRBmabandonment of a trade (occupation) ¬rUbiyaNtþi>>>¦kare)aHbg;muxCMnYjGVImYy accept deposit v. TTYl R)ak;beBaØI¼R)ak;abatement karbnßy ¬éfø/ Bn§>>>¦ tMkl;aberration karXøatBIsPaBFmµta/ acceptance karTTYlRBm/ notification ofkMritxusKña/ karP½nþRcLM ~ lixitCUndMNwgkarTTYlRBm/ present a billabeyance karp¥ak/ goods in ~ TMnijKµan for ~ bgðajrUbiyaNtþiedIm,IsMukarbBa¢ak;GñkTTYl TTYlsÁal;/ ~ in full karTTYlRBmTaMgRsugabide v. eKarB/ eFVItam/ ~ by a promise acceptance certificate viBaØabnb½Rtkan;Baküsnüa TTYlRBmabolish v. lubecal access 1> lT§PaB)aneRbIR)as;above-mentioned dUcmanEcgxagelI 2> lT§PaB¼pøÚv eTAdl;abrogate v. TukCanarakrN_ accessible price éføEdlGacTijdUr)anabsolute acceptance karTTYlRBmTaMg accession n. 1> ])aKmn_ ¬kar)anCaRsug kmµsiT§inUvvtßúrNb¦ 2> karcUlCasmaCikabsolute advantage ]tþmPaBdac;xat accident insuranceabsolute majority vote sMelgPaKeRcIn karFanar:ab;rgelIeRKaHfñak;dac;xat ¬CagBak;kNþaléncMnYnGñkmke)aH acclimate v. pSa‘¿nwgGakasFatufµIeqñat¦ accord karRBmeRBogabsolute poverty PaBRkIRkCak;Esþg/ accordance karGnuBaØateGay/ in ~ withPaBRkIRkdac;xat edayGnuelameTAtamabsolute (total) loss kMhatsrubsuT§ account KNnIabsorption karRsUbcUl/ karbBa©ÚlCasaxa account amended KNnI)anEksMrYlabsorptive capacity smtßPaBRsUbyk account book esovePAKNnIabstain Gnub,vaT account currency rUbiyvtßúTUTat;abstract n. & v. 1> sMrg;GtßbT 2> eFVI account day éf¶TUTat;GrUbIykmµ 1
  • 9. Economic Lexicon Part 1account holder m©as;KNnI accrued (interest/rent...) incomeaccount payable KNnIRtUvsg cMNUl ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßmaccount payee only sMrab;EtsgcUlKNnI accrued interest karR)ak;)anKitbEnßmaccount receivable KNnIRtUvTar/ KNnI accumulate bgÁrTuk/ smac½y/ bUkRtYt/GtifiCn accumulated depreciation rMls;bgÁrTukaccount, sales r)aykarN_lk;TMnij accuracy PaBCak;lak;/ PaBRtwmRtUvaccount, unit of ÉktaKit accused n. CnCab;ecaTaccount, domestic KNnIépÞkñúg acknowledge receipt (of a cheque...)account, expense KNnIcMNay TTYlsÁal;karTTYl ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt>>>¦account, outstanding acknowledge v. TTYlsÁal;KNnIenAminTan;sg acknowledgment (of receipt)accountability KNenyüPaB ¬PaBTTYl esckþIbBa¢ak;fa)anTTYlxusRtUv¦/ to demand ~ from TamTar acquire v. eFVIlT§kmµKNenyüPaBBI acquisition lT§kmµ/ kar)anmkCakmµsiT§iaccountancy KNenyü (GB)/ KNenyükic© acquittance roll b½NÑsgR)ak;accountant KNenyükr/ chartered ~ or act of war ehtuekIteLIgedays®gÁam/public ~ (US) KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; sßanPaBsßitkñúgs®gÁamaccounting KNenyü (US)/ financial ~ acting chairman/woman RbFansþITIKNenyühirBaØvtßú/ tax ~ KNenyüBn§dar activate eFVIeGayskmµeT,Igaccounting analysis karviPaKKNenyü activity skmµPaB/ business ~ skmµPaBaccounting cycle vdþKNenyü GaCIvkmµaccounting period RKaKNenyü/ actor tYGgÁ/ economic ~ tYGgÁesdækic©KNenyükal act of God RbFanskþiaccounting plan bøg;KNenyü actual Cak;Esþg/ ~ delivery karRbKl;accounting price éføKNenyü Cak;Esþg/ ~ order karbBa¢aTijCak;Esþgaccounting statement ad hoc committee KN³kmµaFikarcMeBaHkic©r)aykarN_KNenyü ad valorem duty Bn§yktaméføaccounting system RbB½n§KNenyü ad valorem freight éfødwkCBa¢ÚnyktaméføTMnijaccreditation karEtgtaMg/ karTTYlsÁal; addendum, law on c,ab;sþIBIc,ab;bEnßmaccredited party PaKITTYlsarNTan additional bEnßm/ ~ insurance karFanaaccrued (interest/rent...) expense r:ab;rgbEnßm/ ~ premium buBVlaPbEnßmcMNay ¬karR)ak;¦ )anKitbEnßm 2
  • 10. Economic Lexicon Part 1additional profit tax (APT) ¬svnakarEdlKUkþItTl;Kña¦Bn§elIR)ak;cMeNjbEnßm adverse minl¥/ minGMeNaypl/ ~ factor/addressee GñkTTYl ¬lixit¦/ GñkEdlRtUvTTYl trade balance ktþa¼CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµadequate smlµm minGMeNaypladjourn v. elIkvarkal/ p¥ak advertise v. pSayBaNiC¢kmµadjudicate CMrHkþI advertisement, advertisingadjusting entries (accounting) karpSayBaNiC¢kmµelxnaEktMrUv advertising campaign yuT§nakarpSayadjustment kMENtMrUv/ ~ account KNnI BaNiC¢kmµEktMrUv/ ~ factor (AF) ktþaEktMrUv/ ~ value advice note lixitCUnB½t’man/ lixitCUneyabl;tMélEktMrUv advice, collection lixitCUndMNwgkaradministrative expenses cMNayrdæ)al RbmUlR)ak;administrative-economic entity advice, debit/credit Rbkas NBn§¼GgÁPaBesdækic©rdæ)al NTanadmissible evidence PsþútagRbevsnI/ advice, dispatch/shipmentPsþútagTTYlyk)an /forwarding lixitCUndMNwgbBa¢ÚnTMnijadult eBjv½y/ ~ citizen RbCaBlrdæeBjv½y adviser (advisor) TIRbwkSa/ financial ~advance buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIk[mun¦/ TIRbwkSahirBaØvtßú~ deposit R)ak;kk;mun advising bank FnaKarCUndMNwgadvance money R)ak;buerRbTan/ R)ak; advisory function muxgarpþl;eyabl;pþl;eGaymun advocacy karts‘Umtiadvance notice karpþl;dMNwgCamun affidavit lixitEføgsc©a ¬GHGagsc©PaBadvance on documents buerRbTan cMeBaHmuxc,ab;¦sMGagelIÉksar affiliated company (or associatedadvance on securities buerRbTaneday company) Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½n§/ Rkumh‘unmanvtßúFana Bak;B½n§ ¬Rkumh‘unemkþab;PaKh‘unticCag 50°¦advance payment karTUTat;Camun affiliation, political ninñakarneya)ayadvancement kareCOnelOneTAmux/ affinity n. Bn§úPaB/ ¬PaBdUcKña rW manTMnak;karrIkcMerIn TMngCamYyKña¦advantage ]tþmPaB AFTA-ASEAN Free Trade Areaadversary proceeding svnakarRbtibkS tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘an 3
  • 11. Economic Lexicon Part 1after-tax income cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§ ~ coordination mechanism ynþkaraftercost cMNaybEnßm sMrbsMrYlCMnYy/ ~ programme kmµviFICMnYyage group RkumGayu air bill of lading b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasagency TIPñak;gar/ employment ~ kariyal½y air cargo/freightTMnijbBa¢ÚntamynþehaHrkkargareGayeFIV/ pre-investment ~ TIPñak;gar air-consignment note b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasBintülT§PaB muneBlvinei yaK i airport tax Bn§RBlanynþehaHagenda rebobvar³/ kargarEdlRtUveFVI airway bill b½NÑdwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasagent Pñak;gar/ sole ~ tMNagpþac;mux alien CnbreTsagglomerate pþMúcUlKña alien act c,ab;sþIBICnbreTsaggregate GgÁpSM/ tYelxRbmUlpþúM/ ~ demand/ alienation karepÞrkmµsiT§isupply tMrUvkar¼karpÁt;pÁg; srub alienator n samIbrivtþ/ Gñklk; rW epÞrsiT§i[eKaggregate, monetary xn§b,maNrUbiyvtßú/ alimony R)ak;]btßmÖ ¬BIbþIeTARbBn§ rWBIRbBn§rUbiyvtßúTaMgGs; eTAbþI/ eRkayeBlElgKña¦aggregation karpþúM/ xn§b,aT/ karpÁúMGgÁpSM allegation karecaTRbkan;edaymin)anaggrieved person Gñkminsuxcitþ bgðajPsþútagagrarian éndIFøI/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;dIFøI allegiance (politics) karesµaHsµ½RKagrarian society sgÁmksikmµ allegiance, oath of sc©aRbNiFanagreed (price) ¬éfø¦ RBmeRBog alliance sm<½n§PaBagreement kic©RBmeRBog/ verbal ~ kic© all-in price éføsBVRKb; ¬TMnij/ Fanar:ab;rg/®BmeRBogpÞal;mat;/ ~ on the exchange of dwkCBa¢Ún>>>¦goods kic©RBmeRBogsþIBIkarpøas;bþÚrTMnij/ ~ in allocate v. (fund) élEck/ eFVIviPaCn_/principle kic©RBmeRBogCaeKalkarN_ allocated resources FnFanEdl)anélEckagribusiness ksi-BaNiC¢kmµ allocation 1> karélEck/ karviPaCn_/agricultural product ksipl proportional ~ karélEcksmamaRtagriculture ksikmµ/ Ministry of 2> R)ak;viPaCn_Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries allotment of shares karEbgEckPaKh‘unRksYgksikmµ rukçaRbmaj; nigensaT allowance R)ak;]btßmÖ/ TayC¢Tan/agro-industry ksi-]sSahkmµ depreciation ~ TayC¢Tan[dl;rMls;/agronomist ekSRtviTU family ~ R)ak;]btßmÖRKÜsar/ make an ~agronomy ekSRtsaRsþ/ ekSRtviTüa eFVIkarbBa©úHéføkñúgkarlk;eGayGñkTijaid CMnYy/ economic ~ CMnYyEpñkesdækic©/ ~ all-risks insurance/policy kar¼b½NÑagreement kic©RBmeRBogpþl;CMnYy/ Fanara:b;rghaniP½yRKb;RbePT 4
  • 12. Economic Lexicon Part 1alteration karEk ¬Bakü¼elx¼bBa¢I life ~ CIvFnlaPKNenyü>>> edayekaslub¼sresrRtYt>>>¦ annulment emaXkmµ/ karcat;TukCaGasasUnüalternative CMerIs¼meFüa)ayepSgeTot/ ~ antedate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/ cuHkalbriecäTtechnology bec©kviTüaEbbepSg ¬Gac GtItkaleRbICMnYs)an¦ anthropology mnusSsaRsþ/ nrviTüaamalgamation karbBa©Úl ¬Kña¦ anti- RbqaMg/ anti-personnel mineambition karR)afñad¾elIslub/ mhicäta mInRbqaMgmnusSamelioration n. kareFIVeGayRbesIreT,Ig/ anticipated profit R)ak;cMeNjeRBogTuksuvuDÆikmµ anti-dumping karRbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚcamendment 1> viesaFnkmµ ¬c,ab;>>>¦/ éfø/ ~ duty Bn§RbqaMgnwgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø~ of a contract viesaFnkmµkic©snüa/ anti-inflation measure/programme~ advice lixitCUndMNwgsþIBIkarEksMrYl viFankar¼kmµviFI Tb;Tl;GtiprNaviesaFnkmµ 2> c,ab; b¤ maRtaénc,ab;Edl anti-trust law c,ab;RbqaMgnwgRtwsþRtUv)anEkERbehIy apellate court sala]T§rN_amicable settlement dMeNaHRsay apparatus briFan/ bznP½NÐRbkbedaykareyaKyl; ¬min)ac;eTAtulakar¦ appeal 1> bNþwgtv:a/ ]T§rN_amnesty karelIkElgeTas 2> karGMBavnavamortisation of a debt ¬kar¦rMls;bMNul appliance eRKOgeRbIR)as;amount TwkR)ak;/ gross ~ TwkR)ak;dul/ applicant Gñkdak;BaküsMu~ of invoice TwkR)ak;énvikáybRt applicant for a letter of creditamount past due TwkR)ak;hYskalkMNt;sg Gñkdak;BaküsMu¼GñkesñIsMu ebIksarNTananalysis karviPaK/ cost ~ karviPaKBIéføedIm/ ~ applied economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©of job requirements karviPaKtMrUvkarkargar apply v. ¬dak;¦ Gnuvtþ/ applied researchanalysis, discounted cash flow (DCF) karRsavRCavsMrab;GnuvtþkarviPaKcracrsac;R)ak; appointed days, on naéf¶)ankMNt;analytical thinking KMnitviPaK appointment karEtgtaMg/ permanent ~ancestor buBVCn to the rank of administrative agentancillary services esvakmµbnÞab;bnSM kartaMgs‘ubkñúgzannþrskþiPñak;garrdæ)alannual RbcaMqñaM/ ~ budget KMeragfvikaRbcaMqñaM apportion v. EbgEckannualised adj. KitelImUldæanRbcaMqñaM apportionment bMENgEckannuity FnlaP/ R)ak;sMNgRbcaMqñaM/ appraisal karvaytémø 5
  • 13. Economic Lexicon Part 1appreciation 1> kareLIg éfø¼tMél area, free trade tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrI2> mUlvicar ¬karvaytMél¦ area-based frame eRKagelImUldæantMbn;3> karTTYlsÁal;KuNPaB 4>GMNrKuN arid area tMbn;s¶ÜtEhgapproach viFIsaRsþ arithmetic nBVnþ/ ~ mean mFümnBVnþappropriate adj. smRsb/ ~ size TMhM arm’s length sale karlk;KµankareyaKsmRsb/ ~ technology bec©kviTüasmRsb yl;Biessappropriation (financial) ¬R)ak;¦ viPaCn_ arrears bMNulyWty:avminTan;sg/ to be in¬R)ak;élTukenAmçagsMrab;eKaledAedayELk¦ ~ yWty:avkñúgkarsgbMNulappropriation accounts KNnIcMNUl- art work sñaédsil,³cMNay article of copartnershipapproval karyl;RBm/ on ~ etagman kic©snüacUlh‘un/ maRtashPaKkmµkaryl;RBm articles of association (GB) or by-approximately RbEhl/ RbmaN laws (US) lkçnþik³aquaculture, aquatic culture varIvb,kmµ articles of incorporation (US) oraquatic product Clpl memorandum of association (GB)aquatic resources FnFanClpl GnusSarN³begIátRkumh‘unarable land dIGacdaMduH articulate v. bBa¢ak;CaBaküeBCn_arbiter mCÄtþkr ¬GñkmanGMNac¼T§iBl as provided, as stated, set forthedIm,IeFVIkarkat;kþI³ ]> kñúgkic©karrdæ¦ dUcmanEcg ¬kñúgc,ab;¦arbitrage 1> mCÄtþkmµ 2> karepÞrTunBIpSar Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)mYyeTApSarmYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér tMbn;BaNiC¢kmµesrIGas‘anarbitrageur GñkepÞrTunBIpSarmYyeTApSar assembly line ExSplitkmµ ¬tMelIgeRKOgcRk¦mYyedIm,IeqøótrkkMér assessed taxes Bn§)ankMNt;arbitrary tamEtGMeBIcitþ assessment karvaytMélarbitration mCÄtþPaB/ mCÄtþvinicä½y/ assessor of taxes GñkkMNt;Bn§¼vayBn§karkat;kþIedayGaCJakNþal/ ~ committee asset RTBüskmµ/ RTBüsm,tiþ/ current ~KN³kmµkarmCÄtþkmµ RTBüskmµcrnþ/ foreign ~ RTBüskmµCaarbitrator mCÄtþkr ¬xagBaNiC¢kmµ¦ rUbiyb½NÑ ¬FnaKar¦/ RTBüenAbreTs, fixedarchitectural company Rkumh‘unsikSa (capital) ~ RTBüskmµCab;lab; ¬ÉksarxøHKMeragbøg; ehAfa GclnRTBü EdlRtUvnwgBaküarchitecture sßabtükmµ/ nimµabnkmµ immovable property), tangible ~area unit ÉktatMbn; RTBürUbI/ frozen ~ RTBüp¥ib/ intangible ~ 6
  • 14. Economic Lexicon Part 1RTBüGrUbI/ financial ~ RTBühirBaØvtßú attorney 1> GaNtþiKahk ¬GñkTTYlGaNtþi¦assign (property) epÞrsiT§ieRbIR)as;Gclnvtßú 2> tMNagkarBarkþI 3> emFavIassignable credit sarNTanGacepÞr)an attractive adj. Tak;Taj/ ~ pricesassignee 1> Gnub,Tanik ¬GñkTTYlsiT§i¼ éføTak;TajGtifiCnRTBüsm,tþi¼karEtgtaMg ¦ auction karedjéfø2> GñkTTYlsiT§iRbTan/ GaNtþiKahk auction sale karlk;edjéføassignee in bankruptcy GñkRtUv)an audit n. & v. 1> svnkmµ/ external ~cat;taMg[RKb;RKgRTBüsm,tþiGñkkS½yFn svnkmµBIxageRkA/ internal ~ svnkmµépÞkñúgassignor 1> Gnub,TayI ¬GñkepÞrRTBüsm,tþi/ 2> eFVIsvnkmµ ¬Binitü¼Eqk bBa¢IKNenyü¦GñkeFVIkarcat;taMg¦ auditing svnkmµ/ National Auditing2> GñkRbKl;siT§i/ GaNtþiTayk Authority GaCJaFrsvnkmµCati/ ~ proceduresassimilation smankmµ ¬kareFVI[RCYtRCab¦ nItiviFIsvnkmµassistance kar]btßmÖ/ CMnYy/ CMnYy]btßmÖ auditor svnkr ¬GñkRtYtBinitübBa¢I/ sñgkarassistant CMnYykar/ brivcäkarI/ ]bkarI KNenyü¦/ independent/external ~assistant accountant KNenyükrCMnYykar svnkrÉkraCü auspices kar]btßmÖ/ under the ~ enAeRkamassistant manager Gñkcat;karrgassociated company (see affiliated »vaT ¬sßab½n¦ austerity PaBt,itet,ót/ PaBtwgrwg/ tbkmµcompany) Rkumh‘unBak;B½n§ autarchy GMNac¼RbeTskan;rbb pþac;karassociation smaKm/ bar ~ KN³emFavI autarky sV½yaFibetyü/ esdækic©m©as;karassurance 1> karFanar:ab;rg2> PaBR)akdkñúgcitþ ¬KµankarsgS½y¦ xøÜnÉgpÞal;/ ¬minBwgEp¥kelI karnaMecj-naMcUl rWat call, money kMcIEdlm©as;bMNulGacTar CMnYyesdækic©¦ authentic deed/act lixityfaPUtykvij)anPøam authenticate eFVInItüanukUlkmµ ¬bBa¢ak;faBit¦at par, share PaKh‘unEdlmantMélenA authenticity yfaPaBpSarh‘unesµIKñanwgtMélcuHelIsnøwkb½NÑPaKh‘un authorised bank FnaKarmankarGnuBaØat/at sight draft rUbiyaNtþiRtUvsgR)ak;enAeBlbgðaj FnaKarRbtiRsuti authorised capital edImTuncuHbBa¢Iat sight, to pay sgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar authoritarianism GMNacniymATM (automatic teller machine) authority siT§iGMNac/ GaCJaFr/ rdæGMNacm:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ authorisation 1> esckþIGnuBaØatattitude riyabf 7
  • 15. Economic Lexicon Part 12> lixitGnuBaØatauthorised representative tMNagmansiTRi§ bTan/ GaCJanukarI ¬tMNagmankarGnuBaØat¦ back out v. dkxøÜnecj/ ~ from aautomatic teller machine (see ATM) contract dkxøÜnecjBIkic©snüam:asuInebIkR)ak;s½VyRbvtiþ back to back xñgTl;xñg/ ~ creditautomatic drawing right NTanxñgTl;xñgsiT§idkR)ak;sV½yRbvtþi back up v. KaMRT/ bBa¢ak;KaMRT/ ~ a claimautonomous economic entity bBa¢ak;KaMRTkarGHGagGgÁPaBesdækic©sVy½t backbone infrastructure ehdæarcnaautonomous enterprise shRKassVy½t sm<½n§q¥wgxñg ¬ehdæarcnasm<½n§eKal¦autonomy sV½yPaB/ sVy½tPaB/ economic backdate v. cuHbuerkalbriecäT/~ sV½yPi)alesdækic© cuHkalbriecäTGtItkalaverage mFüm/ ~ annual growth rate backer GñkbeBa©jedImTun/ GñkKaMRTGRtakMeNInmFümRbcaMqñaM/ ~ cost tMél¼ background 1> Rbvtþi/ savtaéføedIm mFüm 2> épÞxageRkayaverage collection period (ACP) backing, financial karKaMRTxaghirBaØvtßúry³eBlRbmUlbMNulCamFüm backlog kargarenAKrminTan;eFVIavoidance, tax karecosvagBn§ backup eRtombMrugaward n. & v. 1> esckIþsMercrbs;GaCJa backwardness PaBGn;fykNþal 2> rgVan; 3> pþl;rgVan;[/ ~ a contract bad debt NeTyüTarmin)an ¬xUc¦/RbKl;kic©snüa[awareness kardwgsÁal;/ raise public ~ NeTyüBi)akTar ¬Cab;sgS½y¦bMpuskaryl;dwgdl;saFarNCn bad faith GsT§a/ KMnitevocevr bad title b½NÐkmµsiT§iykCakarmin)an bad workmanship TwkédGn;/ kareFVIminB, b )anl¥ ¬plitpl¦ bail R)ak;Fana ¬]> R)ak;bg;[tulakaredIm,I[baccalaureate (degree) CnCab;ecaT)anenAeRkAXMu¦/ ~ bond b½NÑFana¬sBaØab½Rt¦mFümsikSaTutiyPUmi bail out v. 1> se®gÁaHRkumh‘unCYbkarlM)akbachelor’s degree fñak;briBaØab½Rt xaghirBaØvtßú 2> bg;R)ak;FanaxøÜnback eRkay/ xageRkay/ ~ interest karR)ak; bailiff n. GaCJasalaminTan;sg/ ~ a bill cuHhtßelxaFanaelI bail cover R)ak;Fana 8
  • 16. Economic Lexicon Part 1bailment karepJITuk ¬dak;TMnij[GñkepSg eTotsgR)ak;eTAbuKÁlNamñak;¦kan;kab; b:uEnþGñkenaHBMuEmnCam©as;kmµsiT§ieT¦ bank financing hirBaØb,TanFnaKarbait n. nuy/ use money as ~ eRbIluyCanuy bank note RkdasR)ak;balance n. 1> tulüPaB 2> smtulü/ credit/ bank of deposit FnaKarTTYlR)ak;beBaØIdebit ~ smtulü NTayI¼ Nayik/ closing bank reconciliation karepÞógpÞat;FnaKar~ smtulücugRKa/ pay the ~ sgR)ak;CMBak;/ ¬GgÁPaBsamIepÞógbBa¢Irbs;xøÜneTAnwgRbkaspositive ~ smtulü viC¢man/ ~ on goods and NBn§¼NTan rbs;FnaKar/ kargarenHEtgservices smtulüTMnijnigesva eFVIenAcugEx¦balance of payments CBa¢IgTUTat;/ bank reference TIsMGagbBa¢ak;BIxagFnaKar~ deficit/surplus »nPaB¼Gtierk CBa¢IgTUTat; bank statement r)aykarN_¼Rbkasbalance of trade CBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµ FnaKar/ sMrg;KNnIBIFnaKarbalance sheet taragtulükar/ off- ~ bank transfer karepÞrR)ak;enAFnaKaritems xÞg;eRkAtaragtulükar/ ~ date éf¶ bank v. dak;R)ak;enAFnaKareFVItaragtulükar bank-credit guarantee schemebalance v. eFVIeGaymantulüPaB kmµviFIFanaNTanrbs;FnaKarbalance v. an account bUksrubKNnI banker FnaKarikbalance v. the budget eFVItulükarfvika banker’s draft (see bank draft)bale KIb/ eb ¬vtßúGVImYymancMnYneRcIndUcCa banking muxCMnYjFnaKar/ muxviC¢aFnaKarRkNat; Rkdas esµA>>> EdlcgCa dMu¼kNþab;¦ bankrupt kS½yFn/ FnkS½y/ niT§½nbank FnaKar/ central ~ FnaKarkNþal/ bankruptcy PaBkS½yFn/ niT§nPaB/deposit money bank FnaKarTTYl discharge in ~ karrYcputBIkarkS½yFnR)ak;beBaØI/ national ~ FnaKarCati bar association KN³emFavIbank acceptance b½NÑTTYlRBmedayFnaKar barefoot doctor RKUeBTüCnbTbank account KNnIFnaKar bargain and sale kic©snüaTij-lk;bank book esovePAFnaKar/ esovePAepJI bargain v. téfø/ (free) collectiveR)ak;enAFnaKar bargaining karcrcaBIkartMelIgR)ak;QñÚlbank charge esah‘uyFnaKar rvagnieyaCit nignieyaCkbank clearing karTUTat;tamFnaKar barrier r)aMg/ ]bsKÁ/ customs/tariff ~bank deposit R)ak;beBaØIenAFnaKar r)aMgBn§Ky/ lift trade ~ dkr)aMgBaNiC¢kmµ/bank draft rUbiyaNtþiFnaKar rW b½NÑFnaKar non-tariff ~s ( NTBs) r)aMgminEmnBn§Ky¬lixitecjedayFnaKarbBa¢aeGayFnaKarmYy barrister emFavI ¬Gg;eKøs¦ 9
  • 17. Economic Lexicon Part 1barter karedaHdUrTMnijnigTMnij KµaneQµaH ¬elImUlb,Tanb½RtKµancuHeQµaH¬karpøas;bþÚrTMnijedaymineRbIluy¦ GñkRtUvebIkR)ak;eT KWfaGñkkan;mUlb,Tanb½Rtbase mUldæan/ exOn/ ~ level of GacebIkR)ak;)an¦consumption kMritmUldæanénkareRbIR)as; bearer instrument/paper lixitUbkrN_base rate GRtaeKal/ GRtamUldæan sMrab;Kahkbase year qñaMeKal beginning inventory sareBIP½NÐedIm qñaM¼RKabaseline survey GegátCamUldæan behave v. kan;criyabasic CamUldæan/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBog behaviour Gakb,kiriyaCamUldæan/ ~ price éføeKal/ ~ research below cost TabCagéføedImkarRsavRCavCamUldæan benchmark kMriteKal/ ~ survey GegáteKalbasic commodities plitplksikmµ benefactor ]bkarI ¬GñkTMnukbMrg/ Gñkp©gepþm¦ u ú ICamUldæan ¬ksiplFmµtaEdlpliteRcIn² beneficiary GñkTTYlpl/ GtßKahkdUcCaRsUv/ eBat>>>¦ benefit GtßRbeyaCn_/ R)ak;]btßmÖ/ medicalbasic discount GbhareKal ¬Gbhar ~ R)ak;]btßmÖéføBüa)alFmµtaedayKµanbEnßmPaKryGVIeTot¦ benefit-cost ratiobasic human needs (BHN) tMrUvkarCa smaPaKplcMeNjeFobcMNaymUldæanrbs;mnusS bequeath v. eFVIGc©½yTanCaclnvtßúbasic salary/wage ebovtSr_eKal bequest n. Gc©½yTanCaclnvtßú/ GMeNay¬ebovtSr_FmµtaedayKµanbUkR)ak;bEnßm¦ tamry³mrtksasn_basin (Mekong River) Gag ¬TenøemKgÁ¦ best interest ]tþmRbeyaCn_basket n. k®nþk/ consumer ~ or best-seller esovePAlk;dac;bMputconsumption ~ k®nþkTMnijeRbIR)as; biannual BIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM/ ~ monitoringbatch LÚt_ ¬GIv:an;EdlplitenAeBlEtmYy¦/ karXøaMemIlBIrdgkñúgmYyqñaM bias lMeGog~ number elxLÚt_ bid v. & n. 1> edjéfø 2> karedjéføBCC (business cooperation contract) bilateral eTVPaKI/ ~ aid/assistancekic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµbear Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij¼rUbiyvtßú Edl CMnYyeTVPaKI bill 1> vikáybRt 2> rUbiyaNtþieCOfaGIv:an;eKnwgcuHéfø/ ~ market TIpSarEdl bill at sight vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsgeKeCOfaGWv:an;nwgcuHéføbear v. interest pþl;nUvkarR)ak; enAeBlbgðaj bill in transit vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi kMBugbBa¢Únbearer Gñkkan;/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt 10
  • 18. Economic Lexicon Part 1bill of entry RbtievTn_Ky ¬lixitRbkas board of directors RkumRbwkSaPi)albg;Bn§Ky¦ board of inquiry KN³kmµkaresuIbGegátbill of lading (B/L) GBaØtb½NÑ rW board of investment (BOI)GBaØtb½Rt/ lixitpÞúkTMnijnava/ b½NÑdwkCBa¢Ún RkumRbwkSavinieyaKTMnij/ direct ~ GBaØtb½NÑedaypÞal; board of management RkumRbwkSaRKb;RKgbill payable vikáybRt¼rUbiyaNtþi RtUvsg boat TUk/ Clyan/ ~ log book esovePAbill sent for collection skmµPaBClyanb½NÑepJI[RbmUlR)ak; body xøÜn ¬mnusS>>>¦/ tY ¬rfynþ>>>¦/ ~ of rulesbill/letter of exchange rUbiyaNtþi/ lixitpøas;bþÚr and regulations GgÁc,ab; ¬nigbTb,BaØtþi¦billion Ban;lan bona fide esµaHRtg;/ ~ purchaserbin tag pøakFug GñkTijesµaHRtg;bind v. cg/ mantMélGnuvtþ/ P¢ab;katBVkic© bond sBaØab½NÑ/ government/treasury ~biodiversity CIv³cMruH b½NÑrtnaKar/ bearer ~ sBaØab½NÑKµaneQµaH/biogas CIv]sµ½n goods (held) in ~ TMnijrkSaTukenAXøaMgKybiomass CIvm:as ¬rg;caMkarbg;Bn§¦/ mortgage ~ b½NÑniekçbbiosphere reserve, Tonle Sap ¬b½NbNlmanvtßbBa©a¦/ take goods out of ÑM u ú MzbnIyCIvmNÐlbwgTenøsab ~ bg;Bn§elITMnijedIm,IGacykvaecjBIXøaMgKy/birth certificate sMbuRtkMeNIt ~ yield TinñplsBaØab½NÑ ¬cMNUl)anBIsBaØab½NÑbirth rate GRtakMeNIt/ GRtaRbsUtikmµ KitCaPaKryénéføTijsBaØab½NѦbirth spacing karBnüakMeNIt bonded warehouse XøaMgsþúkTMnijRKb;black market pSarggwt/ ~ price éføpSarggwt RKgedayPñak;garKyblacklist bBa¢IexµA bonus R)ak;bEnßm/ buBVlaP ¬]> R)ak;rgVan;¦/blank enAs¥at/ minTan;sresr/ ~ cheque cost of living ~ R)ak;bEnßmsMrab;RTRTg;mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh ¬cuHhtßelxaehIy EtKµan CIvPaB/ incentive ~ R)ak;elIkTwkcitþ/cuHTwkR)ak; rW eQµaHGñkTTYl¦ productivity ~ rgVan;plitkmµblank endorsement carxñgcMh book of investment esovePAbnÞúkénblock bøúk karvinieyaKblock fund mUlniFipþúM book value (accounting) tMélkñúgbBa¢I/blocked account KNnI bBaÄb;¼p¥ib tMélKNenyü¬min[dkR)ak;ecj¦ bookkeeper Gñkkan;bBa¢I/ KNenyükrblue-collar union shCIBhtßkr 11
  • 19. Economic Lexicon Part 1bookkeeping karcuHbBa¢IKNenyü/ single brainstorming karBiPakSabMpusKMnitentry ~ karcuHbBa¢IÉkPaK/ double entry ~ branch (of a company) saxa ¬Rkumh‘un¦karcuHbBa¢IeTVPaK brand sBaØa/ sBaØasMKal;/ rUb/ m:ak ¬TMnij¦books of accounts bBa¢IKNenyü brand name eQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ/ yIehaboom v. rIkduHdaly:agrh½s/ ~ industry breach of contract karelµIskic©snüa]sSahkmµEdlrIkduHdalya:grh½s/ breach of discipline karelµIsvin½ybooming sector vis½ykMBugrIkduHdal breakages GIv:an;)ak;Ebk ¬minrab;CaRTBüboost v. CMruj/ rujeLIg skmµeTenAeBleFVIsareBIP½NЦbooty C½yP½NÐ ¬rbs;EdldeNþImrWbøn;BIeK¦/ break-even point cMNucrYcedImGcäinRTBü breakthrough karTMlayPaBTal;Rckborder price éføenARBMEdn bribe v. & n. 1> sUkborrow v. x©I¼sMux©I/ borrowed reserves 2> sMNUk/ take a ~ sIusMNUkR)ak;bMrug)anx©I ¬EdlFnaKarnana)anx©IBI bridging loan kMcIry³eBlxøI ¬sMrab;TijFnaKarkNþal¦ pÞHfµI enAeBllk;pÞHcas;minTan;dac;¦borrower Gñkx©I/ Nvnþ broadcast v. pSBVpSay ¬tamviTüú/ TUrTsSn_>>>¦borrowings karx©Ibul brochure n. esovePAesþIg/ kUnesovePAboss n. bri)al/ ecAhVay/ GñkRtYtRta/ pSBVpSaybossy EdlcUlcitþRtYtRtaeK broker eCIgsarCMnYj/ KYkeCBOT (build, operate, transfer) sagsg;- brokerage 1> kMéreCIgsar 2> kargareCIgsarGaCIvkmµ-epÞr brought forward (accounting) eyagmkbotany n. PUtKamsaRsþ ¬karsikSaBIrukçCati¦ bring in (assets as investment)bottleneck PaBraMgsÞH/ PaBkkkuj eFVI]bharit/ ykcUlbottom out v. cuHTabbMput budget fvika/ ~ control karRtYtBinitü¬RbEhlminGacFøak;cuHeToteT¦ fvika/ ~ credit NTanfvika/ ~ fundbottom-up BIeRkameLIgelI/ mUlniFifvika/ ~ prices éføTab² ~ development karGPivDÆn_BIeRkameLIgelI buffer RTnab;/ ~ zone tMbn;RTnab;bourgeois KhbtI buffer stock sþúksMrab;Tb;karERbRbYl ¬éfø/bourgeoisie or middle class karpÁt;pÁg;>>¦/ ~ facility (BSF)vNѳKhbtI b¤ vNѳkNþal ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;Tb;snñiFiboycott Bhikar ¬karRbqaMgedayminRBmTij built-in stabilisers ktþaeFVIeGaymanminRBmcUlrYm>>>¦ sßirPaBCasV½yRbvtþibrain drain kar)at;bg;GñkmanCMnaj bulk buying karTijduM 12
  • 20. Economic Lexicon Part 1bulk order bBa¢aTijdMu by-product plitplbnÞab;bnSM/ nisSnÞvtßúbull Gñklk;snøwkh‘un¼TMnij>>>EdleCOfamuxGIv:an;eKnwgeLIgéføbull market TIpSarEdleKeCOfaGIv:an;nwgeLIgéfø C, cbulletin 1> RBwtþib½Rt/2> esckþIRbkasCapøÚvkar ¬BIerOgsMxan;GVImYy¦ cabinet xuTÞkal½y/ political ~ KN³rdæm®nþIburden bnÞúk/ ~ of proof bnÞúkPsþútag/ tax cable transfer karepÞrR)ak;edayTUrKmn_~ bnÞúkBn§ cadastre surieyadIbureau kariyal½y/ employment ~ cadre Rkbx½NÐ/ public ~ Rkbx½NÐkariyal½ykargar m®nþIraCkar/ ~ of administrative agentbureaucracy kariyaFibetyü Rkbx½NÐPñak;garrdæ)albureaucrat kariyaelxanukar/ GñkeFVIkar calculus KNnaGtüaNUkariyal½y calendar RbtiTin/ ~ year qñaMRbtiTinbusiness Furkic©/ GaCIvkmµ/ kic©karCMnYj/ call deposit R)ak;beBaØIcrnþ call loan/money NTanKµankalkMNt;karrksuI/ ~ card namb½NÑ ¬RtUvsgvijenAeBleKTar¦business cooperation contract called-up capital mUlFn)anehA(BCC) kic©snüashRbtibtþikarBaNiC¢kmµ ¬)anbg;cUlRkumh‘unehIy¦business format franchising campaign yuT§nakar/ sales ~ yuT§nakarlk;drUkarpþl;siT§ieGayrksIupþac;muxtamEbbbTeK cancel v. lubecal/ ~ an entry bdiesFbusiness licence tax ¬Bn§¦ )a:tg; elxna ¬KNenyü¦/ ~ an order lubecalbusiness name namkrN_GaCIvkmµ karbBa¢aTijbusiness undertaking kareFVIkic©karCMnYj cancellation karlubecalbusinessman/woman GaCIvkr/ FurCn canvass 1> sÞabsÞg; ¬mti¦buy v. Tij/ ~ back Tijykvij/ ~ time 2> eXasnaTak;TajkarKaMRTBnüaeGay)anyUr capability smtßPaB ¬eFVIGVImYy¦buyer’s price éføGnueRKaHdl;GñkTij capacity 1> smtßPaB/ earning ~buying order karbBa¢aTij smtßPaBrkR)ak;/ in a legal ~ kñúgsmtßPaBbuying power GMNacTij tampøÚvc,ab;/ load-carrying ~ smtßPaBpÞúkby-election kare)aHeqñateLIgvij ¬GIv:an;¦/ production ~ smtßPaBplitbylaws (see also articles of association) 2> cMNuHc,ab;bEnßm ¬RbcaMtMbn;¦/ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg 13
  • 21. Economic Lexicon Part 1capital mUlFn/ Tun/ authorised ~mUlFn mUlFnRbkbkarEdl)anGnuBaØat/ paid in ~ mUlFnEdl capitalism mUlFnniym)anbg;/ ~ accumulation smac½yTun capitalist mUlFnik/ nayTuncapital account KNnI mUlFn¼Tun capitalisation mUlFnPavUnIykmµcapital adequacy ratio smaPaKsm capitalise v. eqøótykcMeNj/ qk;»kas/lµménmUlFn mUlFnkmµcapital amortisation rMls;mUlFn captive market TIpSarpþac;muxcapital asset RTBümUlFn/ RTBüskmµCab;lab; card b½NÐ/ sMbuRt/ business ~ namb½NÑcapital assistance kar]btßmÖTun ¬GaCIvkmµ¦/ cash ~ b½NÑsac;R)ak;/ cheque ~capital contributor GñkcUlh‘un/ PaKTunik³ mUlb,Tanb½NÑ/ credit ~ b½NÑNTan/capital endowment edImTunEdlRtUvbg; identity ~ GtþsBaØaNb½NÑcapital expenditure/investment/ career GaCIB outlay cMNayelIRTBümUlFn/ vinieyaK caretaker (of a motor vehicle) Gñkkan;capital expense cMNayCamUlFn kab;EfTaM ¬]> yanynþ¦/ ~ governmentcapital gains (accounting) tMélelIs rdæaPi)alsMrab;RKb;RKgbeNþaHGasnñcapital goods TMnij mUlFn¼CaTun cargo navaPNÐ/ TMnijdwktamnava/ nava¬TMnijsMrab;plitTMnijepSg²eTot¦ ¬dwkTMnij¦/ ~ documents ÉksarsMrab;capital intensive RbBlvb,kmµedImTun kardwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij¬EdleRbITun¼m:asIuneRcIn¦ cargo list bBa¢ITMnijdwkCBa¢Úncapital levy Bn§elIRTBübuKÁl cargo outturn report r)aykarN_erITMnijcapital loss (accounting) tMélxVH carriage forward éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;edaycapital market pSarTun GñkTTYlcapital movement clnaTun/ karepÞrTun carriage paid éfødwkCBa¢Únbg;edayGñkepJIcapital productivity plitPaBénTun carried forward (accounting) eyageTAcapital reserves TunbMrug ¬]> eyageTATMB½rmYyeTotnUvtYelxbUksrubcugcapital revenue cMNUlCamUlFn snøwkbBa¢IKNenyü¦capital, authorised TunGtibrimaEdlRtUv carrying value (accounting))anGnuBaØat[manenAkñúgRkumh‘un/ TuncuHbBa¢I tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyücapital, frozen mUlFnpw¥b cartel n. karEtl/ shRkumh‘uncapital, risk (venture capital) case study karsikSakrNI ¬rW krNIsikSa¦TunvinieyaKpSgeRKaHfñak; cash 1> ebLa ¬RkdasR)ak; + R)ak;kak;¦capital, working TunbgVil/ 2> sac;R)ak; ¬ebLa + FnaKar¦/ ~ substitute 14
  • 22. Economic Lexicon Part 1CMnYssac;R)ak;3> rtnvtßú ¬KNenyü¦ cash reserves sac;R)ak;bMrugcash account 1>KNnIebLa 2>KNnIrtnvtßú cash voucher b½NÑcMNayebLacash advance R)ak;buerRbTan ¬R)ak;ebIkmun¦ cash with order (CWO) bg;R)ak;eBlcash against document (CAD) bBa¢aTijRbKl;R)ak;eBl)anTTYlÉksar cash-disbursement book esovePAcash book (CB) n. bBa¢IR)ak;ecjcUl cMNayR)ak;cash budget EpnkarcMNUlcMNaysac;R)ak; cashier ebLakr/ ebLaFikarcash credit NTansac;R)ak; cash-receipt book esovePAcMNUlR)ak;cash crop dMNaMlk;ykR)ak; casting vote sMelg]tþmanuPaBcash discount karlk;cuHéføtamkarbg;Ca ¬e)aHeqñat¦sac;R)ak; casual labourer BlkrGENþtcash down sale karlk;ykR)ak;Pøam ¬ry³eBlxøI¦¬Casac;R)ak; rW mUlb,Tanb½Rt b:uEnþminyk casualty at sea mhnþrayenAsmuRTb½NÑNTaneT¦ cataclysm n. mhavinascash economy esdækic©eRbIR)ak;kas catalogue kataLúk ¬esovePAbgðaj rUb¼vtßúcash flow lMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ analysis epSg²¦karviPaKlMhUrsac;R)ak;/ ~ statement catalyst katalIkr/ ~ role tYnaTICakatalIkrr)aykarN_lMhUrsac;R)ak; ¬bnSúI/ CMruj¦cash in on eqøótykcMeNjBIelI catchment area EdnrgTwkePøógcash in hand (GB), cash on hand catalyse v. bnSúI ¬Kña¦/ BenøÓn(US) sac;R)ak;kñúg ebLa¼éd/ ebLa categorisation of goods karkMNt;cash in/with bank sac;R)ak;enAFnaKar RbePTTMnijcash on delivery (COD) RbKl;TMnij category RbePT/ BYk/ EpñkRbKl;R)ak;/ bg;R)ak;eBlTTYlTMnij causal sehtu ¬EdlR)ab;BIkarTak;Tgehtucash over and short R)ak;elIsxVH nigpl¦¬bnþicbnþÜckñúgebLa¦ CD-ROM suIDIr:mcash paid book esovePAsgR)ak; ceiling price éføGtibrma/ éføx<s;bMputcash price éfølk; ¬efak¦ Kittamkarbg; celebrity n. Gñkl,IeQµaHCasac;R)ak; census 1> karCMerOn ¬RbCaCn¦/cash rebate cMnYncuHéføeGaytamkarbg;Ca ~ sample KMrUtagCMerOn/ 15
  • 23. Economic Lexicon Part 12> r)ab; ¬karrab;¦ chairman RbFan/ ~ of the meetingcensus-enumeration area tMbn;rab; RbFanGgÁRbCMu/ GFibtIbBa©ÚlCMerOn challenge bBaðaRbQmcentral kNþal/ mCÄwm/ ~ administration chamber of commerce sPaBaNiC¢kmµrdæ)al mCÄwm¼kNþal chance of selection P½BVénCMerIscentral bank FnaKarkNþal change 1> bMErbMrYl/ karpøas;bþÚr/ sm,rivtþn_/centralisation mCÄkar 2> R)ak;Gab;/ ~ fund R)ak;Gab;centralised eFVImCÄkar/ ~ economy channel Rckesdækic©mCÄkar/ ~ record kMNt;RtamCÄkar/ chaos PaBRcbUkRcbl;~ system RbB½n§mCÄkar chapter CMBUkcentrally planned economy esdækic© character critEpnkarRbmUlpþúM charge bnÞúk/ bnÞúkcMNay/ éfø ¬RtUvbg;¦ceramics kulalPaCn_/ ceramic product charge v. a commission ykkMéreCIgsarplitplkulalPaCn_ charge/credit account KNnIeCOcertificate viBaØabnb½Rt/ ~ of approval ¬GtifiCnGacykrbs;EdlxøÜnTij edaybg;lixitGnuBaØat/ ~ of processing viBaØabnb½Rt R)ak;TUTat;smtulüKNnIenAéf¶eRkay¦bBa¢ak;plitkmµ/ ~ of deposit viBaØabnb½Rt charges, overhead bnÞúkcMNayTUeTAbeBaØI¼ epJIR)ak;/ ~ of origin viBaØabnb½Rt charity sb,úrsFm’/ kuslkic©RbPBedImTMnij/ ~ of quality viBaØabnb½Rt chart tarag/ KMnUssißti/ EpnTI/ BinÞúerxIy/ bøg;/bBa¢ak;KuNPaB/ ~ of quarantine viBaØabnb½Rt organisation ~ GgÁkarelx/ sale ~ KMnUsBinitüeraKqøg/ ~ of registration viBaØabnb½Rt taglk;/ ~ of accounts taragKNnI/ ~ ofGnusidæ/ ~ of weight viBaØabnb½RtTMgn; general accounting bøg;KNenyüTUeTAcertified cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rtr:ab;rg charter 1> FmµnuBaØ 2> lkçnþik³ (US)edayFnaKar rWmUlb,TanbR½tFanacMNay charter plane ynþehaHCYldwkBiesscertified public accountant (US) ¬eCIgehaHehIrmineTogTat;¦KNenyükrrdæTTYlsÁal; chattel mortgage (US) karbBa©aMRTBücessation karQb;/ ~ of business sm,tþipÞal;xøÜnkarbBaÄb;GaCIvkmµ check karRtYtemIl/ karEqkeqr/ ]bsKÁ/cession n. Gnub,Tan/ karRbKl;eGay karbg¥g;/ put a ~ on imports bg¥g;karnaMcUl¬]> kat;eGayeTAm©as;bMNul¦ check v. the accounts BinitüKNnIceteris paribus (other things being checkoff RbB½n§kat;R)ak;dak;shCIBedayequal) GVIepSgeTotenAdEdl nieyaCk 16
  • 24. Economic Lexicon Part 1checks and balances karRtYtemIl nig circulation cracr/ ~ of capital cracr¼føwgGMNac karbgVil Tun/ ~ of goods cracrTMnijcheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt/ bouncing/dud/ citizen Blrdærubber ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtKµanR)ak; ¬RKb;RKan; civics viC¢anaTIBlrdæ/ elaknItikñúgKNnI¦/ blank ~ mUlb,Tanb½RtcMh/ cash civil suIvil/ ~ disobedience karbdiesFa ~ ebIkR)ak;elImUlb,Tanb½Rt/ crossed ~ c,ab;rdæ/ ~ law c,ab;rdæb,evNI/ ~ libertymUlb,TanbR½tqUt ¬eRbIsMrab;EtbBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúg esrIPaBénBlrdæ/ ~ servant m®nþIraCkarsuIvilKNnI¦/ dishonoured ~ mUlb,TanbR½tKµan ¬tamFmµtaminrab;bBa©ÚlTahaneT¦/R)ak;kñúgKNnI/ traveller’s ~ mUlb,Tanb½Rt ~ society sgÁmsuIvileTscrN_¼eFVIdMeNIr/ open/ uncrossed ~ civil status GRtanukUldæan/ ~ bookmUlb,TanbR½ttmanqUt ¬bBa©ÚlR)ak;kñúgKNnI esovePAGRtanukUldæan/ certificate of ~k¾)an ebIkR)ak;k¾)an¦/ ~ book esovePA sMbuRtGRtanukUldæanmUlb,TanbR½t/ ~ to bearer mUlb,Tanb½Rt civilian n. & adj. 1> CnsuIvilKµaneQµaH/ ~ crossed specially mUlb,TanbR½t 2>énCnsuIvilqUtBiess ¬Ca mUlb,Tanb½RtEdlbBa¢ak;lGtMi claim 1> NeTyü ¬R)ak;eKCMBak;¦/ ~ onbEnßmnUvlkçxNÐ epSg²dUcCa eQµaHFnaKarrbs; the government NeTyüelIrdæaPi)alGñkTTYlCaedIm¦/ ~ stubs Kl;mUlb,TanbR½t/ 2> kar tv:a¼TamTar 3> karGHGag~ voucher b½NÑcMNaymUlb,Tanb½Rt claim v. compensation TamTarsMNgchronic ruaMér:/ ~ unemployment PaBGt; karxUcxat¼R)ak;b:Hb:UvkargareFVIraMuér: claimant GñkTamTar/ edImecaTchronological order tamlMdab;éf¶Ex/ clarify v. bMPøWlMdab;erogtamkal class 1> fñak;/ vNѳ/ social ~ vNѳsgÁm/CIF (cost, insurance, freight) economy/business/first ~ fñak;eGkUnUmI¼éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún CMnYj¼elxmYy ¬fñak;ekAGIynþehaHdwkcircular saracr GñkdMeNIr¦circular adj. EdlepJIeTAbuKÁlCaeRcIn/ classical Ebbkøasuik/ ~ view TsSn³Ebb~ letter of credit b½NÐNTanepJIeTARKb;saxa køasuik/ ~ economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©køasIuk¬énFnaKarEdlecjva¦ classification cMNat;fñak;/ system of ~circular systematic sampling RbB½n§eFVIcMNat;fñak;karykKMrUtagCaRbB½n§vil classify v. cat;fñak;/ eFVIcMNat;fñak;circulating capital TunbgVil clause 1> lkçxNÐ/ ~ of a contract 17
  • 25. Economic Lexicon Part 1lkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ 2> x ¬]> xTI1/ xTI2>>>¦/ close v. an account biTKNnIspecial ~ xviessénc,ab;/ terminate ~ x ¬eFVI[KNnImansmtulüsUnü¦bBa©b;kic©snüa close company Rkumh‘unbiTCitclaw back v. R)ak;dkykmkvij ¬Gñkkan;kab;PaKh‘unmanticnak;Nas;¦clean adj. s¥at/ ~ development closed economy esdækic©biTCitmechanism ynþkarGPivDÆn_s¥ats¥M ¬rdæRtYtRtatwgruwgelIBaNiC¢kmµ nighirBaØvtßú¦clean bill of health viBaØabnb½RtbBa¢ak; closing entries elxnabiTbBa¢IsuxPaBl¥ closing price éføTMnijeBlehobbiThagclean bill of lading b½NÑpÞúkTMnij RtwmRtUv closing rate GRtabiT¬KµankMNt;RtaBITMnijxus¼xUceT¦ ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak;eBlbiTRbtibtþikarRbcaMéf¶¦clean collection EbbEpnTUTat;BaNiC¢kmµ closing the books karbiTbBa¢IKµanP¢ab;Éksar ¬KWeyagelIlixitCMBak;R)ak; club køib/ regional industry ~ køibb¤mUlb,TanbR½tEdleFVItamry³FnaKar¦ ]sSahkmµtMbn;clear v. a cheque dak;mUlb,Tanb½Rt cluster kBa©úMeGayRbB½n§FnaKarcat;karepÞrR)ak; clustering of elements smasFaturYmCakBa©úMclear v. goods through customs coaching karbgVwk/ karbgðat;bMeBjEbbbTKy ¬edIm,InaMcUl b¤naMecjTMnij¦ co-chair shRbFanclear profit R)ak;cMeNjsuT§ co-creditor n. shNTaykclearance certificate code Rkm/ commercial ~ RkmBaNiC¢kmµ/b½NÑRtYtBinitürbs;Ky ~ of conduct/ethics RkmsIlFm’clearance inwards TMnijEdlKyXat;Tuk code kUd/ elxkUdclearance outwards TMnijEdlputBIKyBinitü co-defendant shcugecaTclearance sale karlk;LayLúgbegðIysþúk coding kardak;elxkUdclearing account KNnIpat;Tat; coefficient of variation emKuNbMErbMrYlclearing bank FnaKarTUTat; cognitive level kMrityl;dwgclearing house (banking) sPapat;Tat; coherence PaBrlUn/ PaBsuIKñaclearing the arrears eFVIkarTUTat;R)ak; cohesion karrYmsM)ac;/ karrYbrYmKña/ siniT§BlEdlBMuTan;)ansg ¬kMlaMgpSarP¢ab;Kña¦clerk esµón/ bank ~ buKÁlikFnaKar coin n. & v. 1>R)ak;kas 2>e)aHR)ak;kasclientele n. Gtifita ¬GtifiCnTaMgGs; coincidence n. karKab;CYn/ Ékb,harPaBrbs;hagNamYy¦ collaboration kic©shkarclinic KøInik collate v. 1> RbmUlB½t’manmkBinitü 18
  • 26. Economic Lexicon Part 1eRbobeFob 2> erobcMtamlMdab; ¬Éksar¦ commercial BaNiC¢/ énBaNiC¢kmµ/ non ~collateral loan kMcImanrbs; bBa©aM¼dak;Fana bank FnaKarGBaNiC¢/ ~ aircraft ynþehaHcollateral vtßú bBa©aM¼dak;Fana/ sc©karP½NÐ CMnYj ¬dwkGñkdMeNIr rWTMnij¦/ ~ attachécolleague shesvik GnuB½n§BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ bank FnaKarBaNiC¢/collect v. payment Tar ¬RbmUlR)ak;¦ ~ bill rUbiyaNtþi/ ~ court tulakarBaNiC¢kmµ/collecting agent/bank Pñak;gar¼FnaKar ~ credit NTanBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ dealingRbmUlR)ak; esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ enterprise shRKascollecting charges esah‘uyCYyRbmUlR)ak; BaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ impracticability GRbtibtiþPaBcollection smuc©½y/ karRbmUl/ karTar/ debt BaNiC©kmµ/ ~ invoice vikáybRtBaNiC¢kmµ/~ agency TIPñak;garTarbMNul/ ~ of stamps ~ paper RkdassñamBaNiC¢kmµ/ lixitTTYlkarsnSMTukEtm/ debit ~ karRbmUlbMNul CMBak;/ ~ port kMBg;EpBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ registercollective CasmUhPaB/ rYm/ ~ bargaining bBa¢IBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ traveller tMNagBaNiC¢kmµ/karcrcarCa rYm¼smUhPaB/ ~ farm ksidæanrYm/ ~ usage TMenomTMlab;BaNiC¢kmµshkrN_ksikr/ ~ ownership kmµsiT§irYm/ commercialisation BaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµ~ work sñaédCasmUhPaB commercialise v. eFVIBaNiC¢PavUbnIykmµcollectivity smUhPaB commission 1> kMéreCIgsar/ ~ agentcollectivisation smUhPavUbnIykmµ Pñak;garTTYlkMéreCIgsar/ ~ buyer/sellercollector n. GñkRbmUl/ farm produce ~ Pñak;gartMNag Tij¼lk;/ ~ sale karlk;ykGñkRbmUlTijplitplksikmµ/ money ~ kMéreCIgsar 2> KN³kmµkarGñkRbmUlR)ak; commitment karebþCJa ¬karsnüadac;Nat;¦column xÞg;/ xÞg;bBaÄr ¬tarag¦ committed credit (state budget)combine KYbpSM/ lay/ ~ business and NTanP¢ab;snüa ¬fvikardæ¦pleasure KYbpSMCamYyKñanUvBaNiC¢kmµ nigkarkMsanþ committee KN³kmµaFikar/ standing ~combustion n. cMehH ¬kareqH¦ KN³kmµaFikarGcié®nþy_/ ~ of inspectioncome v. into effect/force cUlCaFrman KN³kmµaFikarRtYtBinitü/ steering ~come v. into line RBmeRBogCamYyKña KN³kmµaFikar dwknaMkargar¼naykcome v. to an agreement QaneTAdl; commodity plitpl ¬EdleKlk;¼Tijkic©RBmeRBog eRcIn²CaBiess vtßúFatuedIm niges,óg¦/comfort pasukPaB/ letter of ~ lixitKaMRT ~ accounts KNnIplitplRKwHsßansaxa ¬kñúgkarrkx©IR)ak;¦ Common Effective Preferentialcommerce BaNiC¢kmµ Tariff (CEPT) taragGnueRKaHBn§Kyman 19
  • 27. Economic Lexicon Part 1 RbsiT§iPaBrYm smtßkic©/ ~ party PaKImansmtßkic©common property resources (CPR) competing lines muxTMnijRbkYtRbECgFnFanRTBürYm competition karRbkYtRbECg/ sarmÖ/ freecommon sense suPnicä½y ~ karRbkYtRbECgesrIcommon stock PaKh‘unsamBaØ competitive EdlRbECg/ ~ advantagecommonwealth shFn ¬RkumrdæFøab; ]tþmPaBRbECg/ ~ examinationenAkñúgcRkPBGg;eKøs¦/ ~ of independent karRblgRbECg/ ~ market pSarRbkYtRbECg/states shFnrdæÉkraCü ~ price éføRbkYtRbECgcommunication karR)aRs½yTak;Tg/ competitiveness PaBRbkYtRbECg/~ of information KmnaKmn_B½t’man PaBedjeCIgKñacommunist adj. kumµúynisþ competitor GñkRbECg ¬éfø/ TIpSar>>¦community property RTBürYmsM)ac; compile v. cgRkgbþIRbBn§ ¬Cam©as;rYmKña¦ complain v. t¥ÚjEt¥r/ tv:acompany Rkumh‘un/ affiliated (or complainant Gñkbþwgtv:aassociated) ~ Rkumh‘unbuRtsm<½næ/ joint complaint bNþwg/ BakübNþwgstock ~ Rkumh‘unGanamik/ limited liability complementary EdlbMeBj[KñaeTAmk~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvmanx½NÐsIma/ ~ union completion karbBa©b;/ karbegðIy/ ~ of ashPaBRkumh‘un/ subsidiary ~ Rkumh‘unsaxa/ contract karbBa©b;kic©snüaunlimited ~ Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvKµankMNt;/ complex adj. misSPaK ¬sµúKsµaj¦~ promoter sßabnikRkumh‘un/ trading ~ superiority ~ esyümanH/ inferiority ~Rkumh‘unBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ies act c,ab;Rkumh‘un hInmanH/ complexity misSPaBcomparative advantage ]tþmPaB complex business plan bøg;GaCIvkmµeRbobeFob sµúKsµajcompatibility smitPaB ¬PaBcUlKñacuH¦ complex multi-stage design bøg;eRcIncompatriot CnrYmCati dMNak;minsamBaØcompensating errors el¥ógb:Hb:UvKña complexity PaBsµúKsµaj/ PaBsaMjúaMcompensation karb:Hb:Uv/ sMNg compliance with, in RsbCamYycompensatory financing facility (CFF) complicate v. eFVIeGaysµúKsµaj]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;b:Hb:UvxaghirBaØvtßú complicity karcUlédcompete v. RbkYtRbECg complimentary 1> EdlsesIrcompetent adj. mansmtßkic©/ 2> EdleGayTeT ¬tKitéfø¦mansmtßPaB/ ~ authority GaCJaFrman comply Rbtibtþitam/ eFVItam 20
  • 28. Economic Lexicon Part 1component smasPaK/ FatupSM ¬edIm,IsMerceKaledAGVImYy¦composition smasPaB concerted economic action skmµPaBcompound entry elxnapÁúM esdækic©manvKÁmanesñI¬elxnamaneRbIcab;BIbIKNnIeLIgeTA¦ concession sm,Tan/ forest ~ sm,Tancompound growth vDÆnPaBsmas éRBeQI/ ~ holder sm,Tanik/ social land ~compound interest karR)ak;smas sm,TandIsgÁmkic©/ price ~ sm,Tanéføcomprehensive adj. RKb;RCugeRCay/ concessionaire sm,Tanik/ forest ~TUlMTUlay/ ~ analysis karviPaKRKb;RCugeRCay éRBsm,Tanikcompromise karRsuHRsYl concessional, concessionary Edlcomptroller GñkRtYtBinitüxaghirBaØvtßú pþl;sm,Tan¼GnueRKaH/ ~ loan kMcIpþl;compulsory CakatBVkic©/ Edlxanmin)an/ sm,Tan/ ~ terms lkçxNÐsm,Tan~ inspection GFikarkic©CakatBVkic© conciliate v. pSHpSacomputable EdlGacKNna)an conclusion n. snñidæan/ Gvsankfacomputer virus vIrus¼visaNU kMuBüÚT½r ¬PaKbBa©b;énr)aykarN_¦comrade n. smmitþ/ shCIvin/ BYkm:ak concrete measure viFankarCak;Esþgconceal v. lak;elom concurrence 1> karyl;RBm/ karÉkPaBconcealment karlak;elom 2>karekItdMNalKña ¬RBwtþikarN_¦concentration karRbmUlpþúM/ land ~ condition lkçxNÐ/ working ~ lkçxNÐkarRbmUlpþúMdIFøI/ ~ level of a substance eFVIkargar/ ~ precedent lkçxNÐbegáItkMritkMhab;énsarFatu katBVkic©/ ~ subsequent lkçxNÐbBa©b;concept eKalKMnit/ TsSnaTan katBVkic©conception TsSnaTan conditional edaymanlkçxNÐ/ ~conceptual error el¥ógEpñkTsSnaTan acceptance karTTYlRBmedaymanlkçxNÐconceptualise v. KitKUrbegáItfµI conditionality PaBmanlkçxNÐconcern kgVl;/ RBYy)armÖ/ business ~ conducive to GMeNaypldl;RKwHsßan ¬CMnYj¦/ his business is a going conduct kiriyamayaT/ karRbRBwtþi¬xøÜn¦~ muxCMnYjrbs;Kat;kMBugdMeNIrkareTAmux conduct v. & n. 1> dwknaM/ eFVI/ dMeNIrkar¬nigmancMeNj¦ 2> ~ of business kic©dMeNIrkareFVIGaCIvkmµconcerned EdlBak;B½n§/ ~ ministry conference snñisITRksYgBak;B½n§ confession n. karsarPaB/ sc©avIkrN_concert, act in v. eFVIskmµPaBrYmKña confidential sMgat; 21
  • 29. Economic Lexicon Part 1confirmation karbBa¢ak;/ ~ of order consistency 1> sgÁtPaB/ PaBsuIKñakarbBa¢ak;nUvkarbBa¢aTij/ ~ of price karbBa¢ak;éfø 2> PaBminpøas;bþÚrconfirmed letter of credit consolidated (information) ¬B½t’man¦sarNTanGnusiT§i Rc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñaconfirming bank FnaKarbBa¢ak; consolidated balance sheet taragconfiscate rwbGUs ¬ykRTBü¦/ dkhUt tulükarsrub¬bUkcUlEfmnUvbuRtsm<½n§>>>¦conflict TMnas;/ ~ of interest TMnas;pl consolidation of balance sheetsRbeyaCn_ karRc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñanUvtaragtulükarconfrontation n. karRbTl;muxKña/ consortium kugs½rsüÚm/ smaKmsmµúxIkmµ/ ~ meeting karRbCMuTl;muxKña conspiracy n. karKitk,t;/ shk,dconfusing RcLMbl;/ gayP½nþRcLM ¬karrYmKMnitk,t;¦confusion karP½nþRcLM/ karRcLMbl;/ constant efr/ ~ price éføefrkarRcbUkRcbl; constituency mCÄdæanGñkKaMRT/ mNÐle)aHeqñatconglomerate Rkumh‘unBhuplitpl constitution rdæFmµnuBaØconscience mnsikar Constitutional Council RkumRbwkSaFmµnuBaØconscientious Edlmanmnsikar/ Edlyk constitutionality FmµnuBaØPaBcitþTukdak; constraint kMhit ¬]bsKÁ¦consensus karmUlmti/ kugsg;s‘us constructive CalkçN³ksag/ ~ criticismconsent v. & n. 1> RBm 2> karyl;RBm karTietonCalkçN³ksagconsequential EdlCavi)ak consultancy karpþl;eyabl;ÉkeTsconservation GPirkS/karrkSa/ ~ of consultant GñkBieRKaHeyabl;nature GPirkSFmµCati/ soil ~ GPirkSdI consultation karBieRKaHeyabl;conservative adj. GPirkS Consultative Group (CG)consideration karBicarNa/ under ~ kMBug RkumBieRKaHeyabl;BinitüBicarNa consumables vtßúFatueRbIR)as;consignee GñkTTYlTMnij consume v. eRbIR)as; ¬es,ógGahar/ n§n³>>>¦consignee’s account, all charges to consumer GñkeRbIR)as;/ ~ basket k®nþkral;esah‘uycMNayCabnÞúkrbs;GñkTTYlTMnij TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ credit NTansMrab;Tijconsignment n. 1> karbBa¢ÚnTMnij/ TMnijeRbIR)as;/ ~ goods TMnijeRbIR)as;/~ note lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij 2> GIv:an;mYyRkum ~ price éføTMnijeRbIR)as; ¬éfølk;ray¦/¬]>mYykugtWn½r¦EdlbBa¢ÚneTA ~ price index (CPI) snÞsSn_éføTMnijeRbIconsignor GñkbBa¢ÚnTMnij R)as;/ ~ surplus plcMeNjénGñkeRbIR)as; 22
  • 30. Economic Lexicon Part 1consumption kareRbIR)as;/ ~ expenditures contract v. out of an agreement dk b¤cMNayeRbIR)as;/ home (domestic) ~ kareRbI lubkic©snüa ¬edaymankaryl;RBmCaR)as;kñúgRsuk/ ~ curve ExSekageRbIR)as; laylkçN_GkSrBIPaKImçageTot¦contact karCYbTak;Tg/ ~ person mnusS contract v. 1> cuHkic©snüa 2> rYmcuH ¬esdækc©¦ isMrab;CYbTak;Tg contract, under Cab;kic©snüa/ eRkamkic©snüacontainer kugtWn½r ¬pÞúkTMnij¦ contracting party PaKIcuHkic©snüacontemporary shkal/ shsm½y contractor GñkcuHkic©snüa/ Gñkem:Akar/contempt karemIlgay/ ~ of court sub-contractor Gñkem:AkarbnþkarRbmaftulakar contractual business GaCIvkmµQrelIcontent 1> xøwmsar 2> matika kic©snüacontest n. karRbECg/ karRbkYt/ contradiction bdivaTkmµ/ PaBpÞúyKña~ a decision CMTas;tva:nwgesckþIsMerc contradictory EdlpÞúyKñacontext bribT/ brikarN_ contrast n. PaBpÞúyKña/ Bütierkcontingency yfaPaB/ kartRBagTuk/ contra-transfer cuHbRBa©as/ eFVIRbtiRkanþ~ beneficiary GtßKahkCayfaehtu/ elxna~ plan EpnkarTukGnuvtþCayfaehtu contravene v. elµIs/ bMBancontingent adj. GaRs½yelI ¬RBwtþikarN_GVI contribute v. rYmviPaKTan/ rYmcMENkmYyEdlGacekIteLIg rWminekIteLIg¦/ Gnimitþ contribution viPaKTan/ karrYmcMENk/continuity nirnþrPaB ~ in kind viPaKTanCasMPar³continuous adj. bnþrhUt/ bnþCab; control v. RtYtBinitü/ RtYtRtacontra account KNnIbdiPaK controllable expenses cMNayRKb;RKg)ancontra entry elxnabRBa©as controlled selection CMerIsmankarRtYtBinitü¬edIm,IlubecalnUvelxnamun¦ controller GñkRtYtBinitücontraband TMnijrt;Bn§ controlling interest, have acontraception karbgáarkMeNIt mancMENkPaKh‘unRtYtRta ¬KWmanelIsBIcontract kic©snüa/ ~ of insurance 50°énPaKh‘unsrubrbs;Rkumh‘un¦kic©snüaFanar:ab;rg/ ~ of sale kic©snüalk;/ controversy vaTb,divaT ¬rW vaTRbtivaT rW~ of work kic©snüakargar karCECkrkxusRtUvCasaFarN³¦contract (public) employee contumacy n. TudæPaBbuKÁlik¬rdæ¦Cab;kic©snüa ¬karminRBmcUlxøÜneTAtulakar¦contract law c,ab;kic©snüa convenience food Gaharevcx©b;Rsab; 23
  • 31. Economic Lexicon Part 1¬EdlRsYl erobcM¼cMGin¦ Tak;TgxagCMnYj/ lixiteqøIyqøgGaCIvkmµconvention 1> GnusBaØa 2> snñi)at correspondent bank FnaKareqøIiyqøg3> snµtikmµ¼karsnµt corridor rebog/ Efv/ economic ~conversation karsnÞna/ snÞnakar rebogesdækic©conversion karbþÚr/ ~ price/rate GRtabþÚr corroborate v. bBa¢ak;¼GHGag bEnßm/¬edIm,IKitbþÚrrUbiyvtßúmYyeTACarUbiyvtßúbreTs¦ eFVIbmaNIykrN_convertible currency rUbiyvtßúEdlGac corruption n. GMeBIBukrlYybþÚrykrUbiyvtßúepSg)an cost 1> tMél 2> briyaTan 3> éføedImconveyance 1> karepÞr ¬kmµsiT§i¦ 4> bnÞúkcMNay/ cMNay2> ÉksarepÞr cost accounting KNenyüéføedIm/convict TNÐit ¬GñkCab;Bn§naKar¦ KNenyüviPaKcooperate v. eFVIshRbtibtþikar cost and freight (C & F)cooperative adj. & n. éføTMnijbUkéfødwkCBa¢Ún1> EdleFVIshRbtibtþikar 2> shkrN_ cost of goods sold or cost of salescoordinates niyamkar ¬ry³TTwg¼ry³beNþay¦ éføedImTMnijlk;ecjco-owner, co-proprietor shkmµsiT§ikr/ cost of living éføRTRTg;CIvPaBm©as;kmµsiT§irYmKña cost price éføedImco-ownership shkmµsiT§i cost, historical tMélTijcUlco-property RTBüsm,tiþrYmKña cost, insurance, freight (CIF)copyright siT§icMlg/ rkSasiT§i éføTMnijbUkéføFanar:ab;rgbUkéfødwkCBa¢Úncore sñÚl/ ~ budget fvikasñÚl/ ~ funding cost, manufacturing éføedImplitkmµmUlniFisñÚl/ ~ resources FnFansñÚl cost-benefit analysis karviPaKcMNaycorn n. (US) eBat/ baby ~ esñóteBat ¬bEnø¦ nigplcMeNjcorporate state rdæshRKin cost-effective adj. EdlmanRbsiT§PaBcorporation saCIvkmµ/ multinational ~ cMNaysaCIvkmµBhuCati/ ~ tax (GB) Bn§elIR)ak; costing karKNnaéføedImcMeNjRkumh‘un Council of Ministers TIsþIkarKN³rdæm®nþIcorrect adj. RtwmRtUv counter bBa¢rcorrelated response variance v:arIy:g; counter party bdiPaKIcMelIyTak;Tin counter valuation bdiekaslvic©½ycorrelation shsm<½n§/ TMnak;TMng counterbalance v. raMgxÞb;T§iBlcorrespondence, business karsresr countermand bdiesFbgÁab;munecal/ 24
  • 32. Economic Lexicon Part 1ecjRbtiGaNtþi credit bank FnaKarNTancounter-offer kareGayéføelI ¬edIm,IRbECgTij¦ credit bureau kariyal½ypþl;B½t’mancounterpart smPaKI BIkitþinam ¬énshRKas>>>¦counterpart adj. bdiPaK/ ~ entry credit in kind NTanvtßú ¬minEmnCaR)ak;¦elxnabdiPaK/ ~ fund mUlniFibdiPaK credit institution sßab½nNTancounter-revolution n. Rbtibdivtþn_ credit market TIpSarNTancountry report r)aykarN_sþIBIRbeTs credit n. & adj. & v. 1> NTancountry-representative office 2> NTayI 3> kt;RtaxagNTankariyal½ytMNagRbcaMRbeTs credit plus NTanbUk ¬NTanEdlcountry-risk analysis karviPaKeRKaHRbeTs KitKUrTaMgkarCYyCaR)ak;kas nigbec©keTs¦coupe, forest éRBKub credit rating cMNat;fñak;NTan/court clerks RkLabBa¢I smtßPaBsgbMNulrbs;Gñkx©Icourt or lawcourt sala kat;kþI¼CMrHkþI credit restrictions kMhiténNTancovenant karRBmeRBogCapøÚvkar credit risk haniP½yénNTancover note (insurance) kMNt;sMGag credit sale karlk;eCO¬Fanar:ab;rg¦ credit slip b½NÑsMeNANTan/ skçIb½Rtcover price éføelIRkb ¬éfølk;raycuHelI NTanRkbesovePA/ TsSnavdþI >>>¦ credit solvency lT§PaBsgbMNulcover, banking R)ak;Fana credit status CMhrNTancover, full (insurance) b½NÑFanar:ab;rgelI credit terms lkçxNÐNTanhaniP½yRKb;RbePT credit worthiness PaBKYr)anTTYlNTancover, temporary (insurance) credit worthy borrower Gñkx©IR)ak;b½NÑFanar:ab;rgbeNþaHGasnñ EdlKYreGayTukcitþcoverage kar¼TMhM RKbdNþb; credit, open NTanKµandak;vtßúFana¬]> edayb½NÑFanar:ab;rg¦ ¬sMrab;GtifiCnl¥rbs;FnaKar¦craftsmanship n. htßekaslü credit, tax NTanBn§creation n. karbegáIt/ mabnkmµ/ nimiµtkmµ/ credit, trade NTanCMnYj ¬pþl;[shRKasmabnvtßú manTMnak;TMngCMnYjCamYyKña¦creative thinking KMnitécñRbDit creditor NTayk/ m©as;bMNulcreativity KMnitécñRbDit credulity n. PaBgayeCO/ sT§aluPaBcredibility PaBKYr[eCO/ kitþinam creeping inflation GtiprNasnSwm² 25
  • 33. Economic Lexicon Part 1crime bTelµIsRBhµT½NÐ currency operation RbtibtþikarelIcriteria, criterion lkçN³vinicä½y rUbiyvtßú ¬dUcCakarbþÚrR)ak;CaedIm ¦crop n. dMNaM/ pldMNaM/ supplementary ~ current account or checkingdMNaMrYmpSM account (US) KNnIcrnþcross check epÞógKñaeTAvijeTAmk current adj. crnþ/ ~ expenditures cMNaycrnþcross class fñak;qøg current assets RTBüskmµ crnþ¼cl½tcross rate, exchange cross rate current liabilities RTBüGkmµcrnþGRtabþÚrrUbiyb½NÑepÞógpÞat; ¬GRtabþÚrR)ak; current price éføcrnþ/ éføbc©úb,nñ/ ~ listeFobtam rUbiyvtßúTI3 dUcCa duløar¦ taragéføcrnþcross border (trade) qøgkat;RBMEdn current revenue cMNUlcrnþ¬BaNiC¢kmµ¦ ¬cMNUlCaRbcaM kñúgÉksarxøH¦crossed cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtqUt current account holder m©as;KNnIcrnþcross-examine v. karsYrbBa¢ak;sakSI current market rate GRtaéføTIpSarRbcaMéf¶epÞógpÞat;nwgcMelIyeBlmun curtailment karkat;bnßycross-voting n. kare)aHeqñateGayKNbkS curve ExSekag/ aggregate supply ~epSg ¬minEmnKNbkSxøÜn¦ ExSekagpÁt;pÁg;srubcrude oil eRbgeqA custody (keeping) karrkSaTukculprit n. BiruT§ikCn custom of the port (COP)cultivated land dIdaMduH TMenomTMlab;Epculture vb,Fm’/ ~ of impunity vb,Fm’ custom-built/made ksag¼eFVI BiessrYceTas sMrab;GtifiCnNamñak;cumulated list bBa¢IbUkRtYt customer GtifiCncurb v. Tb;sáat; customs house TIcat;karKycurfew bMrameKacr customs Ky/ ~ agent Pñak;garKy/currency rUbiyvtßú/ hard ~ rUbiyvtßúxøaMg ~ Department TIcat;karKynigrdæakr/¬rbs;RbeTsmanesdækic©maMmYn niggaybþÚr ~ breach bTelµIsc,ab;Ky/ ~ declarationykrUbiyvtßúepSgeTot¦/ soft ~ rUbiyvtßúexSay RbtievTn_Ky/ ~ examination karRtYtBinitücurrency in circulation rUbiyvtßúkñúgcracr énPñak;garKy/ ~ frontier RBMEdnKy/currency of account rUbiyvtßúykmkKitKUr ~ invoice vikáybRtKy/ ~ permit lixitcurrency of payment rUbiyvtßúTUTat; GnuBaØatBITIcat;karKy/ ~ regulationscurrency of the contract rUbiyvtßúén bTbBaØtþiKy/ ~ tariff taragBn§Ky/kic©snüa ~ territory tMbn;RtYtBinitüKy ¬tMbn;EdlKy 26
  • 34. Economic Lexicon Part 1Gactamcab;TMnij)an¦ date, interest to R)ak;karmkTl;bc©úb,nñcustoms broker buKÁl¼Rkumh‘un EdlnaM day éf¶/ settlement ~ éf¶TUTat;bBa¢I/ éf¶CMrHbBaI¢TMnijqøgkat;Ky ¬bMerIeGayRkumh‘undwkCBa¢Ún¦ day labourer BlkrsuIR)ak;éf¶/ TinikCncustoms duties (or dues) Bn§Ky day-release 1> éf¶rYcput ¬Bn§¦cycle vdþ/ suIkø/ xYb/ CMu/ ~ of poverty 2> RbB½n§EdlGnuBaØat[nieyaCitsMrakBIkargarvdþénPaBRkIRk edIm,IeronsURt DCB (Domestic Competitive Bidding) karedjéføedayRbkYtRbECgkñúgRsukD, d de facto tamkarCak;Esþg/ tamRBwtþin½y/ ~ management karRKb;RKgtamRBwtþin½ydaily RbcaMéf¶/ ~ sales return cMNUllk; de jure tampøÚvc,ab;RbcaMéf¶ dead account KNnIQb;eRbI/ KNnIgab;damage karxUcxat/ Gnþray/ ~ by dead loss karxatbg;srubseawater GnþrayedaysarTwksmuTÞ dead money R)ak;gab;/ R)ak;minykeTAeFVIdamages R)ak;sMNgcMeBaHkarxUcxat karrksuIdanger money R)ak;pþl;bEnßmsMrab;kargar dead season rdUvs¶b;skmµPaBmaneRKaHfñak; ¬]> rdUvlk;dUrminsUvdac;¦DARE (Demand and Resource deadline kalkMNt;/ kalbriecäTdl;kMNt;Evaluation) karvaytMélFnFan nigtMrUvkar deadlock PaBTal;Rck break the ~data Tinñn½y/ enter v. ~ bBa©ÚlTinñn½y TMlayPaBTal;Rckdata processing karcat;EcgTinñn½y dead-weight 1> TMgn;nicl/ TMgn;gab;database mUldæanTinñn½y ¬KµanCYybMerIkar¦data-collection stage dMNak;kalRbmUl deal karRBmeRBogxagCMnYj/ GabNsBaØa/Tinñn½y get a good ~ Tij)anefak/ package ~date kalbriecäT/ éf¶Ex/ interest to ~ karRBmeRBogCakBa©b;karR)ak;mkTl;bc©úb,nñ dealer BaNiC¢krdate a cheque forward cuHkalbriecäT dealership TMnak;TMngCMnYjpþac;muxGnaKtelImUlb,Tanb½Rt dealing karlk;dUrh‘unenApSarh‘un/ CMnYj,date of maturity éf¶dl;kMNt;sgR)ak;/ commercial ~ esdæBaNiC¢kmµ/ fair ~ CMnYjNRbtiTan/ Rsbc,ab;/ insider ~ karCYjdUrh‘unedaydate, by the due dl;éf¶kMNt; GñképÞkñúg ¬EdldwgB½t’mansMgat;BIRkumh‘un¦ 27
  • 35. Economic Lexicon Part 1dear éfø ¬pÞúynwgefak¦ decent smrmü/ ~ livelihood CIvPaBsmrmüdear money R)ak;x©ImanR)ak;karx<s; decentralisation n. vimCÄkardearth of investment kgVHvinieyaK decentralise v. eFVIvimCÄkar/ decentraliseddeath mrNPaB/ karsøab;/ ~ certificate power GMNacvimCÄkarsMbuRtmrNPaB/ ~ in service benefit deciding vote sMelg]tþmanuPaB ¬e)aHeqñat¦R)ak;bMNac;mrNPaB decile n. TsPaK ¬sßiti¦death rate GRtamrN³ decimal n. & adj. 1> elxTsPaKdebate karCECkedjedal ¬]> enAsPa¦ 2> TsPaKdebenture sBaØab½NÑ ¬ry³eBlEvg²¦/ decision esckþIsMerc/ ~ maker GñkeFVIlixitbMNul/ register of ~ bBa¢IeQµaHGñk esckþIsMerc/ ~ making kareFVIesckþIsMerc/kan;sBaØab½NÑrbs;Rkumh‘un/ ~ holder ~ tree KMnUsedImeQIénRbB½n§sMercGñkkan;sBaØab½NÑ declaration 1> kar¼esckþI Rbkasdebit n. & adj. & v. 1> NBn§ 2> lixitRbkas/ RbtievTn_/ customs ~2> Nayik 3> kt;RtaxagNBn§ RbtievTn_Ky/ tax ~ lixitRbkassareBIBn§debit/credit memorandum or declared value tMél)an Rbkas¼RbtievTn_debit/credit memo kMNt;ehtu NBn§¼ decline n. karFøak;cuHyWt²NTan b¤ Rbkas NBn§¼NTan declining balance method ofdebt bMNul/ ~ holder embMNul/ bad ~ depreciation viFIrMls;fyCalMdab;bMNul GaRkk;¼Bi)akTar/ doubtful ~ bMNul decoding karbkRsayelxkUdsgS½y/ irrecoverable ~ bMNulTarmin)an/ ¬ERbCaPasaFmµtavij¦~ crisis vibtþibMNul/ ~ ratio smaPaKbMNul/ deconcentration vishmCÄkarsecured/unsecured ~ bMNul man¼Kµan decrease karFøak;cuH/ karfycuH/ ~ in pricedak;RTBüFana karFøak;éfødebt-collection letter lixitTarR)ak; decree Rkwtüdebt-for-nature swaps bMNuledaHdUr de-dollarisation bdiduløarUbnIykmµnwgFmµCati deduct v. kat;kg/ pat;ecj/ after deductingdebtor kUnbMNul/ Nvnþ depreciation eRkay)anpat;rMls;decadence n. PaBcuHGab;»n/ GtßgÁt deductible adj. EdlGackat;kgecj/ taxdecapitalise n. dkTunecj ~ EdlGackat;kgecjBIcMNUlCab;Bn§deceased n. Gñksøab; deductive method viFITajehtupl/decennial population census viessanumanviFICMerOnRbCaCnRbcaMTsvtSr_ 28
  • 36. Economic Lexicon Part 1deed 1> kic©snüaCalaylkçN_GkSr deflator (GDP) snÞsSn_britþprNa ¬pss¦2> GMeBI ¬l¥ rW GaRkk;¦/ good ~ kuslkic© deforestation karkab;éRBeQI/ vivnkardeed of assignment lixitepÞrkmµsiT§ defrauder GñkbnøM ¬]> Bn§¦¬BIkUnbMNuleTAm©as;bMNul¦ defray ecjcMNayCYsdeed of conveyance lixitepÞrkmµsiT§i degradation TuBVlPaB/ karbBa©úHKuNPaBGclnRTBü del credere R)ak; ¬bUkbEnßmsMrab;¦default karxusqÁg/ karxVHxat/ karKµan FanakarTUTat;/ ~ clause RbkarFanaTUTat;/lT§PaBsg ~ commission kMéreCIgsarFanakarTUTat;default of acceptance karminTTYlRBm delay 1> karyWty:av/ ry³kalkMNt;defendant n. cugecaT yWty:av/ ~ in delivery karRbKl;yWty:av/deferred payments karsgR)ak;bNþak; 2> karBnüaeBl/ grant a ~ pþl;karBnüaeBl¬eRcInelIk¦ delegate power eFVIRbtiPUkmµGMNac/deferred share PaKh‘unEdlTTYlPaKlaP rMElkGMNac/ epÞrGMNaceRkayeK delegation 1> karepÞr ¬siT§iGMNac¦deferred/unearned revenue ¬R)ak;¦ 2> KN³RbtiPU deliberation karBiPakSaedjedalcMNUlTTYlmun ¬KWRtUveyageTAbBa©Úlkñúg delinquent adj. 1> hYskalkMNt;kariybriecäTeRkay²¦deficiency PaBminRKb;RKan;/ ~ in weight 2> min)anbMeBjkatBVkic©edayectna delinquent n. GnItiCnRbRBwtþelµIsPaBxVHTMgn; deliver v. RbKl;deficient reserves R)ak;bMrugxVH delivered at duty paid RbKl;enAkEnøgdeficient supply karpÁt;pÁg;mankgVHxatdeficit »nPaB/ balance of payments/ )anbg;Bn§ehIy delivered at frontier RbKl;enARBMEdntrade ~ »nPaBCBa¢Ij TUTat;¼BaNiC¢kmµ/ budget delivery karRbKl;/ ~ against payment~ »nPaBfvika/ meet v. a ~ bMeBj»nPaBdeficit financing hirBaØb,Tan»nPaB RbKl;TMnijeBlmankarTUTat;/ ~ order b½NÑdeflate the economy eFVIbritþprNa bBa¢aeGayRbKl;TMnij/ ~ by instalmentsesdækic© ¬tamry³karkat;bnßysac;R)ak;pÁt;pÁg; RbKl;TMnijtamdMNak;kal/ ~ note lixitrW cMNayrdæaPi)al¦ RbKl;TMnij ¬[eTAGtifiCn CamYyKñanwgTMnij¦ demagogue n. GñkbeBa©IcraRsþ/ RbCaPiftik³deflation britþprNa ¬sPaBkarN_TMnij demand tMrUvkar/ sMNUmBr/ ~ bill/draftcuHéføCaTUeTA ¦deflationary gap KMlatbritþprNa lixitbþÚrykR)ak; ¬eBlbgðajFnaKar¦/ 29
  • 37. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ curve ExSekagtMrUvkar/ ~ deposit R)ak; dependability PaBGacBwgBak;)anbeBaØIcrnþ/ ~ exceeds supply tMrUvkarelIs depletion karfycuHeRcIn²/ kareRbIGs;/ tnukmµkarpÁt;pÁg;/ ~ loan kMcIKµankalkMNt; depletive asset RTBüfycuHtamkareRbIR)as;¬eBlTarRtUvsg¦ deport v. nireTsdemand, to be in poor minsUvmantMrUvkar deposit R)ak;beBaØI/ nikçitP½NÐ/ certificate ofdemarcation (boundary) karkMNt; ~ RbkasnIyb½RtbeBaØI/ demand ~ R)ak;RBMRbTl; beBaØIcrnþ/ guaranteed ~ nikçitP½NÐFana/demilitarise v. dkT½Becj/ eFVIvieyaFkmµ savings ~ R)ak;beBaØIsnSM/ fixed/time ~de-mining kare)assMGatmIn R)ak;beBaØImankalkMNt;/ ~ bank FnaKardemise 1> Ptisnüa/ kic©snüaCYl TTYlR)ak;beBaØI/ ~ guaranty account KNnI2> mrNPaB R)ak;tMkl;Fana/ ~ in transit R)ak;beBaØIkMBugdemobilise v. rMsay ¬kgT½B¦ epÞr/ ~ receipt bgáan;édTTYlR)ak;beBaØI/democratisation ~ slip b½NÑsresrepJIR)ak;RbCaFibetyüPavUbnIykmµ/ RbCanuvDÆn¾ deposit R)ak;kk;demographic rate (birth, death ...) deposit (minerals...) RsTab;Er:GRtaRbCasaRsþ ¬kMeNIt/ mrN³ >>>¦ deposit v. 1> kk; 2> tMkl;R)ak;/ epJIR)ak;demonetise karbBa©b;tMéleRbIR)as;én ¬enAFnaKar¦RkdasR)ak;¼kak; depositor GñkepJIR)ak;denationalisation niCatUbnIykmµ/ karbþÚr depreciate v. Føak;éføRTBüsm,tþirdæeTACaÉkCn depreciation 1> karFøak;éfø¼tMéldenial, flat karRbEkkdac;Ghgáar 2> ¬kar¦ rMls; 3> karswkercdenominated in USD (cheque) depreciation allowance (accounting)carwkCaduløarGaemrik ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦ TayC¢TaneGaydl;rMls;denomination ÉktatMélénRkdasR)ak; depress v. sgát;cuH ¬TIpSar/ GarmµN_/¬rW kak;¦ Qñan;RhVaMgrfynþ >>>¦denominator (fraction) PaKEbg depression, economic vism<aFesdækic©density dg;sIuet deputy prime minister ]bnaykrdæm®nþIDepartment of Overseas Trade deputy chairman GnuRbFannaykdæanBaNiC¢kmµeRkARbeTs deputy manager naykrg/ bNÑaFikarrgDepartment of Public Prosecution deregulate v. eFVIbdiniy½tkmµGgÁkarGyükar dereliction of duty kare)aHbg;Parkic©department store PNÐaKar 30
  • 38. Economic Lexicon Part 1derivative instrument (banking) diagram KMnUsbMRBYj]bkrN_nisSnÞ differentiate v. Ejkdescendant bcäaCn differentiation karEjkeGayeXIjPaBxusKñadescription 1> karBiBN’na digit elx/ single ~ inflation GtiprNa2> RbePTTMnij/ ~ of goods karraymuxTMnij mantYelxEtmYyxÞg;desertification rehadæanIykmµ ¬kareFVI[ digital EdlbgðajCaelx/ DIhSúItal;eTACavalrehadæan¦ digitalised economy esdækic©erxUbnIykmµdesign karrcnatak;Etg/ bøg;/ ~ effect dignitary sSrCnT§iBlénbøg;/ ~ weight TMgn;bøg; dignity PaBéføfñÚr/ sSrPaBdesign v. rcnatak;Etg dilemma n. sßanPaBRtUveFVICMerIsd¾Bi)akdesignation letter lixit]eTÞsnam dimension TMhM/ TidæPaB ¬énsPaBkarN_GVImYy¦¬GñktMNag>>>¦ direct adj. pÞal;/ foreign ~ investmentdesk study karsikSaenAkariyal½y (FDI) vinieyaKpÞal;BIbreTs/ ~ cost tMéldetailed adj. lMGit/ ~ instructions plitpÞal;/ briyaTanpÞal;/ ~ exchangebTbBa¢alMGit karedaHdUredaypÞal;/ ~ export karnaMecjdeteriorated Gn;KuNPaB ¬TMnij¦ edaypÞal;/ ~ tax Bn§pÞal;deterioration karGn;fy ¬KuNPaB/ éfø>>>¦ direct v. tMrg;Tisdetermine v. kMNt; direction 1> Tis/ TisedA 2> esckþIENnaM/detriment karxUcRbeyaCn_ provide ~ and guidance pþl;TisedAdetrimental Edl eFVIeGayxUcRbeyaCn_¼ nigkarENnaM ¬[eFVIGVImYy¦bgáeRKaHfñak; directive karcg¥úlTis/ bTENnaM/ ~ ondevalue v. bBa©úuHtMélrUbiyvtßú ¬eFobnwg wages and prices bTENnaMsþIBIebovtSr_nigéførUbiyvtßúÉeTot²¦ direct-lending schemes kmµviFINTanpÞal;development karGPivDÆn_/ karlUtlas;/ ~ director nayk yuT§saRsþGPivDÆn_/ ~ aid CMnYyGPivDÆn_/strategies director-general GKÁnayk/ deputy ~~ project KMeragGPivDÆn_/ Development Triangle GKÁnaykrgZone tMbn;GPivDÆn_RtIekaN directory 1> bBa¢IrayeQµaHdeviation 1> kargakecj 2> KMlat 2> ftdak;Tinñn½y ¬kMuBüÚT½r¦devise n. Gc©½yTanCaGclnRTBü direct-transit trade BaNiC¢kmµqøgkat;pÞal;¬tammrtksasn_¦ disability BikarPaBdiagnosis n. eraKvinicä½y disadvantage plvi)ak/ KuNvibtþi 31
  • 39. Economic Lexicon Part 1disadvantaged caj;eRbob/ ~ farmers discount rate GRtaGbhar/ GRtacuHéføksikrTn;exSay discounted cash flow (DCF) analysisdisaggregation karbMEbkGgÁpSM karviPaKlMhUrsac;R)ak;Kittamry³eBldisagree v. minRBmeRBog/ minÉkPaB/ discouraged worker Blkr)ak;Twkcitþminyl;Rsb discretion qnÞanusiT§i ¬siT§isMerceBjelj¦/disagreement n. karminRBmeRBog, in the at the ~ of the government CaqnÞanusiT§ievent of ~ kñúgkrNIKµankarRBmeRBog rbs;rdæaPi)aldisbursement karebIkpþl;¬R)ak;¦/ discrimination karerIseGIg~ account KNnIraymuxkarebIkpþl;R)ak;/ disequilibrium vismta/ PaBKµanlMnwg~ schedule kalviPaKebIkpþl;R)ak; dishonoured bill of exchangedischarge 1> dkbNþwg/ ~ a bankrupt rUbiyaNtþiEdlRtUv)anbdiesFeGaybuKÁl)anrYcputBIPaBBIkS½yFn BIeRBaH dishonoured cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt)anTUTat;bMNulehIy 2> TUTat;bMNulTaMgRsug bdiesdæ ¬minTUTat;¦3> bBaÄb; ¬buKÁlik¦ disillusion esckþIRsgakcitþy:agxøaMgdisciplinary action kardak;vin½y disincentive eRKOgbg¥ak;Twkcitþ¬kardak;eTasxagrdæ)al¦ disinflation karbnßyGtiprNadisciplinary council RkumRbwkSavin½y disinvestment kardkTunQb;vinieyaK¬GñksMercdak;vin½yelIbuKÁlik¦ dismiss v. bBaÄb;BIkargar/ edjecal/disciplinary sanction TNÐkmµxagvin½y/ dismissal n. karbBaÄb;BIkargarto impose ~ dak;vin½y dispatch n. karbBa¢Ún/ karEbgEckdisciplinary transfer dispatch v. epJI/ bBa¢Ún ¬TMnij>>>¦karpøas;ecjedaydak;vin½y dispersion diagram düaRkambMEbkraydisclaimer bTRbkasbdiesF disposable personal income cMNUl¬karTTYlxusRtUv/ siT§i >>>¦ enATMenrrbs;buKÁl/ cMNUlbuKÁleRkaykat;Bn§discount 1> Gbhar ¬karcuHéfø¦/ cash ~ ¬]> R)ak;ExebIkykeTApÞH)an¦karlk;cuHéføtamkarbg;Casac;R)ak;/ to sell dispose v. CMrHbBa©b;goods at a ~ lk;TinijcuHéfø dispossess dkhUtrbs;RTBü2> Gbharit ¬R)ak;cuHéføeGay¦ 3> cuHéfø disproportionate (amount of cash)discount a bill v. eFVIGbharrUbiyaNtþi vismamaRt ¬cMnYnsac;R)ak;¦¬lk;rUbiyaNtþieGayFnaKar¦ dispute vivaT/ CMelaH/ ~ settlementdiscount bank FnaKarTij]bkrN_ mechanism ynþkaredaHRsayvivaTTUTat;lixitbMNul 32
  • 40. Economic Lexicon Part 1dissemination karpSBVpSay domestic kñúgRsuk ¬rW kñúgRbeTs¦/ ~ assetsdissolution karrMlay (bank) RTBüskmµkñúgRsuk>/ ~ credit NTandistortion karERbRbYlxusPaBedIm kñúgRsuk/ ~ demand tMrUvkarkñúgRsuk/ ~ incomedistress (sale) edaymanFur³bnÞan;/ edaHT½l (DI) plTunkñúgRsuk/ ~ financing hirBaØb,Tan¬karlk;¦ kñúgRbeTs/ ~ product (DP) plitplkñúgRsuk/distribution karEckcay ~ savings sBa¢½yFnkñúgRsuk ~ supplydistribution of sample r)ayKMrUtag karpÁt;pÁg;kñúgRsuk/ ~ price stability sßirPaBdistribution, unequal wealth éføkñúgRsuk/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµkñúgRsukr)ayvismFn ¬karEckcayRTBüminesµIKña¦ domicile n. lMenA/ ~ of origin lMenAedImdisturbance karrMxan/ noise ~ karrMxan ¬lMenABIkMeNIt tamFmµtaKW lMenA«Buk¦edaysMelg domiciled bill of exchange rUbiyaNtþidiversification cMruHkmµ/ BiBiFkmµ manbBa¢ak;Gas½ydæandividend PaKlaP domiciled in Cambodiadivisible adj. EdlEckdac;/ GacEbgEck/ manlMenApøÚvkarenAkm<úCa~ letter of credit sarNTanGacbMEbk)an dominate v. RKbsgát;division of labour karEbgEckBlkmµ domino effect T§iBldUmINUdocker kmµkrkMBg;Ep donation GMeNaydocumentary collection donee bdiKÁahk1> karRbmUlR)ak;eRkayeBl)anTTYlÉksar donor Tayk/ Gñkpþl;CMnYy2> karRbmUlÉksar dormant adj. KµanskmµPaB/ ~ companydocumentary credit NTanÉksar Rkumh‘unKµanskmµPaB ¬kñúgmYykariybriecäT¦documentation dose xñatmaRta/ kMrit1> Éksar ¬TaMgGs;Tak;TinnwgerOgGVImYy¦ dossier sMNMuerOg2> karksagsMNMuÉksar double v. ekInmYyCaBIrdocuments against acceptance (D/A) double-deflation techniquepþl;ÉksarRbKl;TMnijeBlbBa¢ak;TTYlRBmCMBak; bec©keTsbRgYmsÞÜndocuments against payment (D/P) double-entry bookkeepingpþl;ÉksarRbKl;TMnijenAeBlsgR)ak; viFIcuHbBa¢IeTVPaKdogma n. siT§anþ ¬CMenOrbs;mnusSmYyRkumEdl doubtful debt NeTyüsgS½yeKrMBwgfaGñkÉeTotTTYlykedayKµanCECktv:a¦ down payment R)ak;kk;/ R)ak;bg;dMbUgdollarisation duløarUbnIykmµ downgrade v bBa©úHtMél 33
  • 41. Economic Lexicon Part 1¬]> kñúgkarBüakrN_tMélsnøwkh‘un¦ dutiable EdlRtUvbg;Bn§/ ~ goods TMnijdownsize v. kat;bnßy RtUvbg;Bn§¼Cab;Bn§downstream product plitpl duty Bn§ ¬BiessBn§Ky nigGakrBiess¦/ adxageRkam¼cugExS ¬ekItecjBIplitpledIm¦ valorem ~ Bn§yktaméfø/ customs ~ Bn§Ky/downward tendency ninñakarfycuH excise ~ GakrBiess/ ~ paid pricedowry ekrþ×xagRsI éføKitTaMgBn§draconian measures viFankartwgrwgsMebIm duty Parkic©/ ~ bound Cab;Parkic©draft 1> esckþIRBag 2> rUbiyaNtþi/ bank ~ duty-free EdlrYcBn§/ ~ goods TMnijrYcBn§rUbiyaNtþiFnaKar ¬lixitbBa¢a[FnaKarebIkR)ak;¦ duty-paid goods TMnijbg;Bn§ehIydraft term lkçxNÐlixit DVD DIvIDI ¬fasvIedGU¦draught animals (GB), draft dwindle v eFVIrMls;bnþicmþg² animals (US) stVGUsTaj dynamic adj. DINamik/ Edlman famPaB¼snÞúHdraw lots v. cab;eqñat ¬edIm,IeRCIserIs¦ dynamics n. DINamik/ famPaBdrawback n. cMNucminl¥ dynamism DINamIs/ famPaB/ snÞúHkMlaMgdrawback n. Bn§KybgVilsgvij ¬enAeBlTMnijRtUv)annaMecjeTAvij¦drawee bharit/ GñkeGayeKdkR)ak;/ E, eGñkRtUv)anesñIeGaybg;R)ak;drawer bhar½k/ GñkdkR)ak; earmark v. élTuk ¬sMrab;eKaledAGVImYy¦drawing account KNnIR)ak;beBaØI earned fees kMérrk)anKµankalkMNt; earnest R)ak;kk;/ kMNt;drawing rights siT§idkR)ak; ¬siT§isMux©I¦ earning capacity smtßPaBrkR)ak;drop karFøak;cuH earnings cMNUl/ kMér/dual price system RbB½n§éføTVIk³/ RbB½n§éføBIr retained ~ R)ak;cMeNjrkSaTukdue 1> EdlCMBak; 2> Edldl;kMNt; ¬Edlmin)anebIk[m©as;h‘unCaPaKlaPeT¦due date NRbtiTan/ éf¶dl;kMNt;sgR)ak; ease, prices are inclined to éfømandue-card salakb½Rtpþl;TMnij ninñakarfycuHdumping karcak;Kr/ karlk;bgçÚcéfø/ easement esvPaB/ siT§ieRbIR)as;dIGñkdéT~ duty Bn§Tb;Tl;nwgkarlk;bgçÚcéfø easy money policy eKalneya)ayduplication 1> kareFVI[eTVKuN sac;R)ak;gayRsYl ¬EdlsMrYlkarpÁt;pÁg;2> karRtYtKña ¬tRbeyaCn_¦ sac;R)ak;edIm,IBRgIkesdækic©¦durability PaBCab;lab;/ PaBzitezr 34
  • 42. Economic Lexicon Part 1easy terms of payment lkçxNÐTUTat; kmµviFIsßirPavUbnIykmµesdækic©gayRsYl economic cost-benefit analysisecological equilibrium lMnwgeGkULÚsuI (ECBA) karviPaKcMNaynigplcMeNjecological tourism eGkUeTscrN_ xagesdækic©ecological zone tMbn;eGkULÚsuI economical EdlsnSMsMécecology eGkULÚsuI economics viTüasaRsþesdækic©eco-national product (ENP) economies of scale esdækic©maRtdæanplitplbrisßanCati economist esdæviTUeconometrics esdækic©maRtsaRsþ/ economise snSMsMécviC¢avas;Evgesdækic© economy esdækic©/ sMéc/ balance ofeconomic énesdækic©/ ~ austerity national ~ tulüPaBesdækic©Cati/ black ~tbkmµesdækic©/ kart,itet,ótxagesdækic©/ esdækic©ggwt/ centrally planned ~ esdækic©~ blockade/embargo karh‘u¿B½T§esdækic©/ EpnkarRbmUlpþúM/ decentralised ~ esdækic©~ conditions lkçxNÐesdækic©/ sPaBkarN_ vimCÄkar/ capitalist ~ esdækic©mUlFn/ freeesdækic©/ ~ conversion bMlas;esdækic© market ~ esdækic©TIpSaresrI/ planned ~¬BiessBIrcnasm<½n§eyaFamkrcnasm<½n§ esdækic©Epnkar/ political ~ esdækic©esdækic©minEmneyaFa¦/ ~ cooperation neya)ay/ ~ car rfynþsuIsaMgtic/ ~ sizeshRbtibtþikaresdækic©/ ~ corridor xñatFM ¬lk;efakebIeFobnwgbrimaNva¦rebogesdækic©/ ~ corridor RckTVar esdækic©/ ~ education for all Gb;rMsMrab;TaMgGs;Kñacrisis vibtþiesdækic©/ ~ cycle vdþ esdækic©/ ~ Education Sector Supportdownturn/recession karFøak;cuH esdækic©/ ~ Programme (ESSP)efficiency RbsiT§PaBesdækic©/ EpnkaryuT§saRsþsMrab;RTRTg;vis½yGb;rM~ entity GgÁPaBesdækic©/ ~ forecast education service esvaGb;rMkarBüakrN_esdækic©/ ~ impact plb:HBal; effective skþisiT§ixagesdækic©/ ~ indicator GaMgDIkarT½resdækic©/ effective date éf¶RbsiT§PaB~ pattern lMnaMesdækic©/ ~ integration effective demand tMrUvkarCak;EsþgsmahrNkmµesdækic©/ ~ model KMrUesdækic©/ effective rate of protection (ERP)~ philosophy TsSnviC¢aesdækic©/ ~ policy GRtaKaMBarskþisiT§ieKalneya)ayesdækic©/ ~ projection effectiveness PaBskþisiT§ikarKn;KUrxagesdækic©/ ~ sanction TNÐkmµ efficiency RbsiT§PaBesdækic©/ ~ stabilisation programme efficient EdlmansmtßPaB/ Edlmanpll¥/ 35
  • 43. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ worker kmµkrEdlmansmtßPaB citþTukdak;eTAelInieyaCitelaborate y:agl¥itl¥n;/ briyayy:agl¥itl¥n; employer nieyaCkelasticity PaByWt/ EdlGacpøas;bþÚr)an/ employment 1> kargar ¬eTogTat;manR)ak;~ of supply and demand PaByWténkar kMér¦ 2> sßanPaBmankargareFVI/ ~ rate GRtapÁt;pÁg; nigtMrUvkar GñkmankargareFVI 3>karCYl ¬[bMerIkargarelderly Cncas;Cra eTogTat;¦/ ~ bureau kariyal½yrkkargarelectoral official m®nþIe)aHeqñat eGayeFVI/ ~ shock karb:HTgÁicxagkargarelectrification GKÁIsnIPavUbnIykmµ/ rural empower v. pþl;GMNac¼pþl;siT§iGMNac[~ fund mUlniFiGKÁIsnIPavUbnIykmµCnbT emulation karRbECgtamKMrUl¥electronic adj. eGLicRtUnik enact a law Gnum½tc,ab;element smasFatu encode v. sresrCaelxkUd ¬bkERbPasaeligibility for bank loans PaBGacTTYl samBaØeTACaelxkUd¦)anNTanBIFnaKar encouragement karelIkTwkcitþ/ karCMrujeligible EdlmansiT§i/ EdlGacTTYlyk)an end product plitplsMercelite Gñkzan³x<s; end result plsMercembargo karh‘¿uB½T§/ ninñivarN_ ¬]> karham endangered species RbePTesÞIrputBUCXat;mineGaynaMTMnijecj-cUl¦/ lift an ~ ending inventory sareBIP½NÐcugRKaelIkkarh‘¿uB½T§ecj/ place an ~ dak;karh‘¿uB½T§ endorse v. 1> KaMRT 2> carxñg ¬ Éksar¦embezzlement karekgRbv½Ba© endorse v. (an expense) cuHTidæakaremergency PaB bnÞan;¼Gasnñ/ in case of ¬bBa¢ak;yl;RBmelIcMNay¦ (French: viser)~ kñúgkrNIbnÞan;/ ~ aid CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ endorsee GñkmansiT§ieRbIR)as;lixitsñam~ condition lkçxNÐPaBGasnñ/ ~ fund tamcMNarxñgmUlniFise®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ loan kMcIse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ endorsement bidæielx/ cMNarBIxñg/~ relief CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan;/ ~ tax Bn§visamBaØ rUbiybdiePaK/ ~ for collection cMNarxñgemerging economies esdækic©kMBugegIbeT,Ig ÉksaredIm,IRbmUlR)ak;emerging markets TIpSarkMBugpuseT,Ig endorser GñkeFVIbidæielx/ GñkcarxñgÉksar/emission bnSay ¬]> ]sµ½nBul¦ rUbiybdiePaKIemolument brilaP/ R)ak;bMNac;muxtMENg endowment R)ak;pþl;[/ TayC¢Tan ¬R)ak;emotional buying motive bMNgTij EbgEckCaeTogTat;sMrab;eKaledAGVImYy¦edayrMePIbcitþ energy conservation karsnSMsMécfamBlemphasise v. sgát;F¶n;/ KUsbBa¢ak; energy efficiency RbsiT§PaBfamBlemployee nieyaCit/ ~ oriented Edlyk enforce payment v. bgçMeGayTUTat; 36
  • 44. Economic Lexicon Part 1enforce v. dak;eGayRbtibtþi/ dak;bgçM[Gnuvtþ/ karb:HBal;brisßan/ ~ protectionBRgwgkarGnuvtþn_ ¬c,ab;¦/ enforcement (n) kic©karBarbrisßan/ ~ security snþisuxbrisßanenforceable mantMélRbtibtþi/ Gacdak;bgMç envoy eRbsit¼ebskCnBiess[Gnuvtþ)an equality smPaB/ income ~ smPaBénengage v. Bak;B½n§cUl R)ak;cMNUl/ ~ benefit plRbeyaCn_esµIKña/engagement karcUlRbLÚk equalisation kareFVIeGaymansmPaBengine of economic growth equation smIkark,alma:sIunkMeNInesdækic© equilibrium lMnwg/ tulüPaB/ smta/enhancement karelIksÞÜy ~ price éfølMnwgenough RKb;RKan; equitable edaysmFm’/ esµIPaBenquiry esckþIesñI/ equities h‘unFmµtamake enquiries saksYrB½t’man equity n. RTBüm©as; ¬RTBüskmµ dkenrollment rate (school) bMNUlcrnþ nigh‘unGnueRKaH¦GRtacuHeQµaHcUleron equity smFm’/ with ~ EdlmansmFm’/ ~enterprise shRKas/ free ~ shRKasesrI fund mUlniFismFm’¬minenAeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;rdæ¦/ small- equity capital Tunm©as;h‘unFmµtascale ~ shRKasxñattUc equity of redemption siTi§ls;entertainment karkMsanþ/ ~ centre ¬rbs;kUnbMNulGuIb:UEtk¦mNÐlkMsanþ equity participation PaKkmµ ¬cUlh‘un¦entitle v. pþl;siT§i equivalent smmUl/ esµIKña/ b:unKña/ ~ toentity GgÁPaB/ legal ~ nItibuKÁl smmUlnwg/ ~ value tMélsmmUlentrepreneur shRKin error el¥óg/ kMhus/ micäaelx/ ~ inentrepreneurship shRKinPaB/ lkçN³ measurement el¥ógkñúgkarvas;EvgécñRbDitrksuI escalation karrIkraldal ¬TMnas;¦/entry 1> elxna ¬KNenyü¦ 2> karcUl/ kMeNInkartantwg~ point cMNuccUl/ RckcUl escrow, in EdlrkSaTukkñúgédttIyCnenumerator GñkcuHeFVIGegát/ GñksYrGegát essential Casarvnþ/ ~ goods TMnijCasarvnþ¬KYreRbI interviewer rW surveyor vij¦ established business GaCIvkmµEdlenvironment brisßan/ ~ scan karemIl cak;bJsehIy/ GaCIvkmµmanRsab;cMNucsMxan;kñúgbrisßan establishment 1> RKwHsßan 2> karbegáItenvironmental adj. énbrisßan/ ~ impact estate 1> dIkmµsiT§i ¬FM²¦ 37
  • 45. Economic Lexicon Part 12> RTBüsm,tþirbs;buKÁlEdlsøab; karbþÚrR)ak;/ ~ dumping karlk;bMpøajGRtaestate agent Pñak;garrksuICYl rWlk;Gcln bþÚrR)ak;/ ~ gain/loss cMeNj¼kMhatelIRTBü karbþÚrR)ak;/ ~ office kariyal½ybþÚrR)ak;estate, real GclnRTBü 2> pSar/ kEnøglk;Tij/ stock ~ pSarh‘unestimate v. )a:n;sµan/ vaytémø exchange rate or rate of exchangeestimated profit R)ak;cMeNj)a:n;sµan GRtabþÚrR)ak;/ monthly average ~ GRtaestimation bias lMeGogénkar)a:n;sµan bþÚrR)ak;mFümRbcaMEx/ closing ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;ethics sIlFm’/ sIlFm’viC¢aCIv³ ¬RkmsIlFm’¦ enAeBlbiT/ fixed ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;minERbRbYl¼ethnography CatiBn§úviTüa efr/ parallel market ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;TIpSar/Eurodollar duløarGWr:ub ¬duløarepJIkñúgFnaKarenA forward ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;mankalkMNt;/eRkAshrdæGaemriksMrab;bMerIBaNiC©kmµkñúgGWr:ub¦ official ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;pøÚvkar/ spot ~ GRtaevaluation karvaytémø/ credit project ~ bþÚrR)ak;dl;édkarvaytMélKMeragNTan exchange, letter of (or bill of )evasion (tax) kareKc ¬Bn§¦ rUbiyaNtþieven number elx Kt;KUr¼KUr excise tax GakrBiess ¬c,ab;km<úCa³ Gakrevent RBwtþikarN_/ ~ of default krNIKµan BiesselITMnijnigesvamYycMnYn¦lT§PaBsg excise tax revenues rC¢eTyücMNUleventuality yfaehtu exclusive agent tMNagpþac;muxevidence Psþútag exclusive right siT§ipþac;muxevolution karvivtþn_ executive adj. Edl Rbtibtþi¼Gnuvtþ/evolving process dMeNIkarvivtþþin_ ~ body/entity/unit esnaFikar/ ~ directorexacerbate eFVIeGayrwtEtF¶n;F¶r naykRbtibtþi/ ~ committee KN³kmµaFikarexamine v. Binitü Rbtibtþi/ ~ structure rcnasm<½n§Rbtibtþi/ex-ante price éføEpnkar ¬muneBlGnuvtþ ~ summary esckþIsegçb ¬segçbÉksarCak;Esþg¦ EdlEvgsMrab;fñak;dwknaMGan¦excavation kMNay ¬buraNviTüa¦ executive n. 1> fñak;dwknaM/ chief ~ naykexceed v. elIs Rkumh‘un 2> GMNacnItiRbtibtþiexcess n. & adj. 1> el,Is/ sMNl; ¬fvika¦ executive power GMNacnItiRbtibtþi2> elIs/ ~ capacity smtßPaBelIs ¬rdæaPi)al¦/ GMNacRbtibtþi ¬sßab½nepSgeTot¬tMrUvkarplit¦/ ~ reserve R)ak;bMrugelIs dUcCaRkumRbwkSaXMu¦exchange 1> karedaHdUr/ karbþÚr/ karpøas;bþÚr exemption, tax karelIkElgBn§/ muFaPaB¬BaNiC¢kmµ¦/ ~ control karRtYtBinitü énBn§Gakr 38
  • 46. Economic Lexicon Part 1exert pressure v. dak;sMBaF/ eFVIkarekobsgát; explicit Cak;lak;/ ~ instruction bTbBa¢aexistence GtßiPaB Cak;lak;existing EdlmanRsab;/ ~ structure exploitation GaCIvkmµ/ ~ of naturalrcnasm<½n§EdlmanRsab;/ ~ level of resources kareFVIGaCIvkmµFnFanFmµCatidevelopment kMrit manRsab;¼GtßiPaB exploration karrukrk/ oil ~ karrukrkénkarGPivDÆn_ eRbgkatexit point cMNucecj/ Rckecj exponential growth kMeNInGicSb:UNg;sIuEylex-officio tamGMNacmuxgar ¬]> tam export v. & n. 1>naMecj 2>karnaMecj/GMNac¼edaysar muxgarCahirBaØik Kat;RtUv nIhr½N/ ~ article/item muxTMnijnaMecj/køayCasmaCikénKN³kmµkarhirBaØvtßú¦ ~ duty Bn§naMecj/ ~ subsidies ]btßmÖFnexogenous xageRkA/ negative ~ factors sMrab;karnaMecj/ ~ licence GaCJab½NÑnaMecj/ktþaGviC¢manxageRkA ~ monopoly karnaMecjpþac;mux/ ~ tariffexpansion karBRgIk/ vibulkmµ/ vibulkar/vitßarkmµ taragBn§naMecj/ ~ of workers karnaMecjexpatriate (or expat) GñkcMeNalRsuk/ BlkmµGaNikCn exportation karnaMecj/ nIhr½Nkmµ exporter GñknaMecj/ nIharinexpectation, rational karrMBwgsmehtupl exporting firm Rkumh‘unnaMecjexpected profit R)ak;cMeNjrMBwgTuk exports TMnijnaMecjexpend v. cMNay/ cay ex-post project evaluation karvayexpenditure n. cMNay/ capital ~ cMNayCamUlFn/ current ~ cMNaycrnþ ¬cMNayCa tMéleRkayeBlKMeragcb; exposure (banking) haniP½y/ large ~RbcaMkñúgÉksarxøH¦/ ~ curve ExSekagcMNayexpenses, administrative cMNayrdæ)al haniP½yFM extended fund facility (EFF)expenses, sundry cMNayepSg²experience n. bTBiesaFn_ ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFibEnßm extension karbnþeBl ¬eGay¦experiment n. BiesaFn_ extensive adj. yfapl/ ~ agricultureexperimental learning cyclevdþeronsURtedaydkBiesaFn_ ksikmµyfapl external accounts KNnIépÞeRkAexperimentation BiesaFnkmµ/ karBiesaFn_ external aid CMnYyBIxageRkA ¬RbeTs¦expertise ekaslüvic½y external balance CBa¢IgTUTat;GnþrCatiexpiration of a contract karputkMNt; externalities 1> plb:HBal;mkBIeRkAénkic©snüa 39
  • 47. Economic Lexicon Part 12> ktþaxageRkA ktþacMnUlbzm/ primary ~ of productionextract sMrg; ktþaplitkmµbzmextraction karykecjmk/ karykEr:/ factual Cak;Esþg/ ~ situation sßanPaBCak;EsþgnisSarNkmµ fad GVIEdleKniymmYyRKa²extractive industry ]sSahkmµykEr: fail v. xkxan/ kS½yFn/ KµaneCaKC½yextradition btüab½n fair mansmFm’/ edayyutþiFm’/ RtwmRtUv/¬karRbKl;CnCab;ecaTeTA[RbeTsepSg¦ principle of ~ competition eKalkarN_extraordinary session sm½yRbCMuvisamBaØ RbkYtRbECgRtwmRtUv/ ~ price éføsmrmüextrapolation karKn;KUr fairness PaBsmrmüextra-structural adjustment facility fait(s) accompli(s) RBwtþin½y ¬GVIEdl)an(ESAF) ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;EktMrUvbEnßm ekItehIy bþÚrElg)an¦extrinsic reward rgVan;mkBIeRkA fall in prices karFøak;éføex-warehouse priceéfø¬lk;¦ecjBIXøaMg fall sharply v. Føak;cuHy:agKMhuk ¬]> éføex-works/ex-factory price éfø ¬lk;¦ plitpl¦ecjBIeragcRk fallacious EdlbMPan; false adj. Ekøgkøay/ minBit falsify v. EkøgkøayF, f family allowance(s) viPaCn_RKYsar/ R)ak;]btßmÖRKYsarfabric of peace, strengthen the family business GaCIvkmµCalkçN³RKYsarBRgwgekasikasnþiPaBeGaypSarP¢ab;Kñal¥ family food production plitkmµface value tMélcuHelIb½NÑ es,ógCalkçN³RKYsarfacilitate v. CYysMrYl/ bgálkçN³gayRsYl family scale (fishing) ¬karensaT¦facilities eRKOgsMrYlkar/ kEnøgsMrYlkar CalkçN³RKYsarfacility kargayRsYl/ ]bkrN_sMrYl/ extended family well-being suxumalPaBRKYsarfund ~ ]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFibEnßm famine TurÖikS/ karGt;Xøanfact GgÁehtu fancy k,ac;k,Úr/ hWuhafact-finding mission ebskkmµEsVgrkkarBit fare éføQñÜlyanCMniH/ concessionary ~ éføfactor ktþa/ ~ cost ktþatMél ¬BaküeRbIkñúg QñÜlGnueRKaH/ full ~ éføQñÜleBj/ half ~ éføKNnICatisMedAdl;plitplKittaméføTIpSar QñÜlBak;kNþal/ single/one way ~ éføeFVIbUk]btßmÖFn dkBn§pÞal;ecj¦/ primary ~ dMeNIrEteTA rW Etmk/ return ~ (roundtrip ~)cost ktþatMélbzm/ primary ~ income éføeFVIdMeNIreTAmk/ high/low season ~ éføQñl 40
  • 48. Economic Lexicon Part 1x<s; rWTabtamrdUv fiduciary currency rUbiyvtßú rW R)ak;Rkdasfarm ksidæan, ~ equipment brikçarksidæan fiduciary loan kMcIKµanvtßúFanafarming rbrksikmµ/ extensive ~ kareFVI field expenditure cMnaycuHeFVIkardl;kEnøgksikmµtamEbbvibulvb,kmµ/ ksikmµyfapl/ FIFO (first in, first out) hVIúhVÚ ¬cUlmunintensive ~ ksikmµGtipl/ kareFVIksikmµtam ecjmun¦ filing 1> kartMkl;Tuk 2> kardak;CUnBinitüEbbRbBlvb,kmµ filing system RbB½n§erobcMÉksarfar-sighted EdlemIleXIjEvgq¶ay fill in a form bMeBjTMrg;EbbbTFAS (free alongside ship) éføTMnijdwk final cugeRkay/ ~ goods plitplsMerc/dl;EKmnava ~ output Fatuecj¼plitpl cugeRkay/fast selling items TMnijlk;dac;elOn ~ consumption kareRbIR)as;cugeRkay/fast-food restaurant ePaCnIydæan ~ provisions Gvsanb,BaØtiþ ¬c,ab;¦/Gaharrh½s ~ settlement karTUTat;pþac;fauna rc¢³stV ¬BBYkstV¦ finance officer m®nþIhirBaØvtßúfavor karGnueRKaH finance v. pþl;hirBaØb,Tan/ pþl;Tunfavourable GMeNaypl/ ~ conditions financial énhirBaØvtßú/ ~ accountinglkçxNÐGMeNaypl/ ~ trade balance KNenyühirBaØvtßú/ ~ assistance CMnYyCBa¢IgBaNiC¢kmµl¥ hirBaØvtßú/ ~ autonomy sV½yPaBhirBaØvtßú/favouritism GnueRKaHniym ~ appropriation R)ak;viPaCn_/ ~ charge/fax TUrsar cost bnÞúkcMNayhirBaØvtßú/ ~ crisis vibtiþfeasibility study karsikSaBIPaBGaceFVI)anrW karsikSaBIsmiT§ilT§PaB hirBaØvtßú/ ~ forecast karBüakrN_hirBaØvtßú/ ~ institution sßab½nhirBaØvtßú/ ~ panicfeature lkçN³sMKal;/ vtßúniTÞsSn_fee kMér/ esah‘uy/ licence ~ kMérGaCJab½NÑ GehtuP½yhirBaØvtßú/ ~ liquidation karCMrHfeedback B½t’manRtLb; hirBaØvtßú/ ~ pressure sMBaF hirBaØvtßú/ ~ rate of return GRtaTajcMNUlhirBaØvtßú/ ~¬B½t’manpþl;mkeGayvij¦ reform kMENTMrg;hirBaØvtßú/ ~ services esvafeet, foot hVIt/ hVÚt/ ¬rgVas;RbEvg¦felony bT]Rkidæ hirBaØvtßú/ ~ shocks karb:HTgÁicxaghirBaØvtßú/ ~ self-sufficiency PaBm©as;karxaghirBaØvtßú/fertility PaBmankUn/ ~ rate GRtamankUn ~ standing sßanPaBhirBaØvtßú/ CMhrhirBaØvtßú/feudalism skþiPUminiym ~ year qñaMhirBaØvtßú/ kariybriecäTfiduciary Cnkan;tMENgCaTITMnukcitþ/ abuse financial cost-benefit analysis (FCBA)of ~ karrMelaPesckþITukcitþ 41
  • 49. Economic Lexicon Part 1karviPaKcMNay nigplcMeNjhirBaØvtßú fixture eRKOgbMBak;Cab;/ fixtures andfinancial manager (French: fittings eRKOgbMBak; ¬TaMgGcl½t nigcl½tordonnateur) GaNab½k/ principal ~ GaNab½k Edllk;eTACamYynwgpÞH¦edImExS/ delegated ~ GaNab½kepÞrsiT§i flammable substance sarFatueqHfinancing hirBaØb,Tan/ ~ arm saxapþl; flat sMEb:t/ rab/ qakar/ ~ fee kMérqaka/hirBaØb,Tan/ ~ modalities EbbbTpþl; ~ price éføqakarhirBaØb,Tan flaw ex©aH/ KuNvibtþifinding rbkKMehIj/ lT§plrkeXIj/ KMehIj/ flawed Edlmanex©aH/ EdlmanKuNvibtþikarrkeXIj flexible Edlbt;Ebn)an/ Tn;Pøn;/ ~ exchangefine v. & n. 1> pakBin½y 2> R)ak;pakBin½y rate GRtabþÚrR)ak; rs;¼Tn;Pøn;finished goods/products plitpl sMerc flight of capital lMhUrelOnecjmUlFnfire insurance karFanar:ab;rgeRKaHGKÁIP½y flimsy paper RkdaseBIelo ¬RkdasesþIg¦firm GgÁPaBGaCIB/ shRKas float v. 1> GENþt/ 2> dak;[GENþt/firm offer karsnüalk;Cak;lak; floating rate GRta ¬karR)ak;¦ GENþtfirm sale karlk;pþac; ¬tamkic©snüaRtwmRtUv¦ floating capital TuunbgVilfiscal énsareBIBn§/ ~ deficit »nPaB flooded forest éRBlicTwksareBIBn§/ ~ policy neya)aysareBIBn§/ floor price éføGb,brma~ year qñaMsareBIBn§ flora rukçCatifish culture/farming karciBa©wmRtI flotation of a new company karcab;epIm þfisheries reform kMENTMrg;vis½yensaT ebIkRkumh‘unfµIedaylk;snøwkh‘unrbs;Rkumh‘unenaHnigClpl flow lMhUr/ karhUrfisheries resource FnFanClpl flow chart tarag/ GgÁkarelxfishery karensaT flow, stock snñiFicracrfishery zone EdnensaT/ reserved ~ fluctuation kareLIgcuH¬éfø¦EdnensaTbMrugTuk FOB (free on board) éføTMnijdwkdl;elInavafishing lot LÚt_ensaT FOB airport éføTMnijdwkdl;Gakasyandæanfixed Cab;lab;/ efr/ Gcl½t/ ~ asset RTBü FOB shipment to destinationskmµCab;lab;/ Gclkmµ/ ~ capital TunGcl½t/ éføTMnijdwkdl;eKaledAGclkmµ¬CamUlFn¦/ ~ cost/ expenses FOB trimmed éføTMnijdwkdl;elInavabnÞúkcMNayefr/ ~ deposit R)ak;beBaØIman nigerobeGaykalkMNt;/ ~ rate GRtaefr ¬minERbRbYl¦ FOB under tacklefixing of quotas karkMNt;kUta/ kardak;kUta éføTMnijdwkdl;eRkamdgeyag 42
  • 50. Economic Lexicon Part 1focal point cMNucRbsBV vinieyaKpÞal;BIbreTs/ ~ inflows lMhUrcUlBIfocus v. & n. 1> epþat 2> cMNucepþat breTs ¬CMnYy/ rUbiyb½NÑ>>¦/ ~ liabilitiesfollowing tameRkay/ ~ year qñaMeRkay (bank) RTBüGkmµbreTs/ ~ reserves FnbMrug¬qñaMeRkayTI1¦ breTs/ ~ trade BaNiC¢kmµ eRkARbeTsfollow-up v. & n. tamdanbnþ foreign-aid programme kmµviFICMnYybreTsfood mðÚbGahar/ es,óg/ ~ price index foreign-trade turnoversnÞsSn_éfømðÚbGahar/ ~ products/stuffs cMNUlBaNiC¢kmµeRkARbeTsplitples,óg foreman emkar/ emRkum ¬Cag/ kmµkr¦food balance tulükares,óg ¬brimaN foresight karyl;dwgmunes,ógTaMgGs;Edlman eFobnwg cMnYnRbCaCn forest éRBeQI/ protected ~ areasEdlRtUvciBa©wm¦ tMbn;éRBkarBar/ ~ concession éRBsm,Tan/food for work es,ógsMrab;Blkmµ coupe ~ éRBKub/ operable ~ éRBeQIGac¬]> GgárBlkmµ¦ eFVIGaCIvkmµ)anfood security snþisuxes,óg forest product/sub-product GnupléRBeQIFOR (free on rail) éføTMnijdwkdl;elIpøÚvEdk forestry rukçsaRsþforce 1> kMlaMg 2> kMlaMgBlkmµ forfeit money R)ak;Bin½yforce majeure RbFanskþi forfeit v. kat;ecj/ )at;bg; ¬CakarBin½y¦force, come into cUlCaFrman/ forfeited to the government ¬RtUv)an¦manRbsiT§PaB rwbGUsCasm,tþirdæforecast v. & n. BüakrN_ forgery karEkøgforeclose a mortgage v. bþwgGMNUs/ form RTg;RTay/ legal ~ rUbPaBKtiyutþrwbGUskmµsiT§iGclnvtßúdak;Fana/ bþwgTamTar form (document) TMrg;kar ¬Éksar¦kmµsiT§i niekçbRTBü¼RTBübBa©aM ¬edaysareK form and legal concepts of the lawmin)ansgbMNultamkic©snüa¦ TMrg; nig Kti énc,ab;foregoing esckþIeTIbelIkeLIg formal pøÚvkar/ erobry/ ~ sector vis½yforeign breTs/ ~ accounts KNnIenA erobrybreTs/ ~ assets RTBüskmµbreTs/ RTBübeBaØI formalities EbbbT/ TMrg;EbbbT/ TMrg;kar/enAbreTs/ ~ balance CBa¢IgTUTat; GnþrCati/ fulfil v. ~ bMeBjEbbbT~ currency/exchange rUbiyvtßú breTs ¬rW formulation mission ebskkmµelIkmtirUbiyb½NѦ/ ~ exchange auction karedjéfø forward mankalkMNt; ¬enAGnaKt¦/rUbiyb½NÑ/ ~ direct investment (FDI) ~ delivery karRbKl;mankalkMNt;/ 43
  • 51. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ price éfølk;mankalkMNt; free of charge edaytbg;éføforward v. bBa¢ÚnTMnij free on board and trimmed (seeforwarding agency TIPñak;gardwkCBa¢Ún FOB trimmed) éføTMnijdwkdl;elInavaforwarding, advice of lixitCUndMNwg nigerobeGaybBa¢ÚnTMnij free on rail (see FOR)FOT (free on truck) éføTMnijdwkdl;elIrfynþ free on truck (see FOT)foul bill of lading b½NÑdwkCBa¢Únminl¥ free will ¬eday¦ suT§citþ¬EdlbBa¢ak;BIsßanPaBTMnijminl¥enAeBl freedom of associationm©as;navaTTYlva¦ esrIPaBksagsmaKmfoundation 1> RKwH/ mUldæanRKwH/ xøwmsar freehold property kmµsiT§iKµankalkMNt;2> mUlniFi freeze kk/ bgák/ wage freeze karbgákfounder n. sßabnik/ GñkbegIátRkumh‘un ebovtSr_ ¬mineGayeLIgcuH¦founder v. rlM/ TTYlbraC½y freight éfødwkCBa¢Ún/ ~ forward éfødwkRtUvfounding instrument ÉksarbegáIt bg;edayGñkTij¬Rkumh‘un¦ freight prepaid éfødwkCBa¢Ún)anbg;munframe Rkb/ Rkbx½NÐ freight, ad valorem éfødwkCBa¢Únyktamframework Rkbx½NÐ éføTMnijfranchise siT§ieRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ frequency PaBjwkjab;/ eRhVkg; ¬]> viTüú¦¬edIm,IeFVIGaCIvkmµ¦ freshwater Twksab/ ~fisheriesfranchisee GñkTTYlsiT§ieRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ karensaTTwksab ~fish RtITwksabfranchiser Gñkpþl;siT§ieGayeRbIeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ fringe benefits GtßRbeyaCn_bEnßmfraud karéKbnøM frozen account KNnI p¥wb¼bBaÄb;fraudulent EdléKbnøM frozen assets RTBüp¥ib/ RTBüCab;kþIfree esrI/ ~ market economy esdækic© frozen capital mUlFn p¥wb¼bBaÄb;pSaresrI/ carriage ~ dwkeGayminKitéfø fruitful EdlmanEpøpáa¬GñkTijmin)ac;ecjéfødwkeT¦ fuel eRKOgeqH/ n§n³free alongside ship (FAS) full eBj/ Eq¥t/ sBVRKb;/ ~ price éføeBjéfødwkTMnijdl;EKmnava ¬KµancuHéfø¦/ ~ capacity smtßPaBeBjeljfree board and lodging full time work kargareBjem:agGaharnigsñak;enAedaytbg;éfø fully fledged bank FnaKarmanRKb;esvafree currency rUbiyvtßúTijlk;)anedayesrI ¬EdlFMFat;eBjrUbrag¦¬rdæKµandak;kMhitRtYtRta¦ 44
  • 52. Economic Lexicon Part 1full-right representative tMNageBjsiT§i gamble on the stock exchange v.fully paid up Edl)anTUTat;TaMgRsug elgEl,gTijdUrsnøwkh‘unfunction muxgar gap KMlatfund mUlniFi/ ~ accounting systems garment industry ]sShkmµkat;edrRbB½n§KNenyümUlniFi/ ~ flow lMhUrmUlniFi/ garnishee n. ttiyCnGMNUs ¬GñkEdlCMBak;~ raising karérGgÁasmUlniFi R)ak;dl;buKÁlmñak; ehIyEdlRtUvtulakarbBa¢a[fund (French: provision) sMviFanvtßú sgR)ak;eTAm©as;bMNulrbs;buKÁlmñak;enaH¦¬sMrab;TUTat;mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦ gateway mat;Rck/ international comm-fundamental adj. CaRKwH/ CamUldæan/ unication ~ mat;RckTUrKmnaKmn_GnþrCati~ research karRsavRCavCaRKwH gather RbmUlpMúþfunding agency/project TIPñak;gar¼ GATT (General Agreement on TariffsKMerag pþl;mUlniFi and Trade) hÁat;/ kic©RBmeRBogTUeTAsþIBIfunds held in trust mUlniFibeBaØI ¬]> GgÁkar taragBn§KynigBaNiC¢kmµk EdleTIbbegáItfµI minTan;manKNnIenAFnaKar GDP (gross domestic product) pssenAeLIy. TaykGacpþl;R)ak; eGayGgÁkar k ¬plitplkñúgRsuksrub¦edayepJIvacUl KNnIrbs;GgÁkar x Edlman gem or gemstone t,ÚgmantMélTMMnak;TMngl¥CamYyxøÜn edIm,I[GgÁkarenHebIkpþl; gender eynD½r ¬tYnaTIbursRsþI¦bnþeTA[GgÁkar k¦ gene EhSn/ modify a gene EkécñEhSnfungibility PaBEdlGacykeTACMnYsKña)an general 1> TUeTA/ eKalkarN_ ¬kñúgRbkas>>¦/¬rbs;nimYy²Kµan lkçN³¼tMrUvkar edIm,IsMKal; ~ points (in law) kMNt;TUeTA/ ~ provisionsecjBIKñaeT³ ]> EdkeKal¦/ fungible adj. bTb,BaØtþiTUeTA 2> GKÁ/ ~ director GKÁnaykfungibles TMnijGacføwg¼rab;>>>)an general and administrative expensesfuture value tMélGnaKt cMNayTUeTA nigcMNayrdæ)al general inspector GKÁaFikar/ deputy ~ GKÁaFikarrgG, g general inspectorate GKÁaFikardæan general ledger (accounting) esovePAFMgain n. & v. 1> kMeNIn/ capital ~ tMélelIs general meeting mhasnñi)at¬elIkarlk;RTBüskmµCab;lab;¦ 2> ekIneT,Ig/ general partner GñkcUlh‘unKµankMritcMeNj ¬CaR)ak;¦ ¬TTYlxusRtUvKµankMrit¦galloping inflation GtiprNaelatepøaH general regulations nItirYm 45
  • 53. Economic Lexicon Part 1general rule, as a tamviFanTUeTA goal eKaledAgenerality PaBTUeTA going concern GaCIvkmµmandMeNIrkargeneralisation kareFVI[manlkçN³TUeTA going price éføFmµta/ éføcrnþGeneralised System of Preferences going rate GRtaFmµta/ GRtacrnþ(GSP) RbB½n§GnueRKaHTUeTA gold standard sþg;darmas/ ~ systemgenerally accepted accounting RbB½n§bþÚrR)ak;tamsþg;darmas principle (GAAP) eKalkarN_ goods TMnij/ capital ~ TMnijmUlFn/ KNenyümankarTTYlsÁal;TUeTA consumer/consumable ~ TMnijeRbIR)as;/genetic énEhSn/ ~ sequence lMdab;EhSn dry ~ RkNat;nigexaGav/ faulty ~ TMnijgenetic modification (GM) karécñµEhSn/ xUcKuNPaB/ finished ~ plitplsMerc/ freeGM food GaharécñEhSn/ GM agriculture circulation ~ TMnijcracresrI/ luxury ~ksikmµécñEhSn TMnijRbNit/ household ~ TMnijeRbIR)as;kñúggenome CINUm/ sMNMuEhSn pÞH/ manufactured ~ TMnijeFVIedaym:asuIn/genus BYk/ CMBUk ¬stV/ rukçCati >>>¦ ~ and services TMnij nigesva/ ~ in bondgeography, economic PUmiviTüaesdækic© TMnijenAXøaMgKy ¬rg;caMkarbg;Bn§¦/ ~ ingeology PUKBÖsaRsþ stock TMnijkñúgsþúk/ ~ left on hand TMnijRtUvgesture kayvikar )anbdiesFminTTYl/ ~ in transit TMnijqøggift GMeNay kat;/ ~ on consignment TMnijepJIeTAlk;gilt-edged investments vinieyaKman goodwill 1> ekrþ×eQµaHCMnYj/ mUlniFiBaNiC¢kmµsuvtßiPaBx<s; ¬]> b½NÑrtnaKar¦ 2> suqnÞ³global adj. sakl/ srub/ ~ demand governance GPi)alkic©/ local ~ GPi)altMrUvkarsrub/ ~ social product plitpl kic©mUldæansgÁmsrub/ ~ economic recession government rdæaPi)al/ ~ and institutionalkarFøak;cuHesdækic©Casakl accounting KNenyürdæaPi)al nigKNenyüglobalisation of economy sßab½n/ ~ agency sßab½nrdæ/ ~ securitiessaklPavUbnIykmµesdækic© sBaØab½NÑrdæaPi)alglossary sTÞanuRkm/ bTanuRkm grace period (debt payment)glut eRcInkkkuj/ ~ the market eRcIn efrevlaGnueRKaHliclg;TIpSar grade (civil servant) fñak;GNP (gross national product) grading karEbgEckKuNPaBplitplCatisrub/ plTunCatisrub/ ~ deflator grand plan bøg;cMbgsnÞsSn_britþprNaplitplCatisrub 46
  • 54. Economic Lexicon Part 1grand total srubrYm TUTat;/ ~ certificate or certificate of ~grandstanding karykkMBs; b½NÑFanaKuNPaB/ quality ~ karFanaKuNPaBgrant GMeNayhirBaØvtßú/ ~ aid CMnYytsMNg guaranteed bill of exchangegraphics RkahVik/ BinÞúerxIy_ rUbiyaNtþimankarFanagrassroots level kMritmUldæan guaranteed deposit fund R)ak;kk;grassroots organisation guarantees and commitments underGgÁkarfñak;eRkam ¬kMritRbCaCn¦ signature (banking) karsnüatamhtßelxagratuity R)ak;sKuN/ sT§aTan/ CMnUn ¬tbsñg¦ guarantor GñkFana ¬]> elIGñkNamñak;Greater Mekong Sub-region kñúgkarsgbMNul¦mhaGnutMbn;emKgÁ guardianship GaNaBüa)algreen revolution bdivtþn_ébtg guideline eKalkarN_ENnaMgreenhouse pÞHkBa©k;/ ~ effect bc©½y guilt BiruT§PaBpÞHkBa©k;/ ~ gas ]sµ½npÞHkBa©k;grid bNþaj ¬RbTak;RkLa¦gross dul/ srub/ ~ domestic product(GDP) plitplkñúgRsuksrub ¬pss¦/ H, h~ margin cMeNjdul/ Gb,hardul ¬Ca habitual CaTMlab;PaKryénéfølk;¦/ ~ national product hacker hak;K½r ¬GñklYceRCotcUleTAkñúg(GNP) plitpl¼plTun Catisrub/~ priceéfødul/ ~ negligence kareFVsRbEhsF¶n;F¶r RbB½n§kMuBüÚT½rrbs;GñkdéT ¦ half Bak;kNþal/ first ~ of the 6th¬c,ab;¦/ ~ output Fatuecjdul/ ~ profit century Bak;kNþalTI1 énstvtSr_TI6cMeNjdul/ ~ proceeds/receipts/returns hallucination mmal/ karmmalcMNUldul/ ~ weight TMgn;dul hand bill xitþb½NÑ ¬b½NÑeXasnapSBVpSaygroupage/grouped bill of ladingvikáybRtdwkCBa¢Únsrub EckeGaypÞal;éd¦ handicraft sib,kmµ/ vtßúeFVIedayéd/growth kMeNIn/ karlUtlas;/ ~ rate ~ goods TMnijsib,kmµGRtakMeNIn handle cat;Ecg/ edaHRsay/ ~ a situationGSP (Generalised System ofPreferences) RbB½n§GnueRKaHTUeTA edaHRsaysßankarN_ handling (goods) karelIkdak;guarantee karFana/ vtßúFana/ ~ for a loan hard rwg/ lM)ak/ ~ condition lkçxNÐvtßFanasMrab;kMcI/ ~ of payment karFana twgEtg/ ~ bargain kartéfød¾twgEtg/ ~ cash 47
  • 55. Economic Lexicon Part 1sac;R)ak;mankñúgéd hidden adj. bgáb;/ ~ reserves FnbMrugbgáb;hard disk (computer) fasrwg hierarchy zananuRkmhardware eRKOgcRkF¶n;/ Faturwg ¬kMuBüÚT½r¦ high grade (ore) KuNPaBx<s; ¬Er:¦harmonisation suxdumnIykmµ/ kareFVI[ high school viTüal½y/ junior ~ GnuviTüal½ymanPaBcuHsMrugKña high-tech (sector) bec©kviTüax<s; ¬vis½y¦harmonised EdlrlUnKña hindsight karyl;dwgtameRkay ¬KWmanharmony PaBsuxdumrmna bTBiesaFn_edayRBwtkarN_)anekIteLIgehIy¦ iþharsh conditions lkçxNÐtwgEtg hire-purchase agreement kic©snüaCYl-haulage éfødwkTMnij/ kardwkTMnij ¬tamrfynþ Tijpþac;/ kic©snüaTijbNþak;rW rfePøIg¦/ ~ cost (rates) éfødwkTMnij/ historic/historical cost tMéltam~ company/firm Rkumh‘undwkCBa¢ÚnTMnij RbvtþisaRsþ ¬tMélCak;EsþgkalBIeBlTijcUl¦hazardous EdlRbkbedayeRKaHfñak; historical steps CMhanmanGtßn½yCaRbvtþisaRsþhead office kariyal½yFM/ TIcat;karFM hold in trust kan;kab;CakarepJITukhead tax Bn§mnusS holder (of a cheque...) Gñkkan;heading cMNgeCIg/ xÞg; ¬taragtulükar¦ holder in due course Gñkkan;kab;RtwmRtUv/headquarters (of a company) Kahkniy½tTIsñak;karkNþal holding company Rkumh‘unhUlDij ¬kan;health care karEfTaMsuxPaB kab;Cag 50°énPaKh‘unkñúgRkumh‘unmYyeTot¦healthy EdlmansuxPaBl¥/ ~ balance home market pSarkñúgRsuksheet taragtulükarEsþgplcMeNj/ ~ profit homelessness PaBKµanpÞHsMEbgplcMeNjkñúgcMnYny:ageRcIn home-made plitenA kñúgRsuk¼pÞHhearing svnakar homogeneity PaBesµIsac;heavy equipment brikçarFunF¶n; homogenous adj. sPaK/ esµIsac; ¬dUcKña¦heavy industry ]sSahkmµFunF¶n; honorarium R)ak;sKuNhedged ¬EdlRtUv)an¦karBarkarxatbg; horizontal epþk/ ~ coordinationheir TayaT ¬GñkTTYlmrtk¦ karsMrbsMrYltamExSepþk ¬rW ExSTTwg¦hereafter BIenHteTA horticulture sakvb,kmµ/ kareFVIc,ardMNaMhereby tamry³enH host government rdæaPi)alm©as;pÞHheritage mrtk/ national ~ ebtikP½NÐCati hot money (money moving frequentlyheterogeneity PaBminesµIsac; from one country to another) luyekþAheterogeneous laycMruHKña/ visman/ household RKYsar/ RKY/ female-headed ~visPaK ¬mindUcKña/ minesµIsac;¦ RKYsarRsþIemRKY/ male-headed ~ RKYsar 48
  • 56. Economic Lexicon Part 1bursemRKY idle TMenrecal/ KµaneRbIkar/ ~ capitalhousehold equipment brikçareKhkic© TunKµaneRbIkar/ ~ time em:agTMenrecalhousehold survey GegátRKYsar ¬m:asuIneFVIkar)anEtKµandMeNIrkar¦housing pÞHsñak;enA/ karpþl;pÞHsñak;enA/ illegal adj. xusc,ab;/ ~ contract kic©snüapÞHsMEbg ¬xÞg;cMNay¦/ ~ loan kMcIsMrab; xusc,ab;sg;¼TijpÞH illicit adj. xusc,ab;/ ~ alcohol Rsaxusc,ab;human-capital investment vinieyaK ill-will TuqnÞ³ ¬bMNgGaRkk;¦TunmnusS imbalance GtulüPaB/ nantþþPaBhumanism mnusSniym imaginary profit cMeNjRbDithumanitarian assistance CMnYymnusSFm’ immaculate Ecs ¬fµI/ s¥at¦humanitarian relief immediate objective TisedAbnÞan;karse®gÁaHEpñkmnusSFm’ immediate payment karTUTat;Pøam²humanity mnusSCati/ nrCati immediate supervisor GñkemIlkarxushusbanding of resources karKitKUr RtUvpÞal;sMécFnFan immobilise (finance) eFVIGclkmµhydropower construction sMNg; immoral GsIlFm’varIGKÁisnI immovable (property) n. GclnRTBühyperinflation GtiprNaelatepøaH immunity 1> PaBsuaM ¬nwgCMgW¦hypothesis smµtikmµ 2> GP½yÉksiT§i/ diplomatic ~ GP½yÉksiTi§ karTUt impact plb:HBal;I, i impartial minlMeGog impartiality PaBminlMeGog/ GnaKtiidea KMnit impeccable tex©aHideal ]tþmKti imperfection PaBmanex©aH/ GnibuNPaBidealised condition lkçxNÐsuRkitPaB impetus n. snÞúHCMrujidentification GtþsBaØaNkmµ/ ~ mission implementation of a law karGnuvtþn_c,ab;ebskkmµ rksMKal;¼bMpusKMnit implementing agency TIPñak;garGnuvtþidentify v. EsVgrkemIl/ rksMKal;/ sMKal; import karnaMcUl/ GahrN/ ~ duty Bn§)antamPinPaK/ naMcUl/ ~ permit GaCJab½NÑnaMcUl/ ~ quotaideology menaKmn_viC¢a kUtanaMcUl 49
  • 57. Economic Lexicon Part 1importer GñknaMcUl/ Gaharin inclusive Edlrab;bBa©Úl/ Cabriyab½nñimport-export GahrN-nIhrN/ income cMNUl/ plTun/ bdilaP/ disposablekarnaMecj-naMcUl ~ cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§/ cMNUleRbI)anedayesrI/imports TMnijnaMcUl/ vieTsP½NÐ private ~ cMNUleRkABIebovtSr_/ personal ~impose taxes eGaybg;Bn§ cMNUlpÞal;xøÜn/ ~ account KNnIcMNUl/impoundment karXat;cab;Tuk ¬rfynþ/ TUk>>>¦ ~ (collected) in advance cMNUl)anTTYlmun/impression cMNab;GarmµN_ ~ per capita cMNUlkñúgmnusSmñak;/ ~ taximprovement karEklMG/ suvuDÆikmµ Bn§elIR)ak;cMNUl/ ~ statement r)aykarN_impunity niTNÐPaB/ PaBrYceTas/ culture cMNUlof ~ vb,Fm’niTNÐPaB income-generating activitiesimpurity n. 1> PaBminsuT§ skmµPaBbegáItR)ak;cMNUl2> GVIEdleFVI[minsuT§ ¬]> kkr¦ income-outlay accountsin good faith edayesµaHRtg; KNnIcMNUl-cMNayin post kñúgtMENg incompatibility vismitPaB/ PaBmincuHsMruginaccuracy PaBminRtwmRtUv incompetence GsmtßPaBinaccurate adj. minRtwmRtUv inconvenience plvi)akinactive adj. Gskmµ inconvertible currency rUbiyvtßúminGacinadequate minsmlµm bþÚr ¬ykrUbiyvtßúdéT¦ )aninappropriate minsmRsb/ ~ aid CMnYy incorporated cUlCaRkumh‘un/ )ancuHbBa¢IminsmRsb CaRkumh‘unincapacity GsmtßPaB/ physical/mental incorporated company Rkumh‘un~ kar)at;bg;smtßPaBxag bBaØa¼kaysm,Ta ¬CanItibuKÁleBjelj¦incentive eRKOgelIkTwkcitþ/ karelIkTwkcitþ/ increase v. & n. 1> ekIn 2> kMeNIninvestment ~ karelIkTwkcitþvinieyaK incremental EdlekInCadMNak;²inception karkekIt indebtedness PaBCMBak;bMNulincertitude PaBminR)akd indefinite minCak;lak;/ KµankMnt;incessant EdltQb;Qr indemnify v. eFVIsMNgincidence n. karekItman/ ~ of tax bnÞúkBn§ indemnity 1> sMNg karxUcxat¼CMgWcitþ¬cMnYnR)ak;Bn§RtUvFøak;elIbuKÁlNamñak;enAcugbBa©b;¦ 2> R)ak;bMNac;incident ]b,tþiehtu independent audit svnkmµÉkraCüincidental bnÞab;bnSM in-depth suICMerA/ ~ evaluation karvaytMélinclusion karrab;bBa©Úl suICMerA 50
  • 58. Economic Lexicon Part 1index snÞsSn_ GtiprNa/ GtiprNakalindexation kardak;snÞsSn_ ¬]> eGay inflexibility PaBrwgkMRBws/ PaBminrs;revIkebovtSr_ERbRbYleTAtamGtiprNa¦ inflict v. a penalty dak;eTasT½NÐindicator GaMgDIkaT½r/ sUcnakr ¬]> cab;eGaybg;pakBin½y¦indigenous people RbCaCnedIm inflow lMhUrcUlindirect tax Bn§Rbeyal influential Edlman GnuPaB¼T§iBlindividual ÉktþCn/ buKÁl/ ~ insurance influx lMhUrKMhukcUlkarFanar:ab;rgbuKÁl informal sector vis½yminerobry/ vis½yinducement eRKOgCMrujTwkcitþ esdækic©eRkARbB½n§industrialisation ]sSahUbnIykmµ information and communicationindustrious adj. ]sSah_¬Büayam¦ technology (ICT) bec©kviTüaB½t’manindustry ]sSahkmµ/ rbr/ primary ~ nigTUrKmnaKmn_]sSahkmµvtßúFatuedIm/ secondary ~ information technology (IT)]sSahkmµEkécñ ¬BIvtßúFatuedImeTAplitpl¦/ bec©kviTüaB½t’manlight ~ ]sSahkmµFunRsal/ heavy ~ infrastructure ehdæarcnasm<½n§]sSahkmµFunF¶n;/ extractive ~ ]sSahkmµ infringe v. RbRBwtþxus/ elµIs ¬c,ab;/nisSarNkmµ ¬]> ]sSahkmµTajykEr:¦ kic©snüa>>> ¦/ infringement n.inefficiency GRbsiT§PaB inheritance mrtk ¬GMBIGñksøab;¦inequality vismPaB/ PaBminesµIKña/ in-house adj. kñúgGgÁPaB/ ~ languageincome ~ vismPaBénR)ak;cMNUl training karbNþúHbNþalPasakñúgGgÁPaBinfant mortality rate GRtamrN³kumar initial adj. dMbUg/ ~ capital mUlFndMbUginference karsnñidæan ¬sMrab;cab;epþImGaCIvkmµ¦/ ~ price éfødMbUginflammable goods TMnijGacqabeqH initial outlay or initial capital outlayinflate bMe)a:g/ eFVIeGaymanGtiprNa/ esah‘uybegáItshRKasdMbUginflated price éføbMe):ag ¬tMelIgx<s;eday initial v. cuHhtßelxasegçb/ initialisation n.Kµanehtupl¦ initiative KMnitpþÜcepþIm/ karpþÜcepþImKMnitinflation GtiprNa/ ~ accounting KNenyü injunction (judges order) GFibBa¢aGtiprNa ¬éføRTBüskmµmanKitbBa©Úl ¬bBa¢arbs;ecARkm¦GtiprNa¦/ ~ factor ktþaBRgIk/ ktþaGtiprNa injustice GyutiþFm’inflationary gap KMlatGtiprNa in-kind contribution viPaKTanCavtßúinflationary period ry³eBlman input n. FatucUl 51
  • 59. Economic Lexicon Part 1inquiry karsaksYr ¬B½t’man/ éfø>>¦/ letter insufficiency PaBminRKb;RKan;of ~ lixitsaksYrB½t’man insurance karFanar:ab;rg/ all risks ~insensitivity 1> GevTyitPaB karFanar:ab;rghaniP½yRKb;RbePT/ car ~2> PaBmincab;GarmµN_ karFanar:ab;rgelIrfynþ/ life ~ karFanainsider trading karCYjdUrh‘uneday r:ab;rgelICIvit/ ~ agent Pñak;garFanar:ab;rg/ ~GñképÞkñúg ¬EdldwgB½t’mansMgat;BIRkumh‘un¦ certificate viBaØabnb½RtFanar:ab;rg/insolvency PaBminGacsgbMNul)an/ GsaFPaB ~ company Rkumh‘unFanar:ab;rg/ ~ lawinspect v. eFVIGFikarkic©/ RtYtBinitü c,ab;sþIBIkarFanar:ab;rg/ ~ policy b½NÑsnüainspection GFikarkic©/ ~ fee kMéresva r:ab;rg/ ~ premium(s) buBVlaPFanar:ab;rgGFikarkic©/ pre-shipment ~ GFikarkic©TMnijmun insured n. GñkRtUv)anFanar:ab;rgeBlpÞúk/ ~ certificate viBaØabnb½RtGFikarkic© insurer GñkFanar:ab;rginspectorate RkumGFikarkic© intake karRsUbcUlinstallation zbnkmµ/ karerobcMtMelIg/ intangible GrUbI/ ~ assets RTBüGrUbI~ cost cMNaypÁMútMelIg integration smahrNkmµ/ karbBa©ÚlKña/instalment R)ak;sgbNþak;/ ~ system ~ of industry smahrNkmµ]sSahkmµ/RbB½n§TUTat;bNþak; vertical ~ smahrNkmµbBaÄrinstalment sales credit or instalment integrity PaBs¥ats¥M/ territorial ~ plan buying karlk;¼Tij edayTUTat;sg bUrNPaBEdndI bNþak; intellectual property kmµsiT§ibBaØainstalment shipment intelligible Edlyl;)ankarbBa¢ÚnTMnijCabeNþIr² intensification RbBlkmµ/ RbBlvb,kmµ/institutional finance hirBaØvtþúsßab½n agricultural ~ RbBlvb,kmµksikmµinstitutionalisation sßabnUbnIykmµ intensive Gtipl/ ~ agriculture ksikmµGtiplinstitutionalise eFVIsßabnUbnIykmµ/ ksag intention bMNg/ ectnaCasßab½n interaction Gnþrkmµinstruction bTbBa¢a/ esckþIENnaM interactive Gnþrskmµinstrument briFan/ ]bkrN_/ negotiable inter-bank adj. GnþrFnaKar/ ~ settlement~ ]bkrN_TUTat; system RbB½n§TUTat;GnþrFnaKarinstrument of accession lixitUbkrN_ inter-censal decade TsvtSr_cenøaHCMerOncUlCaPaKI interdependence karBwgEp¥kKñaeTAvijeTAmkinstrument of ratification interest 1> plRbeyaCn_ 2> karR)ak;/lixitUbkrN_énkarpþl;sc©ab½n 52
  • 60. Economic Lexicon Part 1compound ~ karR)ak;smas, high/low ~ mUlniFirUbiyvtßúGnþrCatikarR)ak; x<s;¼Tab/ simple ~ karR)ak;samBaØ/ International Organisation for~ due date éf¶KitkarR)ak;/ ~ period Standardisation (ISO) GgÁkarGnþrCatikalKitkarR)ak; xagsþg;darUbnIykmµinterest rate GRtakarR)ak;/ ~ for savings internet GuinfWNit/ ~ -cafe salbMerIGuinfWNitGRtakarR)ak;snSM intersect v. (graph lines) kat;Kñainterference kareRCotERCk inter-sectoral Gnþrvis½yintegrate v. eFVIsmahrNkmµ/ dak;bBa©Úl/ interview v. & n. 1> sMPas/ eFVIsMPas~ed pest management (IPM) 2> bTsMPasn_/ semi-structured ~viFankarcMruHEfTaMdMNaM bTsMPasn_Bak;kNþalerobry ¬eRbIbBa¢IsMnYrinterim sþITI/ beNþaHGasnñ mYyPaK nigsYrEfmmYyPaK¦intermediary project KMeragGnþrkarI interviewee n. GñkeqøIysMPasn_intermediate goods TMnijGnþrkarI interviewer n. GñksYrsMPasn_ intimidate v. bMPitbMP½yintermediate output FatuecjGnþrkarI/ intra-cluster kñúgrgVg;kBa©úMplitplGnþrkarI intrinsic sCÄnþik³intermediate technology bec©kviTüa introduction esckþIepþImfñak;kNþal intuition GBÖnþjaNintermediation GnþrkarIkmµ/ financial ~ inundated forest (see flooded forest)GnþrkarIkmµhirBaØvtßúintern n. (see trainee) kmµsikSakarI éRBlicTwk invalidate v. cat;TukCaemaX³internal épÞkñúg/ ~ affairs kic©karépÞkñúg/ ~ invaluable adj. kat;éfømin)anaudit svnkmµépÞkñúg/ ~ control karRtYtBinitüépÞkñúg/ ~ rate of return (IRR) GRta invasion karlukluy/ ~ of privacyTajcMNUlépÞkñúg/ ~ transfer bEgVrépÞkñúg karrMelaPsiTi§CaÉkCninternational GnþrCati/ ~ standard sþg;dar inventory sareBIPNн/ sþúk/ TMnij/ draw upGnþrCati/ ~ bidding/tendering karedjéfø an ~ eFVIbBa¢IsareBIP½NÐCaGnþrCati/ ~ relations TMnak;TMngGnþrCati inventory stock card b½NÑsþúkInternational Air Transport invest v. vinieyaK/ eFVIvinieyaK Association (IATA) smaKm investigate v. esuIbGegát dwkCBa¢ÚnpøÚvGakasGnþrCati investment n. vinieyaK/ karbNþak;Tun/International Monetary Fund (IMF) ~ licence GaCJab½NÑvinieyaK 53
  • 61. Economic Lexicon Part 1investor vinieyaKin/ GñkvinieyaKinvisible adj. emIlmineXIj/ ~ assets J, jRTBüGrUbIinvoice vikáybRt jettison TMlak;GIv:an;ecalxøHedIm,IsMralinvoluntary Gectna/ tbMNg ¬nava/ ynþehaH¦involvement kar cUlBak;B½n§¼Bak;B½n§ job kargar/ white-collar ~ or office ~IOU (I owe you) lixitTTYlCMBak;¬xJúMCMBak;Gñk¦ kargarkñúgkariyal½y/ ~ description BiBN’irrecoverable Edl RbmUlmin)an¼ Tarmin)an nakagar/ ~ design KMeragkargar/ bøg;kargar/irregular mineTogTat;/ minRbRktI ~ grading/ranking cMNat;fñak;kargar/irregularities (mistakes) PaBminRbRktI ~ holder Gñkkan;kargar/ ~ lot TMnijcMruH¬kMhus¦ mYydMu² eRcInGn;² niglk;efak²/ ~ rotationirrelevant EdlminTak;Tg karbþÚrevnkargar/ ~ specialisationirreversible adj. EdlminGacERbRkLas;)anirrevocable adj. minGacbdiesF)an/ ÉkeTskmµkargar/ ~ title eQµaHkargar~ letter of credit sarNTanminGac joblessness PaBGt;kargareFVI/ nikmµPaBbdiesF)an joint (enterprise, committee) cMruHirrigate v. eRsacRsB/ irrigation n. joint (liability) ¬karTTYlxusRtUv¦ rYmKña/issuance kare)aHpSay ¬RkdasR)ak;¦ ~ and several liability karTTYlxusRtUvissue bank FnaKare)aHpSayRkdasR)ak; rYmKñanigerog²xøÜnissue v. (a licence) ecj ¬GaCJab½NѦ/ joint account KNnIrYm ¬manm©as;KNnIBIcurrency issued rUbiyvtßúe)aHpSay 2nak;eLIgeTA¦issuing bank (for a letter of credit) joint inter-ministerial committeeFnaKarebIksarNTan KN³kmµaFikarcMruHGnþrRksYgIT (Information Technology) joint owner m©as;kmµsiTi§rYmKñabec©kviTüaB½t’man joint venture ¬KMerag¦ vinieyaKcMruH/item 1> GIv:an;/ mux ¬TMnij¦ 2> xÞg;/ cancel ~ enterprise shRKassmasPaBesdækic©cMruHan ~ (accounting) bdiesFelxna/ enter joint-stock bank FnaKarrYmPaKh‘unan ~ cuHelxna/ off-balance sheet items joint-stock companyxÞg;eRkAtaragtulükar (see public limited company) saCIvkmµRkumh‘unPaKh‘un 54
  • 62. Economic Lexicon Part 1journal 1> Tinñanub,vtþi ¬KNenyü¦2> sarB½t’manjournal voucher b½NÑTinñanub,vtþi/ L, lskçIb½RtcuHbBa¢Ijournalising karcuHTinñanub,vtþi label søak ¬sMrab;biTelIplitpl¦judgement 1> karvinicä½y labour Blkmµ ¬kargar rWBlkr¦/ casual ~2> salRkm ¬tulakar¦ BlkmµGENþt ¬ry³eBlkargarxøI¦/ manual ~judicial record lixitefáaleTas ¬tulakar¦ htßkmµ/ organised ~ BlkmµcUlshCIB/judicial reform kMENTMrg;RbB½n§yutþiFm’ skilled ~ BlkmµmanCMnaj/ ~ card b½NÑjudiciary GgÁecARkm kargar/ ~ force kMlaMgBlkmµ/ ~ laws c,ab;jump-start cab;epþIm[)anqab; Blkmµ/ ~ productivity plitPaBénBlkmµ/junk n. rbs;Gt;RbeyaCn_/ rbs;eGtcay ~ security snþisuxBlkmµ/ ~ turnoverjuridical Ktiyutþi ¬EdlRsbtamc,ab; nig GRtabuKÁlikecj ¬BIGgÁPaB¦/ ~ union orrebobrbbén c,ab;¼tulakar¦ trade union shCIBjurisdiction Ednsmtßkic©/ yutþaFikar labourer Blkr/ day ~ TinikCn/ Blkrjust adj. RtwmRtUv/ yutþiFm’ suIR)ak;éf¶justification of a project kareFVIyutþikmµ labour-intensive adj. eRbIBlkmµeRcIn/KMerag/ karbgðajehtuplBItMrUvkareFVIKMerag GtiBlkmµ/ ~ industry ]sSahkmµGtiBlkmµjustified (expense...) ¬cMNay>>>¦ man lack kgVH/ ~ of balance )at;tulüPaB/skçIkmµ ~ of confidence kgVHTMnukcitþjustify eFVIyutþikmµ lading n. karpÞúkTMnij/ ~ port kMBg;EppÞúkTMnij laissez-passer lixitebIkpøÚv land dI/ dIFøI/ ~ alienation karepÞrkmµsiT§idI/K, k ~ conflict TMnas;dIFøI/ ~ degradation karcuH KuNPaBdI/ karxUcdI/ ~ dispute vivaTdIFøI/ ~ encroachment karrMelaPykdI/ ~ grabbingkey role tYnaTIKnøwH karT®nÞanykdI/ ~ owner m©as;dI/ ~ ownership kmµsiT§idIFøI/ ~ reform kMENTMrg;dIFøI/ ~ surveykeynote address sunÞrkfaKnøwH GegátdIFøI/ zanKNit/ ~ restructuring karEkERbdIFøIeLIgvij/ ~ settlement dMeNaHkind, payment in karTUTat;Cavtßú RsaydIFøI/ ~ tenure karkan;kab;dI 55
  • 63. Economic Lexicon Part 1land dispute settlement committee 2> plitpllk;dac;CageK/ market ~KN³kmµaFikaredaHRsay)atuPaBdIFøI plitpl¼Rkumh‘un naMmuxeKelITIpSarlandless adj. KµandI leading naMmuxeK/ ~ indicator GaMgDIkaT½rnaMmuxlandlessness PaBKµandIFøI eK ¬Edlbgðajninñakar)anmunGaMDIkaT½rÉeTot¦landlocked country RbeTsKµanRcksmuRT lease Ptisnüa/ karCYl ¬edaymankic©snüa¦/landlord m©as; dI¼pÞH ¬EdlCYl[eK¦ finance ~ PtisnüahirBaØvtßú ¬kñúgenHshRKaslandscape eTsPaB/ protected ~ RtUvkt;RtaRTBüCYlBIeKkñúgtaragtulükar nigtMbn;eTsPaBkarBar eFVIrMls;va¦/ operating ~ PtisnüaRbtibtþikarlarge-scale survey GegátRTg;RTayFM ¬kñúgenHshRKasminRtUvkt;RtaRTBüCYlBIeKkñúglatent minTan;Cak;Esþg taragtulükareT¦launch n. kardak;ecjCaelIkdMbUgnUv lease v. CYl/ ~ back CYlmkvij¬]> plitplelITIpSar¦ least developed countries (LDCs)law c,ab;/ draft ~ esckþIRBagc,ab;/ ~ of RbeTslUtlas;ticCageKcontract c,ab;énkic©snüa ledger (accounting) esovePAFM/Law on Co-Statute of Civil Servants purchase ~ esovePAFMTijc,ab;sþIBI shlkçnþik³m®nþIraCkarsuIvil legacy 1> Gc©½yTanCaclnRTBüLaw on Financial Management ¬tammrtksasn_¦ 2> Gc©½yTan ¬ekrþצc,ab;sþIBIhirBaØvtßúsMrab;karRKb;RKg legal tamc,ab;/ nItüanukUl ~ capital edImTunLaw on Social Security tamc,ab;/ ~ document Éksartamc,ab;/c,ab;sþIBIrbbsnþisuxsgÁm ~ representative GñktMNagtamc,ab;/lawful Rsbc,ab; ~ framework Rkbx½NÐc,ab;/ ~ decisionlawless EdlGt;c,ab; ¬Kµanc,ab;RKb;RKg rW esckþIsMerctamc,ab;/ ~ reserves FnbMrugKµankareKarBc,ab;¦ tamc,ab;laws and regulations c,ab; nig legal effect GanuPaBKtiyutiþbTb,BaØtiþ¼lixitbTdæan legal entity/person nItibuKÁllawsuit erOgkþI legal substance (French: naturelawyer Gñkc,ab;/ emFavI juridique) nItisarCatilay in stock v. bBa©ÚlXøaMg legal tender rUbiymaRta/ R)ak;Edlc,ab;lay off v. bBaÄb;buKÁlik TTYlsÁal;lay out v. cay ¬R)ak;¦ legality PaBtamc,ab;/ nItüanukUlPaBlayout of letter TMrg;¼bøg; sMbuRt legalise v. eFVIeGayeTAtamc,ab;/leader 1> GñkdwknaM/ popular ~ emxül; 56
  • 64. Economic Lexicon Part 1eFVInItüanukUlkmµ lever Xñas;legatee Gc©½yTanlaPI ¬GñkTTYlsñgmrtk leverage KMnas;/ kareRbIkMcImankarR)ak;efrtamry³mrtksasn_¦ eTArksuIedIm,I)ancMeNjelIsBIkarR)ak;legator Gc©½yTayk levy v. & n. 1> hUtBn§ 2> Bn§legislation c,ab;/ nItikmµ ¬CaBiessBn§bEnßm¦legislative power 1> GMNacnItibBaØtþi ¬sPa¦ liabilities bMNul/ RTBüGkmµ/ meet one’s2> GMNacbBaØtþi ¬sßab½nepSgeTot dUcCa liabilities sgbMNulrbs;xøÜnRkumRbwkSaXMu¦ liability 1> bMNul 2> karTTYlxusRtUv/legislative structure rcnasm<½n§nItibBaØtþi ~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgelIPar³TTYlxusRtUvlegislator GñkeFVIc,ab;/ nItiBn§ liable adj. for TTYlxusRtUv ¬tamc,ab;¦ cMeBaHlegislature 1> GgÁnItibBaØtþi ¬GgÁkareFVIc,ab;¦ liaison TMnak;TMng/ sm<n§kar/ ~ office2> nItikal ¬énsPa¦ kariyal½yTMnak;TMnglegitimate eBjlkçN³RtwmRtUv/ eBjc,ab;/ libel karsresrbrihaekrþ×FmµanurUb liberal democracy and pluralism orlend v. eGayx©I liberal multi-party democracylender GñkeGayx©I/ ~ of last resort Gñk[ lT§iRbCaFibetyüesrIBhubkSx©ICacugeRkay liberal profession viC¢aCIv³esrIlending institution sßab½n NTan¼ [x©IR)ak; liberality or liberal gift sT§aTanlessee Ptik³/ GñkCYl ¬BIeK¦ liberalisation esrIPavUbnIykmµ/ ~ oflessor PtibtI/ GñkCYleGay trade esrIPavUbnIykmµBaNiC¢kmµlet v. CYl ¬pÞH/ kariyal½y >>>¦ Libor (London Interbank Offered Rate)letter lixit/ covering ~ (or US: cover ~) GRtakarR)ak;rvagFnaKarBaNiC¢enATIRkugLúglixitGmÉksar/ ~ of attorney lixitepÞrsiT§i/ licence GaCJab½NÑ/ lixitGnuBaØat~ of credit (L/C) lixitNTan/ ~ of licensed manGaCJab½NÑ/ RbtiRsut/ ~ bankexchange rUbiyaNtþi/ ~ of indemnity FnaKarRbtiRsutlixitFanasg/ ~ of intent lixitbBa¢ak;eKal licensed technology bec©kviTüaTijBIeKbMNg/ lixtEsþgectna/ ~ of inquiry lixit i licensee Gñkkan;GaCJab½NÑsaksYrB½t’man/ ~ of non-conviction lixit licit adj. RtUvc,ab;bBa¢ak;faKµaneTas lien 1> R)atiePaKbMNul ¬vtßúdak;FanabMNul¦level kMrit/ multi-level eRcInkMrit/ ~ of 2> siT§iXat;Tukdevelopment kMritGPivDÆn_ life expectancy GayukalmFüm/ Gayurs; 57
  • 65. Economic Lexicon Part 1enAmFüm 2> sac;R)ak;TMenr/ ~ ratio smaPaKsac;R)ak;TMenrlife or death issue bBaðasøab;rs; liquidity (banking) sac;R)ak;nigRTBülife skill bMNinCIvit gaybþÚrCasac;R)ak;/ total ~ rUbiyvtßúTUeTA (M2)life span Gayukal ¬BIeBlekItdl;søab;¦ list bBa¢I/ ~ price éføelIbBa¢I ¬kataLúk¦/lifestyle rebobrs;enA listed company Rkumh‘unEdlmansnøwkh‘unlifetime Gayukal/ mYyGayu lk;-Tij enApSarh‘unLIFO (last in, first out) lIhVÚ ¬cUleRkay litigation bNþwgvivaT/ karbþwgpþl;ecjmun¦ livelihood CIvPaB/ karrkciBa©wmCIvit/likelihood PaBTMng lively y:agskmµ/ ~ market TIpSarmanlimit n. & v. 1> RBMEdn/ ~ of liability skmµPaBrs;revIkRBMEdnénkarTTYlxusRtUv/ 2> dak;kMritRBMEdn livestock stVciBa©wm ¬ykpl¦limitation n. kardak;kMritRBMEdn living 1> CIvPaB/ karrs;enA/ ~ standardlimited liability karTTYlxusRtUvmankMNt;/ kMritCIvPaB/ cost of ~ cMnayRTRTg;karrs;enA~ company Rkumh‘unTTYlxusRtUvmankMrit load factor, passenger (air travel)limited partner GñkcUlh‘unmankMrit GRtabMeBjekAGIGñkdMeNIr ¬tamynþehaH¦¬TTYlxusRtUvmankMrit¦ loading and unloading of goodsline (department) ¬mnÞIr¦ ExSbeNþay karpÞúk nigkarerITMnijline item (budget) matika ¬fvika¦ loading capacity cMNuHpÞúkline of credit or credit linekMritNTan loading port EppÞúkTMnijlink cMNgTak;Tg loan kMcI/ NeTyü/ bMNul/ bridging ~linkage karcgP¢ab;/ cMNgTak;Tg kMcIpøas;pÞHfµI ¬enAeBlpÞHcas;lk;minTan;dac;¦/liquid assets RTBübþÚrykR)ak;)anrh½s soft ~ kMcIkarR)ak;Tab/ ~ at call kMcIKµankalliquid investments vinieyaKedaysac;R)ak; kMNt; ¬RtUvsgvijeBleKTar¦/ personal ~liquidate v. CMrH/ TUTat; ¬bMNul/ bBa¢I¦/ kMcIpÞal;xøÜn/ unsecured ~ kMcIKµankarFana/~ a debt TUTat;bMNulTaMgmUl ~ disbursed kMcI)anebIkpþl;liquidation karrMlay ¬Rkumh‘un¦/ karCMrHbBa¢I/ loan service (interest payment) esvabMNulcompulsory ~ karCMrHbBa¢ICakatBVkic© ¬tam lobby v. ekogKr/ eXasnabBa©úHbBa©ÚlkarsMercrbs;tulakar¦/ voluntary ~ karCMrH local ¬én¦mUldæan/ kñúgRsuk/ ~ authoritybBa¢eI daysµR½ Kcit/þ ~ report r)aykarN_CrM HbBa¢I GaCJaFrmUldæanliquidator GñkCMrHbBa¢I/ GñkRtYtBinitükar location TItaMgbiTRkumh‘un logging karkab;eQI/ illegal ~ karkab;eQIliquidity 1> snÞnIyPaB/ lT§PaBsgbMNul xusc,ab; 58
  • 66. Economic Lexicon Part 1logic tkáviC¢a/ LÚsuik magnitude TMhMlogistics PsþúPar/ karpÁt;pÁg; mail transfer karepÞr¬R)ak;¦taméRbsnIy_logo rUbsBaØa mail, electronic sareGLicRtUnik/ GuIEmllong-life assets RTBüGayukalEvg main adj. cMbglong-term ry³eBlEvg/ TIXkal/ mainstream v. bRBa¢ab~ liabilities bMNulry³eBlEvg maintain v. accounting bookloophole cenøaHRbehag/ tax ~ cenøaHRbehagén kan;kab;bBa¢IKNenyüBn§ ¬EdlGaceKecosvagminbg;Bn§edayRsbc,ab;¦ maintenance karEfTaM/ ~ expenses/loose-leaf ledger esovePAFMsnøwkdac;BIKña costs cMNayEfTaMloss kMhat/karxatbg;/ kar)at;bg;/ actual major adj. cMbg/ sMxan;total ~ kMhatsrubCak;Esþg majority PaKeRcIn/ sMelgPaKeRcIn ¬e)aHeqñat¦lot n. LÚt_/ fishing ~ LÚt_ensaT mala fide seller Gñklk;Edlmanl,ickllow-income group/households minl¥Rkum¼RKYsar manR)ak;cMNUlTab maladministration karRKb;RKgGsmtßPaBlump-sum R)ak;bg;TaMgdul/ ~ payment mal-development karGPivDÆn_xusTMngkarTUTat;tamrebobem:Akar ¬rW qaka¦ malpractice rebobrbbminl¥/ kMhusqÁglump-sum tax Bn§em:Akar malthusianism nibulniym/ m:al;Tusniymluxury RbNit/ ~ goods TMnijRbNit/ manage v. RKb;RKg/ cat;Ecg~ trade BaNiC¢kmµvtßúRbNit management karRKb;RKg/ ~ control karRtYtBinitükarRKb;RKg manager GñkRKb;RKg/ bNÑaFikar/ financialM, m ~ GaNab½k managerial accounting KNenyüRKb;RKgM1 (money) rUbiyvtßú managership PaBCaGñkRKb;RKgM2 (liquidity) rUbiyvtßúTUeTA managing director naykRKb;RKgmacro- m:aRkU mandate n. 1> siT§iGMNac 2> GaNtþimacroeconomic analysis mandate v. 1> pþl;siT§iGMNac 2> tMrUv/ thekarviPaKm:aRkUesdækic© law mandates that... c,ab;tMrUvfamacroeconomic stability sßirPaBm:aRkU mandatory adj. Edlxanmin)anesdækic© manifest nievTnb½NÑ/ bBa¢I GñkdMeNIr¼ TMnijmacroeconomics m:aRkUesdækic© dwkCBa¢Ún ¬tamynþehaH rW nava¦ 59
  • 67. Economic Lexicon Part 1man-made disaster mhnþraybgáedaymnusS market n. TIpSar/ black ~ pSarggwt/manner EbbbT capital ~ TIpSarTun ¬sMrab;vinieyaK¦/manual 1> htßkmµ 2> esovePAk,Ün ~ capitalisation tMélRkumh‘unKittammanufacture kmµnþsal tMélTIpSarénsnøwkh‘un/ closed ~ TIpSarbiTmanufactured goods TMnijkmµnþsal ¬lk;[EttMNagpþac;mux¦/ open ~ TIpSarcMhmanufacturing kmµnþsalkmµ/ karplit ¬RKb;KñaGacTij¼lk;)an¦ ~ demand/need¬y:ageRcIn²edayeRbIm:asuIn¦ tMrUvkarTIpSar/ ~ economy esdækic©TIpSar/margin Gb,har/ kMrit/ m:aCIn/ ~ of error ~ failure braC½yénTIpSar/ ~ forces kMlaMgkMritel¥óg/ ~ of lending kMriteGayx©IR)ak;/ ~ TIpSar/ money/finance ~ TIpSarrUbiyvtßúof profit kMritR)ak;cMeNj ¬kMcIry³eBlxøI²¦/ ~ practice TMlab;TIpSar/marginal benefit plcMeNjÉktabEnßm ~ price éføenATIpSar/ ~ saturation titßikmµ¬kñúgkarbegáInmYyÉktaplitpl¦ kñúgpSar/ PaBEq¥teBjedayTMnijénTIpSar/ ~marginal cost éføedImÉktabEnßm ¬edIm,I segmentation karEbgEckTIpSar/ ~ valueplitbEnßmmYyÉktaplitplelIsEpnkar¦/ tMélTIpSar ¬tMélenAéf¶enH¦/ tMélFanik/bnÞúkcMNaym:ahSúINal; ~ share/penetration cMENkTIpSarmarginal project KMeragbnÞab;bnSM market v. lk;elITIpSar/ ~ a new productmarginal propensity to consume lk;plitplfµIelITIpSarkMritTMenarénkareRbIR)as;bEnßm marketable Gaclk;y:aggaymarginal propensity to save marketing m:aXItTIg/ karbeBa©jlk;elITIpSar/kMritTMenarénkarsnSMbEnßm ~ chain ExScgVak; m:aXITIg¼TIpSarmarginal revenue cMNUlÉktabEnßm market-regulated economy¬BIkarlk;plitplbEnßmmYyÉkta¦ esdækic©TIpSarerobry/ esdækic©niy½tTIpSarmarginal utility plRbeyaCn_ÉktabEnßßm mark-up Gb,harmarginalisation m:aCInUbnIykmµ/ karRcan marriage certificate sMbuRtGaBah_BiBah_cUlsßanPaBKµansiT§iGMNac mass media RbB½n§pSBVpSay ¬B½t’man¦marginal-tax ratio smaPaKkMeNIn mass production karplitRTg;RTayFMcMNUlBn§eFobnwgkMeNInplTunCatisrub master adj. eKal/ em/ ~ budget fvikaem/marine xagsmuRT/ ~ concession Edn ~ map EpnTIeKal/ ~ plan Epnkar¼bøg;eKal/sm,TanTwkéRb/ ~ fisheries ensaTsmuRT/ ~ sample KMrUtagem~ insurance karFanar:ab;rgpøÚvsmuRT master’s degree fñak;GnubNÐitmark down v. bBa©úHéfø matching concept/conventionmark up v. tMelIgéfø eKalkarN_énPaBsuIKña 60
  • 68. Economic Lexicon Part 1material sMPar³/ RkNat; ¬cMNay¦EfTaMsuxPaBmaternal mortality rate medium mFüm/ ~ grade KuNPaBmFüm/GRtamrN³matuPaB ~ term loan kMcIry³eBlmFümmature eBjv½y/ cas;TMu/ ~ economy meet CYb/ edaHRsay/ bMeBj ¬lkçxNЦ/esdækic©rIkcMerIneBjelj ~ a deficit bMeBj»nPaBmaturity bkáPaB/ PaBeBjv½y/ PaBcas;TMu/ meeting CMnYb/ karRbCMu/ ¬RbCMumhaCnkalvsan/ kalkMNt;/ date of ~ éf¶dl; MEFP (Memorandum of EconomickMNt; ¬sg¦ and Financial Policy: for the IMF)maximisation GtibrmanIykmµ GnusSarN³sþIBIeKalneya)ayesdækic©nighirBaØvtßúmayor ecAhVayRkug MFN (Most Favoured Nationmean (statistics) mFüm/ arithmetic ~ clause) lkçxNÐGnueRKaHbMputEpñkBaNiC¢kmµmFümnBVnþ/ geometric ~ mFümFrNImaRt membership smaCikPaBmeans meFüa)ay/ ~ of production memorandum CMnYysµartI/ GnusSarN³/meFüa)ayplitkmµ ~ of association GnusSarN³begáItRkumh‘un/measurability PaBGacvas;)an lkçnþik³Rkumh‘un/ ~ of understandingmeasure 1> TMhM/ rgVas; 2> viFankar/ (MOU) GnusSarN³RBmeRBogeconomic ~ viFankaresdækic©/ fiscal ~ mental ability smtßPaBxagbBaØaviFankarsareBIBn§ mental job kargareRbIxYrk,al ¬EdlRtUvriHKit¦measurement of profitability mercantile adj. énBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ marinekarvas;EvgPaBmancMeNj kgnavaBaNiC¢kmµ¬rbs;RbeTsNamYy¦/mechanism 1> ynþkar 2> esnaFikar ~ country RbeTs ¬mancMNUledaykareFVI¦¬sßab½n¦ BaNiC¢kmµmechanisation ynþkmµ/ ynþtUbnIykmµ mercantilism BaNiC¢kmµniymmedia or mass media RbB½n§pSBVpSay merchandising service establishmentmediation karsMruHsMrYl RKwHsßanesvakmµTMnijmediator GñksMruHsMrYl merchant BaNiC¢krmedic n. GñkevC¢saRsþ merger karrMlaybBa©ÚlKña ¬nUvRkumh‘unBIr rWmedical ¬én¦ evC¢saRsþ/ ~ assistant eRcIn CaRkumh‘unmYy¦CMnYyevC¢saRsþ merit kusl/ kuslkic©/ KuNsm,tþimedical aid n. GñkCMnYyevC¢saRsþ message sarmedical care (expense) messenger narsar/ elxharI 61
  • 69. Economic Lexicon Part 1method viFI misappropriation of public funds vitikmµmethodology viFIsaRsþ FnsaFarN³/ karekgRbv½Ba©RTBüsm,tþisaFarN³micro biology mIRkUCIv³ miscalculate v. KNnaxusmicrocosm Gtisuxumelak miscellaneous epSg²/ KNnIcMNay{epSg²}micro-credit mIRkUNTan misdemeanour bTmCÄwmmicroeconomics mIRkUesdækic© ¬kMritTabCagbT]Rkidæ¦micro-finance mIRkUhirBaØvtßú mission ebskkmµ/ ~ letter lixitbBa¢amiddle class vNѳkNþal ¬rW vNѳKhbtI¦ ebskkmµ/ ~ statement esckþIRbkasebskkmµmiddleman QµÜjkNþal/ KYkeC/ eCIgsar/ misunderstanding karyl;RcLM/ karyl;xus mixed economic entity GgÁPaBesdækic©cMruHGnþrkarI mobilisation of private savingsmigrant CncMNakRsuk/ nirRbevsn_ karekNÐRbmUlR)ak;snSMÉkCnmigrate v. from/to eFVIcMNakRsuk rW mobilise v. ekNÐRbmUl/ RbEmRbmUlcakRsuk BI¼eTA modality of investmentmigration cMNakRsuk/ BhiRbevsn_/ EbbbTénkarvinieyaKsnþrRbevsn_ mode n. m:Ud/ rebobmilestone 1> eKal ¬R)ab;cMgay¦ model n. KMrU2> RBwtiþkarN_sMxan; ¬kñúgdMeNIrkarvivtþn_énGVImYy¦ moderate adj. & n. 1> lµm ¬]> minefakmilieu mCÄdæan minéfø¦ 2> mCÄnikCnmilitary eyaFa/ eyaFin/ ~ region modernisation TMenIbPavUbnIykmµ/ TMenIbkmµeyaFPUmiPaK modernise eFVITMenIbkmµMillennium Development Goals modification karEkERb/ kMENERb(MDGs) eKaledAGPivDÆn_shsSvtSr_ module m:UDIlmineral concentrate Er:cMraj; modus operandi EbbbTRbtibtþikarminicomputer kMBüÜT½rFuntUc momentum snÞúHeCOneTAmux/ kMlaMgrujRcan/minimisation Gb,brmaPavUbnIykmµ/ tax ~ m:Um:g;kareFVI[bnÞúkBn§fycuHTabbMput monetarism rUbiyvtßúniymminimise v. bnßydl;kMritGb,brma monetarisation of the deficitmining GaCIvkmµEr:/ karykEr: rUbiyvtßúnIykmµén»nPaBminor adj. & n. 1> tUctac/ bnÞab;bnSM monetary adj. én rUbiyvtßú¼luy/ ~ policy2> GnItiCn neya)ayrUbiyvtßú/ ~ overhang rUbiyvtßúelIsminority PaKtic/ Gb,PaK tulüPaB/ ~ confidence TMnukcitþelIrUbiyvtßú/ 62
  • 70. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ stabilisation sßirkmµ¼sßirPavUnIykmµrUbiyvtßú/ eRBogBhuPaKI/ ~ aid/assistance CMnYyBhuPaKI~ transaction RbtibtþikarKitCa luy¼rUbiyvtßú multinational BhuCati/ ~ corporationmoney rUbiyvtßú/ luy/ ~ (M1) rUbiyvtßú (M1), Rkumh‘unBhuCati~ (M2) rUbiyvtßúTUeTA (M2), quasi- ~ rUbiy multiple-shop undertakingsvtßúepSg²/ ~ in circulation rUbiyvtßúcracr/ Rkumh‘unmansaxaeRcIn~ economy esdækic©rUbiyvtßú/ ~ laundering multiplier emKuNkarlagluykxVk;/ ~ market TIpSarrUbiyvtßú multi-purpose allocation¬kMcIry³eBl xøI²¦/ ~ supply karpÁt;pÁg; karélEcksMrab;eKaledAeRcIny:agrUbiyvtßú¼sac;R)ak;/ ~/funds at call rUbiyvtßú¼ multi-stage eRcIndMNak;/ ~ designmUlniFiEdlGacpþl;eGay)anPøam² bøg;eRcIndMNak;/ ~ frame eRKageRcIndMNak;/moneylender NTayk/ GñkrksuIcgkarR)ak; ~ sampling karykKMrUtageRcIndMNak;monitor v. XøaMemIl ¬ÉksarxøHeRbIBakütamdan¦ mutation n. rUbvivtþn_monoculture Ékvb,kmµ/ eFVIdMNaMmYymux mutatis mutandis EdlRtUvpøas;bþÚrtammonopolise v. eFVIpþac;mux karcaM)ac;monopoly n. PaBpþac;mux/ monopolistic adj. mutual eTAvijeTAmk/ ~ assistancemonthly RbcaMEx/ ~ statement r)aykarN_¼ karCYyKñaeTAvijeTAmk/ ~ insurancesMrg;KNnI RbcaMEx/ ~ returns cMNUlRbcaMEx karFanar:ab;rgeTAvijeTAmk/ ~ benefitmoral obligation katBVkic©pøÚvcitþ manplRbeyaCn_eTAvijeTAmk/morality sIlFm’/ good ~ mansIlFm’l¥/ mutual fund sgÁhFnsocial ~ sIlFm’sgÁm mutual societies sgÁhsmaKmmorbidity PaBmanCMgWeFVIeGaysøab; mutually supportivemortgage niekçb/ GuIb:UEtk/ vtßúbBa©aMbMNul CYyRTRTg;KñaeTAvijeTAmkmortgagee mças;bMNulGuIb:UEtk/ niekçbKahkmortgager/mortgagor kUnbMNulGuIb:UEtkmost favoured nation (MFN) clause N, nlkçxNÐGnueRKaHbMputEpñkBaNiC¢kmµmotion of censure jtþibenÞas nascent economy esdækic©kMBugcab;kMeNItmotivate v. CMrujTwkcitþ/ bMpusTwkcitþ nation RbCaCati/ sgÁmCatimovable (property) clnvtßú national énCati/ ~ accounting KNenyümulti-disciplinary team RkumBhuCMnaj Cati/ ~ budget support ]btßmÖBIfvikardæmultilateral BhuPaKI/ ~ agreement kic©RBm ¬]> cMeBaHfvikaextþ¦/ ~ bank FnaKarCati/ 63
  • 71. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ debt bMNulCati ¬x©IedayrdæaPi)al¦/ ~ instrument ]bkrN_TUTat;~ income plTunCati/ ~ Institute of negotiate v. crca/ negotiation n.Statistics viC¢asßanCatisßiti/ ~ patrimony neocolonialism GaNaniKmniymEbbfµIebtikP½NÐCati/ ~ product plitplCati/ net suT§/ sCÄtþikr/ ~ exports karnaMecjsuT§/~ economic management karRKb;RKg ~ cost tMél suT§¼sCÄtþikr/ ~ foreign assetsesdækic©Cati RTBüskmµbreTssuT§/ ~ foreign currentnationality sBa¢ati/ ~ of ships sBa¢atinava transfer (NFCT) karepÞrbreTscrnþsuT§/ ~nationalise v. eFVICatUbnIykmµ/ eFVICatikmµ foreign factor income (NFFI) ktþaplTunnationwide TUTaMgRbeTs breTssuT§/ ~ income cMNUlsuT§/ ~ indirectnatural énFmµCati/ ~ condition lkçxNÐ taxes (NIT) Bn§RbeyalsuT§/ ~ nationalFmµCati/ ~ asset RTBüsm,tþiFmµCati ¬FnFan product plTunCatisuT§/ ~ profit R)ak;cMenjFmµCatiGVImYy¦/ ~ disaster eRKaH¼mhnþray suT§/ ~ present value (NPV) tMélbc©úb,nñFmµCati/ ~ unemployment rate GRta suT§/ ~ taxable income cMnUlCab;Bn§suT§/nikmµPaBFmµCati/ ~ resource FnFanFmµCati/ ~ worth mUlniFipÞal;suT§/ tMélBitRTBüskmµsuT§~ loss kar)at;bg; ÉkÉg¼edayFmµCati ¬RTBüskmµKittamtMélBitenATIpSarnature 1> FmµCati 2> critlkçN³ ¬rbs;mnusS¦ ehIydkbMNulcrnþ¦near-liquid asset or near money network bNþajRTBüCitdUcrUbiyvtßú ¬RTBüskmµEdlGacbþÚrCa neutralisation GBüaRkwtPavUbnIykmµ/rUbiyvtßú)any:aggay¦ GBüaRkwtkmµneed tMrUvkar/ ~ for affiliation tMrUvkar new international economic orderedIm,Icgsm<½n§ (NIEO) lMdab;esdækic©GnþrCatifµIneeds tMrUvkar ¬caM)ac;CamUldæan¦/ newly fµI²/ ~ industrialised countries~ assessment study karvaytMélBItMrUvkar (NICs) RbeTseFVI]sSahUbnIykmµfµInegation GviC¢mankmµ newsletter RBwtþib½RtB½t’mannegative adj. GviC¢man/ ~ interest karR)ak; next of kin jatiCitCageKGviC¢man ¬GRtakarR)ak;TabCagGRtaGtiprNa¦ NGO (non-government organisation)negligence kareFVsRbEhs/ gross ~ GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)alkareFVsRbEhsF¶n;F¶r nine years basic educationnegotiable adj. 1>Gaccrca)an/ ~ price karGb;rMmUldæanry³eBl 9qñaMéføGaccrca)an 2>GacCYjdUr)an/ ~ debt nobility vNѳGPiCninstrument rUbiyaNtþiNeTyüGacCYjdUr)an/ nomenclature namvlI ¬matika¦/ muxTMnij~ documents ÉksarykTUTat;)an/ nominal carwk/ ~ GNP plitplCatisrub 64
  • 72. Economic Lexicon Part 1carwk/ ~ rate of interest GRtakarR)ak; carwk/ non-resident GnivasnCn rW GnivasCn~ value tMélcarwk non-returnable packing sMbkevcx©b;nomination karEtgtaMg minRbmUlvijnominee GñkTTYlkarEtgtaMg/ ~ account non-tax features lkçN³minTak;TgnwgBn§darKNnIkan;kab;kñúgnambuKÁlmñak;eTot non-taxable adj. minCab;Bn§/ ~ incomenon-commercial bank FnaKarGBaNiC¢ cMNUlminCab;Bn§non-agricultural or non-farm non-timber forest products (NTFPs) employment kargarminEmnksikmµ GnupléRBeQInon-aligned movement clnamincUl non-urban populationbkSsm½<n§ RbCaCnminEmnGñkTIRkugnon-compliance karminRbtibtþitam/ PaB norm bTdæanminRsbtam normalisation RbRktIPaBkmµ/ bktikmµ/non-concessional adj. minpþl;sm,Tan niy½tkmµnon-convertible currency North, the (countries) ]tþrRbeTsrUbiyvtßúminGacbþÚr ¬ykrUbiyvtßúdéT¦ )an ¬RbeTsGñkman¦non-delivery karminRbKl; notarial deed lixitviBaØabnkmµnon-discriminatory adj. minerIseGIg notary public sarkarInon-durables TMnijminKg;yUr ¬Gahar/ note sarxøI²/ lixit/ kMNt;sMKal;/ advice ~sarB½t’man>>>¦ lixitCUndMNwg/ bank/currency ~ Rkdasnon-food items TMnijminEmnGahar R)ak;/ covering ~ lixitGm/ credit/debit ~non-government organisation lixitNTan¼NBn§/ delivery ~ lixit(NGO) GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al RbKl;TMnij/ dispatch ~ lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij/non-household sector vis½yminTak;Tg promissory ~ b½NÑCMBak;R)ak;/ b½NÑsnüanwgRKYsar noticeable changenon-negotiable instrument ]bkrN_ karERbRbYlKYr[kt;sMKal;minGacykeTATUTat;)an notification karCUndMNwg/ ~ procedurenon-payment karminTUTat; nItiviFICUndMNwgnon-performance karminGnuvtþn_/ notifying bank FnaKarCUndMNwgkarKµanlT§pl notion sBaØaNnon-performing loan kMcIBi)akTar novation kic©RBmeRBogepÞrkic©snüanon-refundable adj. EdlminbgVilsgvij ¬[PaKITI3¦ 65
  • 73. Economic Lexicon Part 1novelty adj. & n. PaB¼rbs; fµIEbøk obsolete hYssm½yNPRS (National Poverty Reduction occupation 1> muxrbr 2> karkan;kab;Strategy) yuT§saRsþCatikat;bnßyPaBRkIRk occupancy rate (hotel) GRtasñak;enAnuclear-family structures rcnasm<½n§ ¬sNæaKar¦RKYsarsñÚl ¬«BukmþaynigkUn¦ occupational accident eRKaHfñak;enAnull and void emaX³ eBlbMeBjkargarnullification emaXkmµ/ nullify v. eFVI[ occupier Gñkkan;kab;eTACaemaX³ oceanography saKrsaRsþnullity emaXPaB odd job kargarl¥itel¥acnumeracy karecHelx odd number elxessnumerator (fraction) PaKyk offence bTelµIs/ eTaskmµnutrition GaharUbtßmÖ offer 1> kareGayéfø/ cash ~ karsMubg;Ca sac;R)ak; 2> karRbkaslk; ¬kñúgéføNamYy¦/ introductory ~ éføTak;m:Uy ¬cMeBaHplitplO, o fµI¦/ special ~ TMnijlk;efakBiess offer and demand karpþl;nigtMrUvkarobedience karsþab;»vaT off-farm employment kargareRkAksidæanobject to v. CMTas;/ RbqaMg officer m®nþIobjection, have no Kµankaryl;Tas; official pøÚvkar/ ~ confirmation esckþIobjective n. & adj. 1> kmµvtßú/ TisedA bBa¢ak;CapøÚvkar/ ~ rate GRtapøÚvkar2> stüanum½t/ EdlQrelIkarBitCak;Esþg Official Gazette raCkic© ¬esovePA¦objectivity kmµvis½yPaB official n. m®nþIpøÚvkar/ GñkpøÚvkarobligation katBVkic©/ be under ~ man officialdom kariyaFibetyükatBVkic©/ meet one’s obligations sg offload v. CMruHecj ¬nUvGVImYyEdlxøÜnbMNulrbs;xøÜn mincg;Tuk ]> snøwkh‘unelIstMrUvkar¦obligatory CakatBVkic©/ xanmin)an offset v. b:Hb:Uvvij/ kat;kgvijobservation 1> karsegát ¬emIl¦ offshore adj. eRkAeqñr ¬eRbgkat¦2> esckþIsegát ¬karkt;sMKal;¦ off-the-job trainingobserve v. segát karbNþúHbNþaldac;BIkargarobserver GñksegátkarN_ ombudsman m®nþIesuIbGegátBIkartv:aobsolescence PaBhYssm½y ¬cMeBaHsßab½nrdæ b¤GgÁkarFM²¦ 66
  • 74. Economic Lexicon Part 1omission 1> karxkxan ¬min)aneFVI¦ operation Rbtibtþikar/ insurance ~2> karkat;ecj 3> GVIEdl min)aneFVI rW kat;ecj RbtibtþikarFanar:ab;rgomnibus adj. cMruHmux/ ~ agreement operational costs bnÞúkcMNayRbtibtþikarkic©RBmeRBogcMruHmux/ ~ bill of lading operative system RbB½n§RbtibtþikarGBaØtb½RtrYm operator Rbtibtþikron an equal footing edayesµIPaBnigesµIsiT§i opinion eyabl;/ mti/ ~ poll karsÞg;mtion the path of reform elImaKa’énkMENTMrg; opportunity kalanuvtþiPaB/ »kasonerous adj. Gs;esah‘uyeRcIn opportunity cost tMél»kasRtUv)at;bg;/one-stop service esvaRckecjcUlEtmYy tMélénkarlHbg;ongoing activity skmµPaBkMBug dMeNIrkar¼ opposition 1> karRbqaMg rW CMTas;RbRBwtþeTA 2> bkSRbqaMgon-the-job training karbNþúHbNþal optical fiber cable ExSkabGubTicP¢ab;nwgkargar optimal allocation karélEckRbesIrbMputopen adj. cMh/ ~ economy esdækic©ebIk optimism suTidiæniymcMh/ ~ account KNnIcMh ¬kt;RtakarTij optimistic estimate kar)a:n;sµansuTidæieCOedayGñkTijKµandak;vtßúFana¦ optimise v. eFVIeGay)anRbesIr ¬bMput¦open balance smtulümanelx ¬minsUnü¦ option CMerIs/ at your ~ tamCMerIsrbs;Gñk/open cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtKµanqUt ¬b¤cMh¦ share ~ siT§iTijPaKh‘un ¬kñúgéføNamYyenAopen credit NTanKµandak;vtßúFana eBlNamYy¦ naGnaKt¬sMrab;GtifiCnl¥rbs;FnaKar¦ oral agreement/contractopen market pSarcMh/ pSaresrI/ kic©RBmeRBog¼ kic©snüapÞal;mat;~ operations RbtibtþikarelIpSarcMh ¬minEmnCalaylkçN_GkSr¦open policy eKalneya)ayebIkTUlay order 1> bBa¢a/ provincial/municipal ~open the trade sector v. dIkaextþ¼Rkug/ 2> lMdab; 3> sNþab;Fñab;/ebIkTUlayvis½yBaNiC¢kmµ public ~ sNþab;Fñab;saFarN³opening balance smtulüedImRKa order for payment (French: mandatopening bank (for letters of credit) de dépense) GaNtþiebIkR)ak;cMNayFnaKarebIksarNTan order form/slip b½NÑbBa¢aTijoperating budget fvikaRbtibtþikar order, purchase b½NѼkar bBa¢aTijoperating costs/expenses bnÞúkcMNay ordinary share PaKh‘unsamBaØRbtibtþikarFmµta ordnance yuT§P½NÐ/ unexploded ~ 67
  • 75. Economic Lexicon Part 1yuT§P½NÐminTan;pÞúH outlook TsSnvis½y/ karRbemIlemIlGnaKtorganic agriculture ksikmµsrIragÁ output Fatuecj/ plitpl/ final ~organic/organisational law Fatuecj sMerc¼cugeRkayc,ab;erobcMGgÁkar output tax or VAT (value added tax)organisation chart GgÁkarelx GakrelItMélbEnßmorganisational structure outreach kareQagdl;/ karQandl;rcnasm<½n§cat;taMg outsource v. cuHkic©snüaxageRkAOrganisation for Economic outstanding adj. enACMBak;/ ~ balance Cooperation and Development smtulüenACMBak;/ ~ cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt (OECD) GgÁkarshRbtibtþikaresdækic© minTan;sgR)ak;/ ~ loans kMcIenACMBak; ~ nigGPivDÆn_ student sisSBUEkorientation kartMrg;Tis outstanding obligations (debt)oriented (orientated) tMrg;eTArk/ sMedA/ bMNulhYskalbriecäTmanninñakareTArk outward-looking countryorigin RbPBedIm/ edImkMeNIt/ bJsKl;/ RbeTsebIkcMh ¬eq<aHeTAxageRkA¦certificate of ~ viBaØabnb½RtRbPBedIm TMnij/ overcapacity smtßPaBelIs ¬tMrUvkarplit¦country of ~ RbeTsRbPBedIm overcharge kMérykelIs ¬elIskMritsmrmü¦origin, zero point Kl;G½kS overcontrol karRtYtBinitühYsoriginal cost tMélenAeBlcUl overdraft 1> kardkR)ak;elIsR)ak;beBaØI¬tMélsMPar³eBlTijcUl¦ 2> NTankMNt;/ NTanelIssmtulüoriginal invoice vikáybRtedIm ¬FnaKar¦originating bank FnaKarebIksarNTan overdraft, to grant anorthodox policy eKalneya)aysmµamti GnuBaØatNTanelIssmtulü¬RsmtamkarCMenO¼mtiCaTUeTA¦ overdue hYskalkMNt;sg/ ~ bill lixitoutcome lT§pl TarR)ak;hYskalkMNt;/ ~ loans R)ak;kMcIoutdated, out-of-date hYssm½y hYskalkMNt;sg/ ~ payment karsgR)ak;outflow lMhUrecj hYskalkMNt;sgoutgoing letters lixitecj overfishing karensaTRtIhYsRbmaNoutgoings cMNay overheads or overhead expenses/costsoutlays (financial) cMNay/ debt cMNay Rbeyal¼TUeTA ¬cMNayeTogTat; nigamortisation ~ cMNayrMls;bMNul sMxan;² dUcCa QñÜlpÞH/ TUrs½BÞ/ sMPar³kariyal½y>>>outlet kEnøglk;ecj EdlminTak;TgedaypÞal;nwgkarplit¦ 68
  • 76. Economic Lexicon Part 1overheated economy esdækic©rt;ekþAeBk ¬bBa¢IbBa¢ak;karevcx©b;TMnij¦¬kMeNInskmµPaBesdækic©EdleFVI[mankMeNIn packing, non-returnableGtiprNa¦ sMbkevcx©b;minRmmUlykvijoverlap RtYtKña/ KgKña pact ktikasBaØa ¬kic©RBmeRBogCapøÚvkar¦overlook emIlrMlg paddy RsUv/ ~ husking karkinRsUv/overpopulation RbCaCneRcInhYs ~ plots GMBkERsoverproduction briplitkmµ/ karplitelIs paid holidays éf¶Qb;sMrakmanebovtSr_overriding (in law) sMxan;CagGVIÉeTot paid-up capital mUlFn)anbg;CMrHover-sampling karykKMrUtagelIs ¬edImTunEdl)anbg;ehIy¦overseas adj. enAbreTs/ ~ branches panel of experts KN³CMnajkarsaxaenAbreTs panic karP½yep¥Il/ GehtuP½y/ financial ~oversight 1> karRbEhsePøcPøaMg GehtuP½yhirBaØvtßú2> karemIlxusRtUvelI/ karTTYlbnÞúk paper loss/profit cMeNj¼xat elIRkdasoverspending cMNayhYskMNt; ¬RTBü)ancuH¼ekIntMélb:uEnþminTan;)anlk;ecjeT¦overstaffed EdlmanbuKÁlikeRcInhYs paper money luyRkdas/ RkdasR)ak;overtime, work v. eFVIkarem:agbEnßm paperwork kargarRkdassñamoverview karBinitüCaTUeTA/ TsSn³rYm par value tMélcuHelIb½NÑ ¬rW tMélcarwk¦overwhelming majority PaKeRcInelIslb; paradox brmti/ Rbtimtiowner m©as;/ m©as;kmµsiT§i/ kmµsiT§ikr/ ~ of paradoxically EdlRbTaMgRbeTIsépÞkñúgthe goods m©as;TMnij paramedic n. GñkGmevC¢saRsþownership kmµsiT§i/ PaBCam©as; paramedical adj. GmevC¢saRsþ parameter ):ar:aEm:Rt pare the budget v. bnßyfvikabnþicmþg²P, p parent company Rkumh‘unem park ]Tüan/ national ~ ]TüanCatipackage kBa©b;/ ~ budget kBa©b;fvika/ partiality n. PaBlMeGog ¬kñúgkarCYyKaMRT¦pay/salary ~ kBa©b;ebovtSr_ ¬ebovtSr_ nig participant n. GñkcUlrYmR)ak;]btßmÖepSg² sMrab;kargarGVImYy¦ ~ tour participate v. cUlrYmkBa©b;ExSTsSnkic© participation 1> karcUlrYmpackaging (accounting) sMbkevcx©b; 2> PaKkmµ ¬karbNþak;Tun¦packing list bBa¢Ievcx©b; 69
  • 77. Economic Lexicon Part 1participatory poverty assessment pay out v. TUTat;¼bg; R)ak;ecj(PPA) karvaytMélPaBRkIRkedaymankarcUlrYm pay up v. TUTat;sgR)ak;CMBak;eKparticipatory rural appraisal (PRA) payable adj. sg)an/ ~ to bearerkarvaytMélCnbTedaymankarcUlrYm sgeGayGñkkan;/ ~ to order sgtambBa¢apartner édKU/ smaKt/ GñkcUlh‘un payback period 1> ry³eBlRtUvsgkMcIvijpartnership 1> PaBCaédKU 2> CMnYjh‘unKña 2> ry³eBl RbmUlTun)anvij¼Rsg;edImpart-time work kargarmineBjem:ag ¬)ancMeNjesµITundak;cuH¦party (to the contract) PaKI ¬énkic©snüa¦ payee GñkRtUv)anbg;R)ak;[pass the test (education) eFVIetsþCab; payer Gñkbg;R)ak;¬[eK¦passbook esovePAR)ak;beBaØI paying bank FnaKarTUTat;passive adj. Gkmµ paying business GaCIvkmµ¼CMnYj Edlpassport lixitqøgEdn pþl;cMeNjpast-due debt bMNulhYs kalkMNt;¼ payment karTUTat;/ karbg;R)ak;/ karsgR)ak;/éf¶kMNt;sg ~ by instalments karsgbNþak; ¬]> tamEx¦/patent RbkasnIyb½Rt ¬GnuBaØateGayRbkb ~ credit NTanTUTat;/ ~ currency rUbiyvtßúGaCIvkmµ¦/ )a:tg;/ ~ licence b½NÑ):atg; TUTat;/ ~ in kind karTUTat;Cavtßú/ ~ systemspatrimony ebtikP½NÐ/ RTBüsm,tþi/ RbB½n§TUTat;/ ~ mechanism ynþkarTUTat;/ekrþ×mrtk ¬EdlmanCab;tmkBIxag«Buk¦ ~ warrant GaNtþiebIkR)ak;patron Gñk]btßmÖ/ emekIy/ bri)al payoff n. R)ak;bg;pþac;pattern lMnaM/ KMrU/ trading ~ lMnaMeFVI payout n. 1> R)ak;TUTat;ecj 2> R)ak;bg;CYyBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ of rotation lMnaMvilpøas;bþÚrKña Rkumh‘unNamYy ¬]> edayrdæaPi)al¦pawn v. bBa©aM payroll bBa¢I¼tarag ebovtSr_pawnbroker kugsuI ¬bBa©aM¦ peace building karksagsnþiPaBpay as you earn (PAYE) pecuniary Tak;TgnwgR)ak;kas/ ~ motivesRbB½n§Bn§kat;TukelIR)ak;ebovtSr_ ehtuplxagluykak;pay at sight sgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksar penalise v. Bin½y/ dak;eTaspay back v. sgvij penalty eTasT½NÐ/ eTasbBaØtþi/ karpakBin½ypay n. ebovtSr_/ R)ak;kMér/ holidays with ~ pending accounts KNnIBüÜr ¬rg;caMéf¶Qb;sMrakmanebovtSr_/ leave without ~ karedaHRsay¦karQb;sMrakKµanebovtSr_ pension esaFnnivtþn_/ R)ak;ruWERtt/ ~ fundpay off v. 1> TUTat;¼bg; pþac; mUlniFiesaFnnivtþn_2> TUTat;R)ak;pþac; nigbBa©b;kargarGñkNamñak; 70
  • 78. Economic Lexicon Part 1pensioner GñkTTYlesaFnnivtþn_ perpetual inventory systemper diem ¬R)ak;¦ cMNaytaméf¶ ¬Kittam RbB½n§sareBIP½NÐnirnþn_cMnYnéf¶ nigtamFmµtamanGRtaesµIKñasMrab; perpetuity nic©PaBbuKÁlikRKb;kMrit¦ person buKÁl/ physical/natural ~percentage PaKry rUbvnþbuKÁl/ legal person/entity nItibuKÁlperception sBaØaxn§/ cMNab;GarmµN_ personal pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ consumptionperformance TegVI/ karGnuvtþn_/ lT§pl/ kareRbIR)as;pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ effects sMPar³~ standard sþg;dar lT§pl¼Rbtibtþi eRbIR)as;pÞal;xøÜn/ ~ loan kMcIpÞal;xøÜn ¬sMrab;performing EdldMeNIrkar/ ~ asset kareRbIR)as;kñúgRKYsar rW pÞal;xøÜn minEmnsMrab;RTBüskmµdMeNIrkar/ non ~ asset RTBüskmµ GaCIvkmµeT¦/ ~ property RTBüpÞal;xøÜn/mindMeNIrkar ~ revenue R)ak;cMNUlbuKÁl/ ~ sellingperiod ry³eBl/ GMLúgeBl/ RKa ¬KNenyü¦ kareXasnapSaylk;pÞal; ¬énbuKÁlmñak;¦/periodic tamkalkMNt;/ eTogeBl/ samayik/ ~ income tax Bn§elIR)ak;cMNUlbuKÁl~ control system RbB½n§RtYtBinitütamkal personal identification numberkMNt;/ ~ order system RbB½n§bBa¢aTijeTogeBl (see PIN)periodical n. kalikb½Rt ¬TsSnavdþI/ personality 1> buKÁliklkçN³ ¬KYrkt;sMKal;¦RBwtþib½Rt>>>¦ 2> Gñkl,Il,ajperiodically edayeTogeBl personnel buKÁlik/ ~ benefits GtßRbeyaCn_periodicity samyikPaB pþl;eGaybuKÁlikperishable adj. EdlgayxUc¬KuNPaB¦/ perspective yfaTsSn_/ TsSnvis½y~ goods TMnijgayxUc PERT (Programme Evaluation andperishables n. TMnijgayxUc Review Techniques) bec©keTsBinitüperks (or perquisites) GtßRbeyaCn_ vaytMélKMerag ¬rW kmµviFI¦bEnßm ¬pþl;CabEnßmelIebovtSr_¦ pessimistic estimate kar)a:n;sµanTuTidæipermanent Gcié®nþy_/ ~ establishment pesticides fñaMsMlab;stVcéRgRKwHsßanGcié®nþy_/ RKwHsßanCab;lab;/ ~ organ petition jtþiGgÁkarGcié®nþy_ petroleum eRbgkat/ eRbgn§n³/ ~ securitypermit lixitGnuBaØat/ Tidæakar/ building ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBogsþIBI snþisuxeRbgn§n³lixitGnuBaØatsagsg;/ export/import ~ petty cash sac;R)ak;bnþicbnþÜc/ ~ custodianlixitGnuBaØatnaMecj¼naMcUl/ work ~ lixit Gñkkan;hibR)ak; ¬R)ak;tictYc¦/ ~ book esovePAGnuBaØateGayeFIVkar ¬sMrab;CnbreTs¦ cMNaytUctac/ ~ fund ebLa/ mUlniFisMrab; 71
  • 79. Economic Lexicon Part 1cMNaybnþicbnþÜc/ ~ voucher b½NÑcMNayebLa planning Epnkarkmµ/ kareFVIEpnkar/Ph.D. (degree) fñak;bNÐit karksagEpnkarphase n. dMNak;kal plant n. 1> eragcRk 2> eRKOgm:asuInPhillips curve ExSekaghVIlIB ¬bgðaj plantation cMkar/ rubber ~ cMkarekAs‘UTMnak;TMngrvagGRtaERbRbYlénR)ak;ebovtSr_ platform evTika/ kmµviFIneya)ay ¬rbs;eTAnwgkMritnikmµPaB¦ KNbkS¦phone card s½BÞb½Rt ¬katTUrs½BÞ¦ playback karcak;eLIgvij ¬ExSGat;>>¦physical rUbvnþ/ Cak;Esþg/ ~ accounts pledge karsnüa/ R)ak;snüaeGayKNenyürUbFatu/ ~ environment brisßan plenary session sm½yRbCMueBjGgÁrUbvnþ/ ~ factor ktþarUbvnþ/ ~ infrastructure plot dILÚt_/ k,aldIehdæarcnasm<½n§rUbvnþ/ ~ investment vinieyaK plough back v. vinieyaKbnþ ¬nUvR)ak;cMeNj¦rUbvnþ ¬CasMPar³/ R)ak;kas>>¦/ ~ resources pocket of poverty RcklðkmanPaBRkIRkFnFanrUbvnþ ¬GaKar/ ]bkrN_>>¦ polarisation, social PaB)ak;EbksgÁm/physical therapist GñkBüa)aledayclna karRbmUlpþúMCa ¬BIr¦RkummanKMnitpÞúyKñaphytosanitary PUtKamGnam½y police record, copy of thepiece rate GRtatamÉktaplit lixitefáaleTas ¬rbs;b:UlIs¦¬kMérKittambrimaNplit)an¦ policy brief segçbsMrab;eKalneya)aypilot project KMeragsakl,g policy formulation nimµitkmµ¼karksagPIN (personal identification number) eKalneya)ayelxsMKal;pÞal;xøÜn/ elxGtþsBaØaNbuKÁl policy framework Rkbx½NÐeKalneya)aypioneer industry ]sSahkmµQanmux policymaker Gñkksag¼GñkkMNt;pioneering work kargarQanmux¼RtYsRtay eKalneya)ay political platform (of a party)pisciculture karciBa©wmRtI/ mcävb,kmµpittance R)ak;cMNUld¾sþÜcesþIg kmµviFIneya)ay ¬rbs;KNbkS¦ poll n. kare)aHeqñatplace kEnøg polling station kariyal½ye)aHeqñatplan n. Epnkar/ five-year ~ EpnkarR)aMqñaM/ pollutant n. sarFatubMBulinvestment ~ EpnkarvinieyaK/ rolling ~ pollution karbMBul/ air ~ karbMBulxül;EpnkarrMkil polyculture kareFVIVdMNaMeRcInmux/ Bhuvb,kmµplanned economy esdækic©Epnkar population RbCaCn/ ~ growth rate GRtaplanner GñkeFVIEpnkar/ EpnkarI kMeNInRbCaCn/ ~ policy eKalneya)ayRbCaCn 72
  • 80. Economic Lexicon Part 1port of loading/shipment kMBg;EppÞúkTMnij pragmatic adj. EdlKitBIlT§pl/ Edlmanplportfolio investments vinieyaKCamUlb½Rt pre- mun/ buer/ pre-Angkor buerGgÁr/¬PaKh‘unTaMgGs;rbs;vinieyaKinNamñak;¦ pre-crisis munvibtþi/position 1> CMhr pre-action controls karRtYtBinitümunskmµPaB2> tMENg/ vacant ~ tMENgTMenr precarious path KnøgeRKaHfñak;positive adj. viC¢man/ ~ balance of precedent n. krNIyutþisaRsþ ¬tulakar¦payments CBa¢IgTUTat;viC¢man/ ~ cash flow preceding mun/ ~ year qñaMmun ¬qñaMmunTI1¦lMhUrsac;R)ak;viC¢man ¬sac;R)ak;hUrcUlFMCag precious stones t,Úg ¬fµ¦ mantMélsac;R)ak;ecj¦/ ~ interest karR)ak;viC¢man preclude RcanecalCamun¬GRtakarR)ak;x<s;CagGRtaGtiprNa¦ pre-concession inventorypossession karkan;kab;/ ePaK³ sareBIP½NÐbuersm,Tanpost CaeRkay/ ~ auditing svnkmµCaeRkay precondition buerlkçxNÐ ¬lkçxNÐRtUvpost a profit/loss RbkasCa saFarN³¼ bMeBjCamun¦pøÚvkar BI cMeNj rW kMhat predictability n. PaBGacTsSn_Tay)an/post an entry/item to the ledger TsSlT§PaBcuHelxnaeTAkñúgesovePAFM predictable adj. GacTsSn_Tay)anpost-action controls karRtYtBinitü preemption siT§iTijmuneK ¬nUvsnøwkh‘uneRkayskmµPaB ecjpSayfµIEfmeTot¦post-date v. cuHkalbriecäTGnaKt pre-existing condition lkçxNÐmantaMgBImunpotential n. & adj. 1> skþanuBl pre-feasibility study karsikSamun2> skþanuPUt karsikSaBIPaBGaceFVI)anpotentiality skþanuPaB preference cMNUlcitþpoverty PaBRkIRk/ TurKtPaB/ ~ reduction preference share h‘unGnueRKaH ¬EdlCakarkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk/ ~ line bnÞat;RkIRk erOy² KµansiT§ie)aHeqñateT b:uEnþTTYl)anPaKpower GMNac/ siT§iGMNac/ kMlaMg/ GanuPaB laPmunh‘unÉeTot nigRtUvsgmunh‘unFmµta kñúgpower boat Lúgbut ¬GUb½r¦ krNIrMlayRkumh‘un¦power grid/network bNþajGKÁIsnI preferential EdlmansiTi§/ EdleKcUlcitþpower of attorney lixitRbKl;siT§i ¬CagGVImYyeTot¦/ ~ creditor NTaykpractice karGnuvtþn_ Cak;Esþg¼RbcaM/ mansiTi§TarbMNulmun/ ~ duty (tariff) GRtaprofessional ~ RbRBwtþikmµviC¢aCIv³ Bn§KyGnueRKaHBiess ¬Tab¦practitioner GñkGnuvtþ ¬RbcaM¦ pre-investment agency TIPñak;garBinitü 73
  • 81. Economic Lexicon Part 1lT§PaBmuneBlvinieyaK prices to suit all pockets éføsmRsbprejudice 1> buervinicä½y 2> kareFVI[xUcxatdl; nwglT§PaBTijrbs;RKb;Kñapreliminary adj. epþImmux/ ~ discussion pricing karkMNt;éfø/ ~ system RbB½n§kMNt;éføkarBiPakSaepþImmux clearance ~ karkMNt;éføedIm,IbeBa©jTMnijpremises GaKar nigdICitGaKar ¬kmµsiT§ikr primary bzm/ dMbUg/ ~ factor income ktþaEtmYy¦ cMNUlbzm/ ~ factor of production ktþapremium buBVlaP/ at a ~ Edllk;)anéfø plitkmµbzm/ ~ health care (PHC) karEfTaM¬elIsFmµta¦/ insurance ~ buBVlaPFanar:ab;rg suxPaBbzm/ ~ needs tMrUvkarcaM)ac; CamUldæan/prepaid expense cMNaybg;mun ~ sampling unit (PSU) ÉktaykKMrUtagprepaid income cMNUlTTYlmun dMbUg/ ~ selection CMerIsdMbUg/ ~ stratificationprerequisite buBVlkçxNÐ RsTab;nIykmµdMbUg/ ~ -sampling frameprescription bBaØtþi¼evC¢bBa¢a (PSF) eRKagykKMrUtagdMbUgpresent v. bgðaj/ presenter Gñkbgðaj/ primary education karGb;rMkMritbzmpresentation bTbgðaj prime cost tMélplitpÞal; ¬KµanbUkcMnayTUeTA¦present value tMélbc©úb,nñ principal (in power transfer) GaNtþiTaykpress release RbkasB½t’man principal accountantprestige kitüanuPaB/ PaBefáIg/ ~ product KNenyükredImExS ¬RksYghirBaØvtßú¦plitplRbNitfáúMefáIg principal insurance companypresumption karsnµtCamun/ sc©FarN_/ Rkumh‘unFanar:ab;rgedIm~ of innocence sc©FarN_énnireTas principle of equality and mutual benefitpre-tax profit cMeNjmunbg;Bn§ eKalkarN_esµIPaBnigmanRbeyaCn_eTAvijeTAmkprevalence eRbv:aLg;¼PaBCaTUeTA prior adj. BImun/ ~ agreementprice éfø/ agreed ~ éføRBmeRBog/ all-in ~ kic©RBmeRBogBImunéføsBVRKb;/ bargain ~ or cut ~ éføefakNas;/ prioritise v. eFVIGaTiPavUbnIykmµlist ~ éføelIbBa¢I¬kataLúk¦/ ~ and salary priority n. GaTiPaB/ have/take ~ overfreeze karTb;éfø nigebovtSr_mineGayeLIg/ manGaTiPaBelI~ discrimination karerIseGIgkñúgkarkMNt;éfø/ private company or privately owned~ list bBa¢Iéføø/ closing/opening ~ éføeBl company Rkumh‘unÉkCnehobbiThag¼ebIklk;/ cost ~ éføedIm/ private income cMNUleRkABIebovtSr_competitive ~ éføRbkYtRbECg/ fair ~ éfø private investor vinieyaKinÉkCnyutþiFm’/ rock bottom ~ éføefakbMput/ selling ¬mnusSFmµtaEdlmanR)ak;vinieyaK¦~ éfølk;/ ~ fixing karXubXitkMNt;éfø private economic entity 74
  • 82. Economic Lexicon Part 1GgÁPaBesdækic©ÉkCn kic©snüaEbgEckplitkmµprivatisation ÉkCnnIykmµ/ ÉkCnPavUbnIykmµ productive adj. manplitPaB/ ~ assetsprivilege 1> ÉksiT§i ¬GtßRbeyaCn_Biess¦ RTBüskmµmanplitPaB/ ~ ratio smaPaK2> buBVsiT§i ¬siT§iBiess¦ plitPaBpro forma invoice vikáybRtbeNþaHGasnñ productivity plitPaBproactive skmµRKb;RKg/ skmµRbyuT§ profession n. viC¢aCIv³/ medical ~ viC¢aCIv³probability RbU)ab‘ÍlIet/ PvnIyPaB/ ¬xag¦ eBTü~ sampling karykKMrUtagedayRbU)ab‘ÍlIet professional énviC¢aCIv³/ ~ fees esah‘uyprocedural law (French: code de viC¢aCIv³/ ~ secrecy karrkSasMgat;viC¢aCIv³procédure) c,ab;nItiviFI profile n. TMrg;/ rUbPaBTUeTA ¬]> énRkumh‘unprocedure nItiviFI cMeBaHsaFarNCn¦proceeds R)ak;cMNUl/ pl/ net ~ cMNUlsuT§ profit cMeNj/ R)ak;cMeNj/ healthy ~process dMeNIrkar cMeNjeRcIn/ ~ margin GRtacMeNj/ Gb,har/processing karEkécñ/ RbRBwtþkmµ/ karcat;Ecg ~ sharing karEbgEckR)ak;cMeNj¬Tinñn½y>>¦/ certificate of ~ viBaØabnb½RtbBa¢ak; profit and loss account or profit andBIkEnøgEkécñ loss statement (US) KNnIcMeNjxatproclamation esckþIRbkas/ karRbkas KNnIlT§pl/ r)aykarN_cMNUlcMNayprocurement lT§kmµ/ karpÁt;pÁg;/ ~ phase profitability PaBmancMeNjdMNak;kalpÁt;pÁg; programme of action kmµviFIskmµPaBproducer plitkr/ ~ surplus plelIs)an progress vDÆnPaB/ PaBeCOnelOn/ CMenOn/dl;plitkr ~ report r)aykarN_CMenOn/ ~ paymentproduct plitpl/ ~ breadth cMnYnmuxplitpl/ karTUTat;tamdMNak;énCMenOnkargar/ in ~ kMBug~ cycle vdþplitpl/ ~ depth Funplitpl eCOnelOn¬kñúgExSplitplnimYy²¦/ ~ line/ range ExS progressive personal income taxplitpl ¬plitplRbhak;RbEhlKña 1ExS¦/ Bn§kMeNIntamfñak;elIcMNUlbuKÁl~ mix l,ayplitpl ¬plitplTaMgGs; prohibition karhamXat;Edldak;lk; rWplitedayshRKasNamYy¦ prohibitive adj. 1> Edlx<s;hYslT§PaBproduction plitkmµ/ ~ accounts KNnI ¬éfø/ tMél¦ 2> EdlhamXat; ¬c,ab;¦plitkmµ/ ~ cost cMNayplitkmµ/ ~ line project KMerag/ ~ appraisal karvaytMélExSsgVak;plitkmµ/ ~ system RbB½n§plitkmµ KMerag/ ~ cycle vdþénKMerag/ ~ formulationproduction-sharing contract (PSC) karksagKMerag/ ~ justification yutþikmµKMerag/ 75
  • 83. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ proposal sMeNIKMerag/ ~ implementation prosecutor RBHraCGaCJakarGnuvtþn_KMerag/ prospect niTsSn_ ¬karrMBwgTuk¦projection karKn;KUrCamun prospecting licence GaCJab½NÑsMrab;karproliferation karrIksay ¬cMnYn¦ rukrk ¬eRbgkat/ Er:>>>¦promise to pay (French: engagement de prospective buyer GñkTijkñúgkarrMBwgdépense) karsnüacMNay prospector Gñkrukrk ¬Er:>>>¦/ buersIpromissory note b½NÑCMBak;R)ak;/ b½NÑsnüasg prospectus briyayb½NÑpromotion 1> kartMelIgzan³ ¬buKÁlik¦ prosperity vibulPaB2> karpSBVpSay ¬lk;plitpl¦ protection kic©¼kar karBar/3> karCMruj/ ~ of commercial interests environment(al) ~ kic©karBarbrisßankarCMrujplRbeyaCn_BaNiC¢kmµ protectionist measurepromotional strategy viFankarkarBarplitplkñúgRsukyuT§saRsþpSBVpSay ¬lk;plitpl¦ protocol 1> BiFIsar ¬Éksar¦prompt adj. Pøam²/ ~ cash R)ak;bg;dl;éd/ 2> BiFIkar ¬sMrab;BiFIepSg²¦~ delivery karRbKl;Pøam²/ ~ payment protracted war s®gÁamruaMér:karTUTat;Pøam² provision 1>esckþIEcg/ bTb,BaØtþi rWbBaØtiþproof Psþútag/ skçIkmµ ¬c,ab;¦/ final ~Gvsanb,BaØtþi/ transitionalpropensity TMenar/ ]bnisS½y ~ Gnþrb,BaØtþi 2> viFankareRtom 3> vtßúpÁt;pÁg;/property RTBü/ sm,tþi/ RTBüsm,tþi/ sMviFanvtßúkmµsiT§i/ dInigGaKar/ ~ insurance karFana provision dealer, retail Gñklk;raynUvr:ab;rgRTBüsm,tþi/ ~ tax Bn§elIRTBüsm,tþi¼ TMnijes,ógGaharkmµsiT§i provision reserve sMviFanFnproportion n. smamaRt/ in ~ to provisional invoice vikáybRtbeNþaHGasnñsmamaRtnwg proxy 1> GñkTTYlkarepÞrsiT§i/ GaNtþiKahkproportional allocation 2> ÉksarsiT§iRbTan/ lixitepÞrsiT§ikarélEcksmamaRt 3> siT§iRbTan/ karepÞrsiT§iproportional tax system RbB½n§Bn§smamaRt prudent monetary policyproposal sMeNI/ project ~ sMeNIKMerag eKalneya)ayrUbiyvtßúRbugRby½tñproprietor, proprietress, n. m©as;/ kmµsiT§ikr prudential measure viFankarRbugRby½tñprosecution 1> bNþwgsaFarN³/ karbþwgecaT prudential rule viFanRbugRby½tñRbkan; 2> Gyükar ¬PaKIedImecaTkñúgerOgRBhµTNЦ 76
  • 84. Economic Lexicon Part 1public administration rdæ)alsaFarN³ purposive sampling karykKMrUtagtampublic n. & adj. 1>saFarNCn/ general eKaledA~ saFarNCn 2>saFarN³/ ~ accounting/accounts KNenyüsaFarN³/ ~ company Q, qor ~ limited company (PLC) Rkumh‘unPaKh‘un/ saCIvkmµ ¬manecjsnøwkh‘unlk;[ qualification KuNvuDÆi/ kMritCMnaj/saFarNCn¦/ ~ finance hirBaØvtßúsaFarN³/ KuNsm,tþixagCMnaj/ lkçN³sm,tþi~ adminstrative establishment RKwHsßan qualified acceptance karTTYlRBmrdæ)alsaFarN³/ ~ entity GgÁPaBrdæ ~ order edaymanlkçxNÐsNþab;Fñab;saFarN³/ ~ proclamation qualitative énKuNPaB/ ~ methodesckþIRbkasCasaFarN³/ ~ sector vis½y viFIsaRsþ ¬viPaK¦ tamEbbKuNPaBsaFarN³/ ~ utilities shRKaspÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ quality shipped KuNPaB ¬TMnij¦ eBlpÞúk¬pþl;esvasMrab;plRbeyaCn_saFarN³dUcCa quality standard sþg;darKuNPaB/Twk/ GKÁIsnI/ ]sµ½n/ TUrKmnaKmn_¦/ ~ works bmanIyKuNPaBsaFarN³kar quantitative énbrimaN/ ~ methodpublic relations TMnak;TMngsaFarN³ viFIsaRsþ ¬viPaK¦tamEbbbrimaNpublicise v. pSBVpSay ¬c,ab;¦ quarrying GaCIvkmµ¬yk¦fµpublic-spirited EdlKitRbeyaCn_saFarNCn quarter 1> RtImas/ 2> mYyPaKbYn/ 2nd ~publish v. 1> e)aHBum<pSay of 7th century mYyPaKbYnTI2énstvtSr_TI72> RbkaspSay/ RbkaspSayCasaFarN³ quarter-day éf¶RbKl;R)ak;¬QñÜl¦RbcaMRtImaspurchase ledger esovePAFMTij quarterly adj. & adv. RbcaMRtImas¬kt;RtakarTijcUl¦ quasi-money rUbiyvtßúepSg²purchase v. & n. 1> Tij/ ~ on credit quasi-public institutionTijeCO 2> karTij sßab½nsaFarN³Rbhak;RbEhlpurchaser GñkTij/ likely/prospective ~ questionnaire bBa¢IsMnYr ¬sMrab;sMPasn_¦GñkTijEdleKrMBwg quick ratio smaPaKrh½spurchasing power GMNacTij/ lT§kmµBl/ quintile bBa©PaK ¬sßiti¦~ of the currency GMNacTijénrUbiyvtßú quorum kUr:um ¬cMnYnmnusScaM)ac;sMrab;ebIkkarRbCMu¦purge visuT§ikmµ/ viercnkmµ/ karsMGitsMGag quota kUta/ fixing of ~ karkMNt;kUta/ ~purify v. cMraj;eGaysuT§/ bnSúT§/ eRcaHsMGat regime rbbkUta/ ~ samplingpurpose eKaledA karykKMrUtagtamkUta 77
  • 85. Economic Lexicon Part 1quotation éføRbkas ¬enATIpSar¦/ karRbkas spot ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;dl;édéfø/ share ~ karRbkaséføsnøwkh‘un/ keen ~ rate éfø ¬Ékta¦éføTak;Taj ¬KYreGaycg;Tij¦ ratification karpþl;sc©ab½n/ sc©anumtiquote v. & n. 1> kMNt;¼):an;sµan/ ~ in rating kareFVIcMNat;fñak; tMél¼KuNsm,tþi/local currency kMNt;éføCarUbiyvtßúkñúgRsuk performance ~ kareFVIcMNat;fñak;lT§plkargar2> éføkMNt; ratio smaPaK/ Gnu)at/ ~ analysisquoted company Rkumh‘uncUlpSarh‘un karviPaKsmaPaK¬snøwkh‘unmanlk;¼Tij enApSarh‘un¦ rational smehtupl/ sniTanIy/quoted price éfø)anRbkas ~ expectation karrMBwgsmehtuplquotient n. plEck rationale sniTanPaB/ ehtupl rationality sniTanPaB rationalisation sniTankmµ/ kareFVI[rwtEtR, r manRbsiT§PaB/ ~ of civil servants sniTankmµm®nþIraCkarracism BUCsasn_niym raw adj. eqA/ ~ data Tinñn½yeqA ¬minTan;raise v. 1> tMelIg/ ~ taxes tMelIgBn§ viPaK¦/ ~ materials vtßúFatuedIm2> ekNÐRbmUl/ érGgÁas ¬R)ak;¦ real Bit/ ~ GNP plitplCatisrubBit/rally (price) eLIgéføvij ¬eRkayBI)ancuH¦ ~ rate of interest GRtakarR)ak;Bitrandom écdnü/ ~ check karRtYtemIl real estate/property GclnRTBü ¬dI nigécdnü/ ~ sample KMrUtagécdnü ¼b¤ GaKar¦/ ~ agency TIPñak;garGclnRTBürandomisation écdnünIykmµ realism R)akdniymrange n. 1> RbeLaH/ price ~ RbeLaHéfø/ ~ reality n. tfPaB/ karBitof vision RbeLaH ¬cMgay¦ emIleXIj realisation smiT§ikmµ/ smiT§ipl2> cMnYnmux ¬plitplRbePTNamYy¦ realise v. sMerc/ eFVIeGaysMerc3> CYr ¬PñM¦ realty GclnRTBürank zan³/ zannþrs½kþi ¬m®nþIraCkar¦ reasonable smrmürank v. eFVIcMNat;fñak; ¬tamlMdab;¦ reassess v. vaytMéleLIgvij/ransom R)ak;elaHxøÜn reassessment n.rate GRta/ exchange ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;/ rebate 1> karcuHéfø ¬elI TMnijminRtUv)a:n;¼closing ~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;enAeBlbiT/ forward karsgR)ak;munéf¶kMNt;¦~ GRtabþÚrR)ak;mankalkMNt;/ ~ of interest 2> kar bnßy¼cuH éfø ¬[GtifiCnEdlTijeRcIn¦GRtakarR)ak;/ ~ of return GRtaTajcMNUl/ 3> karbgViltMél ¬mYyqñaMKitmþgCakardwgKuN 78
  • 86. Economic Lexicon Part 1dl;GtifiCn¦ ~ expenditure cMNaymþgehIymþgeTotreceipt bgáan;éd/ lixitTTYl recycling karEkécññeLIgvijreceiver GñkTTYl red soil dIRkhmrecession, economic karFøak;cuHesdækic© red tape kariyaFibetyü/ EbbbTniymrecidivism, case of krNIminragcal redeem v. 1> sgpþac;/ ~ a debt sgbMNulpþac;recipient GñkTTYl/ ~ country RbeTs 2> bþÚr¼lk; ykR)ak; ¬]>sBaØab½NѦTTYl ¬]> CMnYy¦ redemption n. karsgpþac; ¬bMNul¦reciprocity bdikar/ PaBmaneTAmanmk rediscount bunGbhar ¬eFVIGbharmþgeTot¦recognise sÁal;/ TTYlsÁal;/ recognised redistribution karEbgEckeLIgvijRbtiRsut redress n. sMNg ¬karxUcxat/ CMgWcitþ¦recommendation Gnusasn_/ mtipþaMepJI reduction karkat;bnßy/ budget ~recompense v. & n. 1> sg ¬karxUcxat¦/ karkat;bnßyfvika2> sMNg redundancy programme kmµviFIbBaÄb;reconcile v. bnSúI/ sMrbsMrYl/ pSHpSaeLIg BlkredaykgVHkargarvij/ reconciliation n. redundant adj. EdleRcInelIstMrUvkar rWreconnaissance study karsikSaEsVgyl; KµanRbeyaCn_reconversion karpøas;bþÚreLIgvij/ karerob re-election kare)aHeqñatsaCafµIcMeLIgvij reexportation karnaMecjbnþ/ bunnIhrNkmµrecord n. & v. 1> kMNt;Rta/ Rbvtþi/ referee GaCJakNþalÉtTKÁkmµ ¬lT§plx<s;bMput¦/ ~ profits reference book esovePA eyag¼RsavRCavcMeNjx<s;bMputminFøab;man 2> kt;Rta reference period RKa¼ry³eBl eKalrecourse ])aRs½y ¬siT§irbs;Gñkkan;rUbiyaNtþi referral hospital mnÞIreBTübEg¥kkñúgkartamTarsMNgBIGñkeFVIbidæielx¦ refinancing (loan) bunhirBaØb,Tan ¬kMcI¦recoverable (debt) EdlGacRbmUlvij)an reflect v. qøúHbBa©aMgrecovery 1> karykcUlvij ¬R)ak;bgáar¦ reforestation kardaMéRBeQIeLIgvij/ bunvnkar2> karRbmUlmkvij/ ~ of debts karRbmUl reform n. & v. 1> kMENTMrg; 2> EkTMrg;R)ak;bMNulmkvij 3>karerIb ¬esdækic©¦ refund v. & n. 1> sgvij 2> R)ak;sgvijrecreation (service) kMsanþ refusal karbdiesF/ karRbEkk/ ~ ofrectangular strategy yuT§saRsþctuekaN acceptance karbdiesFkarTTYlRBmrectification karEktMrUv regardless edayminKitdl;recurrent adj. mþgehIymþgeTot/ regime rbb/ financial ~ rbbhirBaØvtßú 79
  • 87. Economic Lexicon Part 1region tMbn;/ sub-~ GnutMbn;/ military ~ reinvest v. 1> vinieyaKbnþ ¬vinieyaKR)ak;eyaFPUmiPaK/ military sub- ~ tMbn;Rbtibtþikar cMenjeTAkñúgGaCIvkmµvij¦ 2> vinieyaKeLIgvijswkrg reject v. & n. 1> Rcanecalregionalisation tMbn;PavUbnIykmµ 2> vtßúRcanecal ¬eRBaHminRtUvsþg;dar¦register n.&v. 1> bBa¢I 2> cuHbBa¢/ cuHbBa¢kar I I related ¬Cab;¦ Tak;Tg¼Tak;Tinregistered capital mUlFn)ancuHbBa¢I ¬CapøÚvkar¦ relation TMnak;TMngregistered letter/parcel relative adj. EdleFob/ ~ price éføeFoblixit¼kBa©b;beBaØI GnusiT§i relative advantage ]tþmPaBeRbobeFobregistered office (of a company) relative majority vote sMelgPaKeRcInTIcat;karcuHbBa¢ICapøÚvkar edayeFob ¬)ansMelgeRcInCagebkçCnmñak;eTot¦registrar m®nþIcuHbBa¢I ¬Gñkkan;kab;bBa¢I¦ relative n. sac;jati/ jatiBn§registration n. karcuHbBa¢I/ ~ certificate relativity saebkçPaB ¬PaBmanTMnak;TMng¦/viBaØabnb½RtcuHbBa¢I/ ~ number elxcuHbBa¢I rWLaTIvIetregressive tax system RbB½n§Bn§fycuH release v. beBa©j/ edaHElg/ bn§Úr ¬sMBaF¦¬fyGRtaenAeBlcMnUlekIneLIg¦ relevant adj. EdlBak;B½n§/ ~ institutionregular adj. eTogTat;/ ~ income sßab½nBak;B½n§R)ak;cMNUleTogTat; relief n. CMnYy/ tax ~ karGnueRKaHBn§/regularity PaBeTogTat;/ niytPaB ~ assistance CMnYyse®gÁaHbnÞan;regularisation niytkmµ relinquish bgVileGayvij/ e)aHbg;regularly edayeTogTat; remainder sMNl; ¬GVIEdlenAsl;¦regulate v. RKb;RKgeday bTbBa¢a¼ reminder n. lixitrMlwk ¬]> [mkbg;Bn§¦bTb,BaØtþic,ab; remission of taxes karbgVilsgR)ak;Bn§regulations bTbBa¢a ¬lixitbTdæan kñúg ¬Edl)anbg;elIs¦ÉksarxøH¦/ commune ~ dIkaXMu/ general ~ remittance karepJIR)ak;ecj/ visC¢na/ karepÞrR)ak;nItirYm/ internal ~ bTbBa¢aépÞkñúg remote area tMbn;dac;Rsyalregulator niytkr removal from a government officerehabilitation karsþareLIgvij/ nItism,Ta/ dkecjBImuxtMENgGVImYykñúgrdæaPi)al~ project KMerag nItism,Ta¼sþareLIgvij/ remunerate v. pþ;l;laPkar~ of finances karsþarhirBaØvtßúeLIgvij remuneration laPkar/ R)ak;kMér/ R)ak;Ex/reimburse v. sgvij ¬R)ak;Edl)ancMNay¦ R)ak;QñÜl/ R)ak;bMNac;reimbursement karsgvij renew v. a licence bnþGaCJab½NÑreinsurance ¬kar¦ Fanar:ab;rgbnþ renewable energy famBlkekIteLIgvij 80
  • 88. Economic Lexicon Part 1rent v. & n. 1> CYl 2> R)ak;QñÜl ¬sMxan; resampling karykKMrUtagsaCafµIelIGclnRTBü ¦ reschedule (a loan) eFVIkalviPaKfµIrental 1> R)ak;QñÜl ¬GclnRTBü nig rescind v. a contract lubecalkic©snüaclnRTBü¦ 2> karCYl rescue v. & n. 1> se®gÁaH 2> karse®gÁaHrenter GñkCYlBIeK research v. & n. 1> RsavRCav 2> karreorganisation karerobcMeLIgvij RsavRCav/ ~ and development (R & D)repatriation matuPUminivtþn_ karRsavRCav nigGPivDÆn_repayment n. karsgvij/ R)ak;sgvij/ researcher GñkRsavRCav/ associate ~~ schedule tarageBlsgR)ak; GñkRsavRCavrg/ fellow ~ GñkRsavRCav/repeat order karbBa¢aTijEfmeTot senior ~ GñkRsavRCavCan;x<s;¬nUvmuxTMnijdEdl¦ reserve FnbMrug/ zbnIyPNÐ/ ~ of valuerepercussion (of an incident) RbtiXat FnbMrugmantémø/ ~ ratio smaPaKFnbMrug/replacement investment vinieyaKbnøas; ~ requirement account KNnIFnbMrugreplacement value tMélpøas;ecj katBVkic©/ ~ requirements kartMrUvFnbMrug/¬pøas;rbs;mYyedayrbs;mYyepSgeTot¦ ~ tranche PaKFnbMrugreplenish v. bMeBjeLIgvij reserve fund mUlniFibMrugreplicate eFVIcMlgtam/ eFVIsaCafµI reserve member (of a committee)¬tamlMnaMdUcKña¦ smaCikbMrug ¬énKN³kmµaFikar¦report r)aykarN_/ annual ~ r)aykarN_ reserved bMrugTuk/ ~ forest éRBbMrugTukRbcaMqñaM/ market ~ r)aykarN_éføTMnijenATIpSar reserve, Tonle Sap biosphererepresentative tMNag/ GñktMNag/ zbnIyCIvmNÐlbwgTenøsabauthorized ~ GñktMNagmansiT§iRbTan residence nivasdæan/ nivasndæanreproductive adj. énkarbnþBUC/ ~ health resident nivasCn¼nivasnCn/ Gñksñak;enA/suxPaBbnþBUC non- ~ GnivasCn¼GnivasnCnrepurchase karTijykvij resident representative tMNagRbcaMRbeTsreputation ekrþ×eQµaH/ kitþinam/ good ~ residual value tMélsMNl;kitþisBÞ resignation karlaElgBItMENgrequest v. & n. 1> esñI 2> sMeNI resolution n. 1> esckþIsMerccitþrequire v. tMrUv[ ¬eFVIGVImYy¦/ required ¬énGgÁRbCMu¦/ 2> karedaHRsay/ conflict ~reserves R)ak;bMrugtamkartMrUv ¬]/ kñúgc,ab;¦ karedaHRsayTMnas;requirement kartMrUv resort rmNIydæan/ ~ site mNÐlkMsanþ/ 81
  • 89. Economic Lexicon Part 1kEnøgrmNIydæan retrenchment karkat;bnßy ¬cMnay¦resource FnFan/ ~ consumption retroactive Rbtiskmµ/ ~ effect T§iBlkareRbIR)as;FnFan Rbtiskmµresource-rent tax (RRT) Bn§CYlFnFan retrospection karRkeLkemIleTAGtItkalresponse bias lMeGogkñúgcMelIy return 1> R)ak;cMNUl 2> lixitRbkas/ taxresponse rate GRtaeqøIytb ~ lixitRbkassareBIBn§/ nil ~ lixitRbkasresponsibility karTTYlxusRtUv sareBIBn§EdlKµanbMNulBn§RtUvbg;responsible, to hold cab;eGayTTYlxusRtUv return on investment ratio smaPaKresponsiveness n. kar¼PaB eqøIytb cMNUleFobnwgTunvinieyaKrestoration n. karsþarCYsCul[dUcedIm return, rate of GRtaTajcMNUlrestraining force kMlaMgbg¥ak; returnable pack(ag)ing sMbkevcx©b;restrict v. dak;kMhit/ ~ credit dak;kMhit RbmUlvij¼epJITukelINTan returned cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtbBa¢ÚnRtLb;restriction n. kMhit/ kardak;kMhit/ trade ~ returns 1> TMnijbBa¢ÚnRtLb;kMhitBaNiC¢kmµ 2> cMNUlBIvinieyaKrestructured loan kMcI)anerobcMeLIgvij revaluation karvaytMéleLIgvij¬BnüaeBlsg¦ revealed comparative advantageresumption of exports karbnþnaMecj ]tþmPaBeRbobeFobBinitüeXIjeLIgvij ¬eRkay)anp¥akmYyry³¦ revenue cMNUl/ R)ak;cMNUl/ ~ policyretail outlet hag¼kEnøg lk;ray eKalneya)ayxagcMNUl/ unearned ~retail, to sell lk;ray cMNUlTTYlmunretailer, retail dealer Gñklk;ray reverse an entry v. cuHbRBa©aselxna/retail-trade business GaCIvkmµ¼ eFVIRbtiRkanþelxnaBaNiC¢kmµ lk;ray reversible EdlGacERbRkLas;)anretained earnings R)ak;cMeNjrkSaTuk review karBinitüeLIgvij/ ~ missionretained imports TMnijnaMcUlsMrab;eRbI ebskkmµBinitüeLIgvij/ for ~ andR)as; ¬kñúgRsuk¦ decision/approval edIm,IBinitü nigsMercretention of staff karrkSaTukbuKÁlik revise v. EksMrYl/ revised plan Epnkar¬kMueGayeKecjBIGgÁPaB¦ EksMrYlretiree nivtþCn revocable letter of creditretirement karcUlnivtþn_ sarNTanGaclubvij)anretirement pension esaFnnivtþn_ revoke a licence dkhUtGaCJab½NÑ ¬mkvij¦ 82
  • 90. Economic Lexicon Part 1revolving fund Tuncl½treward n. & v. 1> rgVan; 2> pþl;rgVan;right n. & adj. 1> siT§i 2> RtwmRtUv S, sright of first refusal siT§ibdiesFTImYyright of way siT§iqøgkat; ¬dIeK¦ SAC (structural adjustment credit)right to the lease siT§iPtisnüa NTankMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ ¬rbs;FnaKar¬siT§iénkic©snüaCYl¦ BiPBelak¦riot n. & v. 1> kub,kmµ 2> eFVIkub,kmµ safeguard v. KaMBarrise v. & n. 1> ekIn 2> kMeNIn safety suvtßiPaB/ ~ net sMNaj;¼RbB½n§suvtßiPaBrisk haniP½y/ PaBRbfuyRbfan/ eRKaHP½y/ salary ebovtSr_/ R)ak;Ex/ starting ~ ebovtSr_at owner’s ~ haniP½yr:ab;rgedaym©as; cab;epþImbMerIkar/ ~ index snÞsSn_ebovtSr_/¬TMnij¦/ ~ consideration karBicarNaBI ~ loan (receivable) kMcIelIebovtSr_haniP½y/ ~ taking karh‘anRbfuynwghaniP½y/ sale karlk;/ cash ~ karlk;ykCasac;R)ak;/aggregate credit ~ haniP½yNTansrub for ~ lk; ¬sresrelIpøakRbkas¦/ ~ invoicerival n. KURbECg vikáybRtlk;/ ~ contract kic©snüalk;/ ~ onroad tax Bn§pøÚv credit karlk;eCO/ ~ on instalment planrole play sMEdg ¬tY¦ karlk;eGaysgbNþak;/ ~ or return epJIlk;roll over v. (loan) pþl;saeLIgvij ¬kMcI¦ ¬Gñklk;rayTUTat;sgEtéføTMnijlk;dac;rough estimate kar)a:n;sµanec,al² ehIybgVilTMnijenAsl;[Gñklk;dMuvij¦/routine n. TMrg;kardEdl² ~ proceeds/revenue cMNUlBIkarlk;row CYr/ CYrepþk ¬tarag¦ sales R)ak;lk;)an/ cMnYnTMnijlk;)an/royalties sYy ¬rW kMérsYysar/ R)ak;bg;éfø ~ manager naykRKb;RKgkarlk;/ ~ mixQñÜleFVIGaCIvkmµ/ R)ak;lk;sñaéd¦ sareBIP½NÐTMnijsMrab;lk;/ ~ promotionrule viFan/ ~ of law nItirdæ karpSBVpSaylk;/ ~ returns TMnijlk;minruling esckþIsMercCapøÚvkar ¬tulakar¦/ dac;bBa¢Únmkvij/ ~ tax Bn§elIcMNUllk;)an/saldIka ¬tulakarkMBUl¦ ~ value tMéllk;¬)an¦/ ~ volume cMnYnruling prices éføCak;Esþg Éktalk; ¬)an¦run a factory ¬RKb;RKg¦ dMeNIrkareragcRk salesman Gñklk;/ tMNaglk;running costs cMNay ¬sMrab;¦ dMeNIrkar salination or salinisation karERbCaéRbrush hour em:agmmajwk ¬]> dIéRb¦ salvage v. & n. 1> RbmUlvij 2> rbs;)an 83
  • 91. Economic Lexicon Part 1BIkarRbmUl ¬BI GKÁIP½y/ navalic>>>¦ 3> kar scarcity PaBkMr/ tnuPaBse®gÁaH ¬nava b¤TMnijpÞúk¦ scenario esNarIy:U/ qaksalvage/scrap value tMélRbmUl)anvij schedular tax Bn§viPaKtamRbePTcMNUl¬eBlbeBa©jlk;rbs; rWeRKOgcRkcas;²¦ schedule, time tarageBl/ kalviPaKsample n. KMrUtag/ ):an;/ take a ~ v. ykKMrU scheme eRKagkartag/ ~ allocation karélEckKMrUtag/ ~ design scope visalPaB/ EdnGnuvtþ ¬c,ab;¦/ TMhMbøg;KMrUtag/ ~ group RkumKMrUtag/ ~ overlap scrap product plitplkaksMNl;karKgKMrUtag/ ~ implementation karRsg; scrap/salvage value tMélRbmUl)anvijKMrUtag/ ~ selection kareRCIsKMrUtag/ ~ survey ¬BIkarbeBa©jlk;plitplkaksMNl;¦GegátKMrUtagsample v. ykKMrUtag/ sampled children sea-damaged EdlxUcxatedaysarTwkkumar ¬RtUv)an¦ ykCaKMrUtag smuRTsampling karykKMrUtag/ ~ bias lMeGogyk seal n. & v. 1> Rta 2> e)aHRtabiTKMrUtag/ ~ domain tMbn;ykKMrUtag/ ~ error ¬]> kugtWenIr¦/ sealed tender karedjéføel¥ógykKMrUtag/ ~ efficiency RbsiT§PaByk kñúgeRsamsMbuRtbiTCitKMrUtag/ ~ frame eRKagykKMrUtag/ ~ rate GRta seaport kMBg;EpsmuRTykKMrUtag/ ~ variance v:arIy:g;ykKMrUtag seasonal tamrdUv/ manlkçN³rdUvkalsanction TNÐkmµ/ kmµvi)ak/ economic ~ seaworthiness lT§PaBeFVIdMeNIrtamsmuRTTNÐkmµesdækic© secondary bnÞab;bnSM/ ~ need tMrUvkarsanction, with your Edl)ankarGnuBaØat bnÞab;bnSM/ ~ data Tinñn½yRbPBTIBIrBIelakGñk secondary school salamFümsikSa/sanctuary TICMrk/ fish ~ kEnøgGPirkSBUCRtI/ higher ~ salamFümsikSaTutiyPUmi/ lowerwildlife ~ EdnCMrkstVéRB ~ salamFümsikSabzmPUmisaturate v. ep¢ak/ eFVItitßikmµ second-stage unit (SSU) ÉktadMNak;TIBIrsaver GñksnSMR)ak;/ snñiFikark³ secretariat elxaFikardæansavings R)ak;snSM/ sBa¢½y/ ~ account secretary elxaFikar/ ~ generalKNnI snSM¼sBa¢½y/ ~ bank FnaKar GKÁelxaFikar/ ~ of state rdæelxaFikarsnSM¼sBa¢½y/ ~ curve ExSekagR)ak;snSM/ sector n. vis½y/ ~ -wide TUTaMgvis½y~ bank book esovePAebLasMéc sectoral adj. tamvis½y/ ~ level kMritvis½ysaw mill eragcRkGareQI secured mankarFana/ assets fully ~ RTBüscale xñat/ TMhM/ fñak;/ maRtdæan ¬énEpnTI¦/ skmµmankarFanaeBjeljeconomies of ~ esdækic©maRtdæan securities mUlb½Rt/ ~ market pSarmUlb½Rt 84
  • 92. Economic Lexicon Part 1security 1> snþisux/ food ~ snþisuxes,óg seller, best esovePAlk;dac;bMput2> karFana 3> rbs;Fana ¬R)atiePaK¦ seller, quick TMnijlk;dac;qab; ¬gaylk;;¦4> GñkFana selling karlk;/ ~ order bBa¢alk;/ ~ priceSecurity Council (UN) RkumRbwkSasnþisux éfølk;¬Gsb¦ semi-autonomous Bak;kNþalsVy½tsecurity, without edayKµanvtßúFana semiconductor GgÁFatuBak;kNþalcMlgSEDP (Socio-Economic Development ¬eGLicRtUnik¦Programme) EpnkarGPivDÆn_esdækic©-sgÁmkic© semi-finished product plitplBak;seed n. RKab;BUC/ ~ capital Tun edIm¼BUC kNþalsMerc¬edIm,I[)anduHdal¦/ ~ money R)ak; edIm¼BUC send back v. epJIRtLb;vijseizure karrwbGUs send for collection v. epJIeTARbmUlR)ak;selection kareRCIs/ kareRCIserIs/ ~ error sender GñkepJIel¥ógkñúgkareRCIs/ ~ interval cenøaHeRCIs/ senior adj. fñak;x<s;/ ~ ministertentative ~ kareRCIsbeNþaHGasnñ eTsrdæm®nþI/ ~ officer m®nþIfñak;x<s;self-determination sV½ysMerc seniority GtItPaB/ promotion by ~self-employed people CnbMerIGaCIB[xøÜnÉg tMelIgfñak;tamGtItPaBself-financing sV½yhirBaØb,Tan sensitive issue bBaðaresIbself-help approach viFIsaRsþCYyxøÜnÉg sensitivity PaBresIb/ PaBqab;rMePIb/self-managing sV½yRKb;RKg PaBqab;ejac/ evTyitPaB/ ~ analysisself-regulating mechanism ynþkar viPaKénevTyiTPaBsV½yEktMrUv sensitise v. bMpuskarPJak;rlwkself-reinforcing system RbB½n§sV½yBRgwg series of reports kMrgr)aykarN_self-reliance PaBm©as;kar/ karBwgEp¥kelIxnÉg Üø servant GñkbMerI/ civil ~ m®nþIraCkarsuIvil/self-sufficiency PaBGacpÁt;pÁg;xøÜnÉgRKb; public ~ m®nþIraCkarself-sustaining sV½yRTRTg; service esva/ esvakmµ/ ~ fees kMéresva/self-weighting sV½yTMgn;/ ~ design ~ contract kic©snüaesva/ ~ charge éføesvabøg;sV½yTMgn;/ ~ sample KMrUtagsV½yTMgn; ~ industry ]sSahkmµesvasell lk;/ ~ at auction lk;edjéfø/ ~ at a service v. a debt sgkarR)ak;discount lk;cuHéfø/ ~ on credit lk;eCO/ session sm½yRbCMu/ plenary ~ sm½yRbCMu~ up RbmUllk;eRkayeBlkS½yFn/ ~ retail eBjGgÁlk;ray set n. sMrab; ¬]> kUnesamYysMrab;¦/ bNþúM 85
  • 93. Economic Lexicon Part 1¬]> bNþúMeKaledA¦ short of, be v. xVHxat/ Gs;settlement dMeNaHRsay/ karTUTat;/ final ~ short term ry³eBlxøI/ ~ payoffkarTUTat;pþac;/ ~ bank FnaKarTUTat;/ plry³eBlxøI~ credit NTanTUTat; shortage kgVH/ karRkxSt;/ ~ in weightseveral (liability) dac;BIKña/ erog²xøÜn kgVHTMgn;¬karTTYlxusRtUvminrYmKña¦ short-change v. Gab; ¬R)ak;¦ xVHseverance payment (or golden shortcoming kgVHxathandshake) R)ak;bMNac;eBlQb;eFVIkar/ shortfall kgVH ¬fvika¦/ cMnYnxVHR)ak;ebIkpþac; short-season rice RsUvRsalsex worker GñkrksuIpøÚvePT show of hands n. kare)aHeqñatedayelIkédshare n. h‘un/ snøwkh‘un/ ~ market pSarh‘un sick leave karQb;sMrakeBlQWshare n. & v. 1> cMENk/ market ~ cMENk sick pay R)ak;]btßmÖeBlQWTIpSar 2> EckrMElk/ ~ experiences Eck side effect plb:HBal;bnÞab;bnSM/ bc©½yrgrMElkbTBiesaFn_ sight bill/draft rUbiyaNtþibgðaj ¬bþÚrykshareholder Gñkkan;PaKh‘un/ PaKTunik³/ R)ak;)anenAeBlbgðaj¦influential ~ PaKTunik³manT§iBl sight payment karsgR)ak;eBlbgðajÉksarsharing PaKkmµ/ karEbgEck sight deposit R)ak;beBaØIGacebIk)antamsMeNIshelter n. CMrk/ tax ~ CMrkecosBn§ ¬edayBMucaM)ac;pþl;dMNwgmun[FnaKar¦shipped bill of lading GBaØatb½NÑdwk signatory htßelxITMnijtamnava significance sar³sMxan;shipped quality KuNPaB¬TMnij¦eBlpÞúk silting (of waterways) karduHdIshipping agent Pñak;garnavacr silviculture rukçvb,kmµshipping company Rkumh‘unnavacr simple samBaØ/ ~ entry elxnasamBaØshipping note lixitbBa¢ÚnTMnij ¬mancuHKNnIEt 1KU¦/ ~ interest karR)ak;shop around v. rkemIlTMnij ¬éfø/ samBaØ ¬KitelIEtR)ak;edIm¦KuNPaB>>> edIm,ITij¦/ ERCTMnijemIl simple random samplingshoplifting karlYcv:an;kñúghag karykKMrUtagécdnüsamBaØshopping n. karedIrTijTMnij/ international simple response variance~ karBieRKaHéføCaGnþrCati va:rIy:g;cMelIysamBaØshort bill rUbiyaNtþikMNt;ry³eBlxøI simple unbiased estimateshort delivery karRbKl;TMnijxVH kar)a:n;sµansamBaØminlMeGogshort notice, at CUndMNwgmunry³eBlxøI simplification n. kareFVIsamBaØkmµ/ ~ of 86
  • 94. Economic Lexicon Part 1customs procedures kareFVIsamBaØkmµnItiviFIKy smuggler Gñkrt;Bn§simplify n. eFVIeGaysamBaØ smuggling karrt;Bn§simulation kareFVIRtab;tam social énsgÁm/ sgÁmkic©/ ~ cost bnÞúksgÁm/sine qua non condition karxatbg;xagsgÁmkic©/ ~ cost-benefitlkçxNÐxanmin)an analysis (SCBA) karviPaKcMnay nigplcMsingle entry (accounting) enjxagsgÁmkic©/ ~ impact plb:HBal;sgÁm/rebobcuHbBa¢IÉkPaK ~ insurance cost bnÞúkcMNayFanar:ab;rgsgÁm/single indicator technique ~ justice yutþiFm’sgÁm/ ~ morality sIlFm’bec©keTsGaMgDIkaT½reTal sgÁm/ ~ order sNþab;Fñab;sgÁm/ ~ productsingle window RckecjcUlEtmYy plitplsgÁm/ ~ reintegration bunsmahsinking fund mUlniFidak;snSMbMrug ¬TwkR)ak; rNkmµsgÁmkic©/ ~ safety net RbB½n§suvtßiPaBdkmkrkSaTukedayELky:ageTogTat; sMrab; sgÁm/ ~ security/welfare (budgetedaHRsaytMrUvkarGVImYynaGnaKtdUcCasg expenditure) R)ak;viPaCn_sgÁm/ ~ securitybMNulCaedIm¦ snþisuxsgÁm/ ~ security contributionSino-Khmer Exµrkat;cin viPaKTansnþisuxsgÁm/ ~ status zan³ ¬kñúg¦site TIkEnøg sgÁm/ ~ strictures bBaØtþisgÁm/size TMhM socio-economic adj. esdækic©-sgÁmkic©/skill CMnaj/ life ~ bMNinCIvit ~ policy eKalneya)ayesdækic©-sgÁmkic©/slogan Baküesøak ~ survey Gegátesdækic©-sgÁmkic©slope of a curve/line cMeNatén ExSekag¼ sociology sgÁmviTüabnÞat; soft currency rUbiyvtßúexSaysloppy adj. x¢Ix¢a/ ~ work kargarx¢Ix¢a ¬minGacbþÚrykrUbiyvtßúdéTeTot)an¦slum n. sgáat;RkIRk¬rexkrxak¦/ ~ -dwellers soft goods TMnijvaynP½NÐGñkrs;enAkñúgsgáat;RkIRk soft loan kMcImankarR)ak;Tab ¬TabCagGRtaslush fund hibexµA ¬begáItedaysMgat;¦ enATIpSar¦/ kMcIKµankarR)ak;small-scale xñattUc soft market TIpSarmankarpÁt;pÁg;eRcInCagSME (small and medium enterprise) tMrUvkarshRKasFuntUc nigmFüm soft repayment terms lkçxNÐsgGnueRKaHsmoking gun PsþútagekþA² software (computer) sUhVEvrsmooth adj. relag/ rlUn/ ~ operation soil erosion kareRcaHdac;dIdMeNIrkarrlUn ¬l¥¦ sole agency TIPñak;garpþac;mux 87
  • 95. Economic Lexicon Part 1sole agent/representative tMNagpþac;mux specification yfaRbePTsole distributor GñkEbgEckpþac;mux specify v. bBa¢ak;/ kMNt;/ specifiedsole proprietorship 1> ÉkkmµsiT§i period kal kMNt;¼bBaØtþi2> shRKasÉkbuKÁl specimen KMrUbgðaj/ bdirUb/ ~ signaturesolicitor Gñkc,ab; ¬PaKeRcIn CYyBieRKaH KMrUhtßelxaeyabl; nigerobcMÉksarxagc,ab;¦ speculation n. 1> karqk;»kasekgcMeNjsolidarity n. samKÁIPaB ¬kñúgkarTij¼lk;¦/ oil ~ karqk;»kasekgsolvency saFnPaB/ lT§PaBsgbMNul cMeNjkñúgeRbgkatsolvent saFnIy ¬EdlGacsgbMNul¦ 2> karvaysµan/ pure ~ karvaysµansuT§saFsophisticated technology bec©kviTüa spoilage n. 1> karxUcKuNPaB ¬rbs;hUb¦eCOnelOnnigsµúKsµaj 2> rbs;xUcKuNPaBsort v. erobtamlMdab; spoils C½yP½NÐ/ vtßúrwbGUs)ansound adj. RtwmRtUv/ RbkbedayKtibNÐit spot price éføTijlk;dl;éd ¬TUTat; nigsound the market v. sÞabsÞg;TIpSar RbKl;TMnijPøam²¦South, the TkSiNRbeTs¬RbeTsRk¦ spouse shB½T§sovereign immunity GP½yÉksiT§irdæ ¬siT§i spread, spreading n. karrIkraldalrbs;rdæedIm,I)anrYcputBIkarbþwgTarsMNgxUcxat¦ squeeze v. expenditure rwtt,itcMNaysovereign risk haniP½yrdæaPi)alminGac stabilisation sßirkmµ¼sßirPavUbnIykmµ/sgR)ak; ~ policy neya)aysßirkmµsovereignty GFibetyüPaB stability, economic sßirPaBesdækic©spatial sampling karykKMrUtagtamkEnøg stable exchange rate GRtabþÚrR)ak;manspecial drawing rights (SDR) sßirPaB staff buKÁliksiT§idkBiess stage n. dMNak;/ dMNak;kalspecial economic zone tMbn;esdækc©Bess i i stagflation (stagnation + inflation)special promotion zone (SPZ) tMbn;GPivDÆn_Biess kars<wkRTwgmanGtiprNa stagnation kars<wkRTwg/ GvDÆnPaB/speciality ÉkeTs/ rbs;Biess economic ~ kars<wkRTwgesdækic©specialisation ÉkeTsnIykmµ/ CMnajnIykmµ stake PaKkmµ/ karcUlh‘unspecialised bank FnaKarÉkeTs stakeholder GñkmanPaKh‘un/ GñkBak;B½n§specific period of time ry³¼kMNt; stamp duty Bn§EtmeBlCak;lak; standard sþg;dar/ ~ cost tMélsþg;dar/ 88
  • 96. Economic Lexicon Part 1~ deviation KMlatsþg;dar/ draft ~ sþg;dar eKaledA¼ecjdMeNIrRBag/ compulsory ~ sþg;darbBa¢a/ gold ~ statistics sßitisþg;dar¼xñat mas/ ~ of living or living status sßanPaB/ zan³/ ~-inquiry agencystandard kMritCIvPaB/ up to ~ dl;kMrit TIPñak;garRsavRCavsßanPaBRkumh‘un/ ~ quosþg;dar ~ operating procedures nItiviFI sßanPaBCak;EsþgkMBugman/ ~ symbol nimitþRbtibtþikarsþg;dar sBaØasMKal;zan³standard-conversion factor (SCF) statute lkçnþik³/ co-~ of civil servantsktþabMElgsþg;dar shlkçnþik³m®nþIraCkarsuIvilstandardisation sþg;darUbnIykmµ statute of limitation GaCJayukalstand-by adj. eRtom/ ~ agreement steadily CaeTogTat;/ CaCMhan²kic©RBmeRBogeRtom/ ~ credit NTaneRtom steering committee KN³kmµaFikarstanding (bank) sþg;Dig¼sßanPaB/ bank dwknaMkargar¼naykof good ~ FnaKarmansþg;Digl¥ stem n. edIm ¬cMENkeRkABIKl;Cab;b£s nigstanding order lixitbBa¢aGcié®nþy_ ¬[ cugCab;søwk¦/ cassava ~ edImdMLÚgeQIFnaKarepÞrR)ak;y:ageTogTat;eTAKNnImYy ¬]> sMrab;eFVIBUC¦eTotrhUtdl;manbBa¢afµI¦ step (in a process) CMhan ¬kñúgdMeNIrkarstandpoint, from the economic GVImYy¦/ ~ by ~ mYyCMhanmþg²tamTsSn³esdækic© stereotype n. pñt;KMnitstaple product plitplmUldæan stevedore kmµkrkMBg;Epstart-up cost esah‘uycab;epþIm stevedoring karelIkdak;TMnijecjcUlk)a:l;state enterprise or state-owned stewardship n. karEfTaMRKb;RKg enterprise shRKasrdæ stiff price éfø x<s;¼x<s;eBkstate general budget fvikaTUeTArbs;rdæ stimulate v. CMruj/ bMpusState Treasury rtnaKarCati stipulate v. Ecgstatement esckþIRbkas/ r)aykarN_/ stock n. snøwkh‘un/ ~ exchange/marketfinancial ~ r)aykarN_hirBaØvtßú/ ~ of pSarh‘unaccount sMrg;¼r)aykarN_ KNnI/ ~ of stock n. sþúk/ snñiFi/ TMnij/ opening ~affairs bBa¢IsareBIP½NÐeBlkS½yFn/ ~ of sþúkedImRKa/ out of ~ Gs;BIsþúk/ ~ controlreceipts and payments r)aykarN_cMNUl karRtYtBinitüsþúk/ ~ in hand sþúkkñúgédcMNay/ monthly ~ r)aykarN_RbcaMEx ¬mankñúghag¼XøaMg¦/ ~ in trade sþúkTMnijstation of destination/origin sßanIy sMrab;lk;/ ~ turnover (ratio) GRtabgVilsþk 89
  • 97. Economic Lexicon Part 1¬kñúgmYyqñaM¦/ ~ lines muxTMnijkñúgXøaMg lkçN³CaRbB½n§stock v. sþúk ¬TMnijTuklk;¦ student stipends R)ak;bMNac;sMrab;nisSitstock, natural fish sþúkRtIFmµCati study tour TsSnkic©sikSastockbroker KYkeCh‘un sub-class fñak;rgstockout n. Gs;BIsþúk ¬PaB¦ sub-classification cMNat;fñak;rgstockpile v. & n. sþúkeRcIn² ¬nUvGVImYy subcontract v. em:Akarbnþ/ cuHkic©snüabnþsMrab;eRbIenAéf¶eRkay¦ subcontractor Gñkem:Akarbnþ/ GñkcuHkic©snüabnþstocktaking kareFVIsareBIP½NÐ/ ~ sale sub-decree GnuRkwtükarlk;LayLúgmuneBleFVIsareBIP½NÐ ¬edIm,I[ subdivide v. Eckbnþ ¬KNnI/ Rkum>>¦RsLHXøaMg¦ subjective choice CMerIsGtþenam½tstopfiler (tax) Gñkdak;RbkassareBIBn§ sublet, sublease CYlbnþmin)anRKb;elIk sub-national adj. fñak;eRkamCatistorage karsþúk ¬Tukdak;GIv:an;kñúgXøaMg¦ subordinate entity GgÁPaB eRkam»vaT¼storekeeper/shopkeeper m©as;hag cMNuHstraight-line depreciation method subpoena v. & n. 1> ekaHsakSIviFIrMls;esµIPaK ¬tulakar¦/ 2> dIkaekaHsakSIstrategic needs tMrUvkarCayuT§saRsþ sub-product, forest GnupléRBeQIstrategist n. yuT§saRsþviTU/ GñkyuT§saRsþ subrogation ])aeTskmµ/ kardak;CMnYsstrategy yuT§saRsþ sub-sample KMrUtagrgstratification RsTab;nIykmµ subscribed capital mUlFn)ancuHeQµaHstratum RsTab;/ ~ mean mFümPaKénRsTab; subscribing to securitiesstrike kUdkmµ briviskmµmUlb½Rtstringent twgruwg/ ~ measures viFankartwgruwg subscription kar Cav¼sMuCav/ ~ price éføCavstrong market pSarxøaMg ¬TIpSarman subsectoral level kMritGnuvis½yGñkTijeRcIn¦ subsidiary adj. rg/ ~ account KNnIrg/structural adjustment kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§/ ~ ledger esovePAFMrg~ loan kMcIsMrab;kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ subsidiary n. (company) buRtsm<½n§structural adjustment facility (SAF) ¬Rkumh‘unemkan;kab;h‘unCag 50°¦/ wholly]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;kMENtMrUvrcnasm<½n§ owned ~ saxa ¬Rkumh‘unemkan;kab;h‘unstructure n. rcnasm<½n§/ ~ of banking TaMgGs;¦institutions rcnasm<½n§sßab½nFnaKar subsidise v. pþl;]btßmÖFn/ CYybMeBjxatstructured experience bTBiesaFn_man subsidy, subvention n. ]btßmÖFn/ 90
  • 98. Economic Lexicon Part 1R)ak;bMeBjxat karpþl;/ ~ and demand karpÁt;pÁg;nigtMrUvkar/subsistence agriculture ksikmµCIvRBwtþi/ ~ curve ExSekagkarpÁt;pÁg;ksikmµRKan;EtmYyrs; support v. & n. 1> KaMRT/ RTRTg;/ ~subsistence production plitkmµCIvRBwtþi/ service esvakmµKaMRT 2> kar KaMRT¼RTRTg;karplitRKan;EtmYyrs; supporting document ÉksarGmsubstance sarFatu ¬rdæ)al¦/ skçIb½Rt ¬KNenyü¦substandard eRkamsþg;dar Supreme Council of the Magistracysubstantial adj. dMukMPYn/ ~ funding ]tþmRkumRbwkSaénGgÁecARkmkarpþl;fvikaCadMukMPYn surcharge éføykbEnßm/ Bn§ykbEnßmelIsubtotal srubrg TMnijnaMcUl ¬edIm,ICYyCMrujplitkmµkñúgRsuk¦succeeding stage dMNak;kalCabnþ surety n. 1> GñkFana 2> rbs;Fanasuccessor Gñkbnþevn surplus Gtierk/ pl elIs¼elIstMrUvkarsue v. bþwg surtax Bn§bEnßmsum 1> TwkR)ak; 2> plbUk survey n. & v. Gegát/ ~ area tMbn;Gegát/summit snñisITkMBUl ~ data Tinñn½yGegát/ ~ error el¥ógGegát/sundry account KNnIcMruH ~ operation RbtibtþikarGegát/ general ~supervise v. Binitütamdan GegátTUeTAsupervision karBinitütamdan/ GaNaBüa)al/ survivability PaBGacrs;)an/ financial ~under financial ~ of the Ministry of PaBGacrs;)anxaghirBaØvtßúEconomy and Finance eRkamGaNaBüa)al survivor CnenArs;hirBaØvtßúénRksYgesdækic© nighirBaØvtßú suspend v. BüÜr/ p¥aksupervisor GnurkS/ GñkBinitütamdan suspense account KNnIrg;caM ¬kt;RtaCasupervisory authority GaCJaFrGaNaBüa)al beNþaHGasnñnUvTwkR)ak;EdlKNenyükrminsupplementary crop dMNaMrYmpSM Tan;dwgfa RtUvkt;cUlKNnIc,as;las;NamYy¦supplemental budget fvika]bsm<½n§ suspension kar BüÜr¼p¥ak¬RbtibtþikarhirBaØvtßúénGgÁPaBrdæEdlmanlkçN³ sustain v. RTRTg;/ self- ~ing sV½yRTRTg;/]sSahkmµ nigBaNiC¢kmµ EtBMuEmnCanItibuKÁl¦ ~ life RTRTg;CIvitsupplementary bEnßm/ ~ schedule sustainability cIrPaBtarag¼Éksar B½t’manbEnßm sustainable adj. mancIrPaB/ ~ agriculturesupplier GñkpÁt;pÁg; ksikmµmancIrPaB/ ~ developmentsupply 1> sMPar³pÁt;pÁg; 2> karpÁt;pÁg;/ karGPivDÆn_mancIrPaB 91
  • 99. Economic Lexicon Part 1sympathy n. smancitþ ¬CYyKaMRT>>>¦ tangible assets RTBüskmµrUbI/ RTBürUbIsymptom eraKsBaØ/ nimitþehtu target cMNucedA/ eKaledA/ Epnkar/ salessynchronisation smkalkmµ targets Epnkarlk; ¬tYelx¦ ~ groupsynergy famBlelIs)anBIkarpÁúMKña RkumeKaledA/ ~ market TIpSareKaledA¬]> karbBa©ÚlFnFanrksuICamYyKña edIm,I)an tariff 1> bBa¢Iéfølk; 2> taragBn§Ky/ Bn§naMcUlcMeNjeRcInCagenAedayELk²BIKña¦ task Parkic©/ ~ -oriented epþatelIParkic©/synthetic products plitplsMeyaK ~ force Rkumkargarsystem of proportional representation taste cMNUlcitþRbB½n§smamaRt ¬e)aHeqñat¦ tax Bn§/ Bn§dar/ back ~ bMNulBn§BIqñaMmun²/systematic CaRbB½n§/ CayfaRkm/ ~ factor emergency ~ Bn§visamBaØ/ ~ accountingktþaCaRbB½n§/ ~ land registration karcuHbBa¢I KNenyüBn§dar/ ~ avoidance karecosvagBn§dIFøICaRbB½n§/ ~-risk phenomenon )atuPUt ¬edayc,ab;mancenøaHRbehag¦/ ~ assessoreRKaHfñak;manlkçN³CaRbB½n§/ ~ sampling Pñak;garkMNt;Bn§/ ~ base mUldæanykBn§/karykKMrUtagCaRbB½n§ ~ burden bnÞúkBn§/ ~ collection karRbmUlBn§/systematise RbB½n§nIykmµ ~ credit NTanBn§/ ~ collector GñkRbmUl Bn§/ ~ evasion kareKcBn§ ¬elµIsc,ab;nigRtUv maneTasT½NЦ/ ~ exempt EdlelIkElgBn§/T, t ~ exemption karelIkElgBn§/ ~ holiday ry³eBlrYcBn§/ vismBn§/ ~ loophole cenøaHtable tarag RbehagénBn§/ ~ moments »kashUtBn§/ ~ ontabulation karelIkCatarag profit Bn§elIR)ak;cMeNj/ ~ payment yeartake into account ykmkKit/ rab;bBa©Úl qñaMbg;Bn§/ ~ rate GRtaBn§/ ~ rebate karbnßytake stock v. eFVIsareBIP½NÐ Bn§/ ~ receipts/revenues cMNUlBn§/ ~ relieftake up references v. RbmUlBt’man karbn§ÚrbnßyBn§/ ~ reduction karkat;bnßyBn§/take v. legal action against bþwgtam ~ revenues efforts or ~ effort kMlaMgcMNUlpøÚvtulakarcMeBaH/ GnuvtþviFanc,ab;cMeBaH Bn§dar/ ~ treatment cMNat;kar¼RbRBwtþikmµ Bn§/take-home pay R)ak;cMNUleRkaykat;Bn§/ ~/taxation year qñaMCab;Bn§ebovtSr_suT§ tax v. hUtBn§/ ykBn§takeover karcUlRtYtRta ¬edayTijykCag taxable adj. 1> Cab;Bn§/ ~ income cMNUl50°énPaKh‘unrbs;Rkumh‘un¦/ take over v. Cab;Bn§ 2> EdlGachUtBn§)antakings n. R)ak;TTYl)an ¬BIkarlk;kñúg taxpayer GñkCab;Bn§ry³eBlNamYy¦ technical assistance CMnYybec©keTs 92
  • 100. Economic Lexicon Part 1technical fix dMeNaHRsay¼Rckecj ¬GaCIvkmµ¦bec©keTs terms lkçxNÐ/ easy ~ lkçxNÐFUrRsal/telegraphic address GasydæanTUrKmn_ ~ and conditions of a contract xøwmsartelegraphic transfer karepÞrR)ak;edayTUrKmn_ niglkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ ~ of a contracttelex TUrBum< lkçxNÐénkic©snüa/ ~ of payment lkçxNÐteller ebLakr TUTat;/ ~ of reference lkçxNÐeyag ¬sMrab;temporary beNþaHGasnñ/ ~ cover b½NÑFana epÞógpÞat;¦/ lkçxNÐkargar ¬kic©snüakargar¦/r:ab;rgbeNþaHGasnñ/ ~ unemployment ~ of sale lkçxNÐlk;nikmµkalik territorial integrity bUrNPaBEdndItenancy n. 1> ry³eBlCYl ¬GclnRTBü¦ tertiary education ]tþmsikSa2> siT§ikan;kab; ¬GclnRTBüCYl¦ test n. & v. 1> etsþ 2> eFVIetsþtenant GñkCYl ¬dI/pÞH>>>¦/ Ptik³/ ~ farmer test the market v. sÞabsÞg;TIpSarksikrCYldIeK testament mrtksasn_tendency ninñakar/ rising ~ ninñakarekIneLIg testimonial sMbuRtKaMRT ¬eGaycUleFVIkar¦tender karedjéfø ¬edIm,IeFVIkarpÁt;pÁg;¦ textile vaynPNÐ/ ~ industry ]sShkmµtender terms and conditions book vaynPNÐesovePAbnÞúk ¬sMrab;edjéfø¦ theory RTwsþItenderer Gñkedjéfø think-tank Rkumpþl;KMnittendering karedjéfø ¬edaymandak;Éksar third party PaKITIbI/ ttiyCntMél):an;sµanlMGit¦ threshold n. kMritcab;ERbRbYl/ kaMQancUltenure 1> ry³eBlkan;kab;tMENg/ GaNtþi thrift plan EpnkarsnSMsMéc2> siT§ikan;kab;tMENg¼RTBüsm,tþi tied aid CMnYymancMNg3> karkan;kab; ¬dI/ pÞH¦ time eBl/ kal/ kalkMNt;/ ~ deposittenurial right siT§ikan;kab; ¬dI/ pÞH¦ R)ak;beBaØImankalkMNt;/ ~ dimensionterm GaNtþi/ry³eBl/ long ~ ry³eBlEvg/ TidæPaBxageBlevla/ ~ draft rUbiyaNtþiTIXkal/ medium ~ ry³eBlmFüm/ short mankalkMNt;/ ~ frame Rkbx½NÐeBlevla/~ ry³eBlxøI/ GcIrkal/~ in/of officeGaNtþi ~ limit for delivery kalkMNt;RbKl;TMnij/term-deposit account KNnIbeBaØIman ~ policy b½NÑsnüaFanar:ab;rgmankalkMNt;/kalkMNt; ~ segment kMNat;eBl/ ~ table tarageBl/terminal contract kic©snüamankalkMNt; ~ value tMéltameBl/ ~ work kargarKittermination karbBa©b; ¬kargar¦/ karbBaÄb; em:ag ¬TUTat;kMértamcMnYnem:ag/ éf¶¦ 93
  • 101. Economic Lexicon Part 1timely return (of a cheque...) traditional CaRbéBNI/ ~ savings R)ak;bgVilvijTan;eBl snSMtamTMlab;/ ~ way of life rebobrs;enAtip TwkEt ¬R)ak;[eRkA¦ CaRbéBNItitle 1> cMNgeCIg 2> gar traffic cracr/ ~ order sNþab;Fñab;cracrtitle deed b½NÑkmµsiT§i trainee or intern (US) kmµsikSakarI/title, land b½NÑkmµsiTi§dI Gñkhat;kartoll éføeRbIesva ¬]> eRbIpøÚv/ s<an ¦ training karbNþúHbNþal/ on-the-job ~tool ]bkrN_/ Rbdab;Rbdar karbNþúHbNþalP¢ab;nwgkargar/ off-the-job ~top-down paradigm KMrUBIelImkeRkam karbNþúHbNþaldac;BIkargar ¬]> enAmhaviTüal½y¦total n. & v. srub/ grand ~ srubrYm/ transaction Rbtibtþikar/ kic©karCMnYjsubtotal srubrg transfer v. & n. 1> epÞr 2> karepÞr/ bEgVr/track record n. RbvtþieCaKC½y-braC½y karepÞrR)ak;/ Gnub,Tan (French: cession),tracking kartamdanemIl ~ deed lixitepÞr/ ~ payments R)ak;epÞrTUTat;trade BaNiC¢kmµ/ CMnYj/ GaCIB/ ~ agreement ~ pricing kardak;éføedIm,IepÞrR)ak;kic©RBmeRBogBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ balance CBa¢IgBaNiC¢ transferable adj. GacepÞr)an/ ~ creditkmµ/ ~ barriersr)aMgBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ deficit NTanGacepÞr)an»nPaBBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ discount/terms karcuH transferee n. Gnub,Tanik/ GñkRtUv)aneKéføkñúgGaCIB ¬eGayGñkRbkbrbrdUcKña¦/ ~ name epÞreGayeQµaHBaNiC¢kmµ/ yIeha/ ~ reference TIsMGag transferor n. GñkepÞr ¬[eK¦bBa¢ak;xagGaCIB/ ~ representation tMNag transformation (products...) karbMEbøgBaNiC¢kmµ/ ~ tariff taragBn§Ky tranship or transship v. epÞrBIyantrade v. pøas;bþÚrBaNiC¢kmµ/ eFVICMnYj mYyeTAyanþmYyeTot ¬edIm,Idwkbnþ¦/trademark sBaØaBaNiC¢kmµ transhipment n. karepÞrtrade-off karedaHdUr ¬TMnij¦Kña transit qøgkat;/ ~ account KNnIqøgkat;/trader QµÜj/ GñkCMnYj/ BaNiC¢kr ~ goods TMnijqøgkat;/ ~ passenger GñkdMeNIrtrade union shCIB qøgkat;/ ~ licence GaCJab½NÑsMrab;TMnijqøgkat;trading karCYjdUr/ kareFVIBaNiC¢kmµ/ transitional adj. Gnþrkal/ ~ economy~ partner édKUBaNiC¢kmµ esdækic©Gnþrkal/ ~ measures viFankartrading capital TunbgVil Gnþrkal/ ~ period ry³eBlGnþrkaltrading losses kMhateFVIGaCIvkmµ ¬eBl transmission karbBa¢Ún ¬sar¦R)ak;cMNUl)anticCagR)ak;cMNayecj¦ transnational corporation (TNC) Rkumh‘unrMlgCati 94
  • 102. Economic Lexicon Part 1transparency n. tMlaPaB RKb;RKgkarkS½yFnEdlEtgtaMgedaytulakar¦transporter GñkdwkCBa¢Ún trustee ordinance bTbBa¢a RbtisiT§iCntrauma n. rbYs ¬pøÚvkay rW pøÚvcitþ¦ ¼Gñksñgkartravel agency TIPñak;gareTscrN_/ TIPñak;gar trusteeship PaBTTYlxusRtUvKmnakar trusteeship counciltraveller’s cheque mUlb,Tanb½RteTscrN_ RkumRbwkSaPi)alRbtisiT§iCntraveller’s letter of credit sarNTan trustworthy EdlKYreGayTukcitþeTscrN_ T account KNnIRbePTGkSr Ttravelling salesman Gñklk;cl½t tuition class karsikSabg;éføtreasurer n. hirBaØik/ rtnakr turning point cMNucbt; ¬eBlEdlmantreasury rtnaKar/ ~ bill b½NÑrtnaKar karpøas;bþÚr¦¬ry³kalxøICagmYyqñaM¦/ ~ bond b½NÑrtnaKar turnkey contract kic©snüaesakñúgéd¬ry³kalEvg¦ turnover plrbr/ plGaCIvkmµ/ R)ak;cMNUltreatment n. RbRBwtþikmµ/ cMNat;kar/ karcat;Ecg turnover rates of labour GRtaecjcUltreaty sn§isBaØa énBlkrtreble v. ekInmYyCabI two-track approach viFIedaHRsayBIrpøÚvtrend ninñakar/ market ~ ninñakarTIpSar two-way eTVTis/ BIrpøÚvtrial balance taragtulüPaB typical CatYy:agtrickle-down effect plb:HBal;snSwm²/plb:HBal;bnÞab;bnSMtrillion, one (US) mYylanlan U, utripartite adj. RtIPaKItrust fund mUlniFimrtk ¬mUlniFiRKb;RKg ultimate area unit (UAU)edayRbtisiT§iCnsMrab;GtßKahk¦ ÉktatMbn;cugeRkaytrust fund facility (TFF) ultimate goal eKaledAcugeRkay]bkrN_sMrYlsMrab;mUlniFimrtk ultimate sampling unit (USU)trust letter lixiteCOTukcitþ ÉktaykKMrUtagcugeRkaytrustee (one to whom a right has been ultimatum n. »sanvaTassigned by will, gift... French: ayant unaccountable adj. 1>minGacBnül;)ancause) RbtisiT§iCn 2> KµanKNenyüPaB/ minTTYlxusRtUvtrustee in bankruptcy shbdiPaK ¬Gñk unaccounted for adj. )at;edayKµankarBnül; 95
  • 103. Economic Lexicon Part 1unaided edaykMlaMgpÞal;xøÜn undermentioned manerobrab;dUcxageRkamunaltered Edltpøas;bþÚr underproduction 1> karplitminRKb;tMrUvkarunanswered EdlKµancMelIy 2> karplitmineBjkMlaMgunascertained goods TMnijRcbUkRcbl; underrate v. vaybenßak¬minTan;EbgEcktamRbePT¦ undersell v. 1> lk;efakCag ¬KURbECg¦unavailing efforts karRbwgERbgKµan)anpl 2> lk;eRkamtMél ¬edIm¦unbalanced budget fvikaKµantulüPaB undersigned, the GñkcuHhtßelxa¬man»nPaB¦ ¬BIeRkam¦/ htßelxIunbanked cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtminTan; understanding karyl;dwg/ karyl;Kñadak;cUlKNnIFnaKar eTAvijeTAmk/ snÞidæPaB/ good ~ karyl;dwgunbiased tlMeGog l¥/ memorandum of ~ GnusSarN³RBmeRBoguncalled capitalmUlFnminTan;ehA ¬[bg;¦ underwrite v. 1> CYyFana 2> CYyr:ab;rguncashed cheque mUlb,Tanb½RtminTan; underwriter GñkFanaebIkykR)ak; undisclosed income cMNUltRbkas/unclaimed EdlBMuRtUv)anTamTar cMNUllYclak;uncleared goods TMnijminTan;qøgKy undivided profits R)ak;cMeNjminEbgEckuncontrollable expenses cMNayRKb; undoubted edaytsgS½yRKgmin)an unearmarked fund mUlniFiKµanélTukuncrossed/open cheque mUlb,Tanb½Rt edayELkKµanqUt unearned fees kMérminTan;rk)anundated KµancuHéf¶Ex/ ~ bond b½NÑTTYl unemployed adj. & n. 1> Gt;kareFVIsÁal;bMNulKµankalkMNt; 2> GñkGt;kareFVI/ nikmµCnundercoverage (insurance) karFana unemployment PaBGt;kareFVI/ nikmµPaB/r:ab;rgdNþþb;minsBV seasonal ~ nikmµPaBtamrdUv/ temporary ~undercut v. lk;efakCag nikmµkalik/ ~ benefit R)ak;]btßmÖcMeBaHunderdeveloped countries nikmµPaB/ ~ rate GRtanikmµPaBRbeTsGn;fy/ RbeTsGnaPivDÆn_ unendorsed EdlKµanbBa¢ak;xagxñgunderemployed 1> KµankargareFVIeBj unequal wealth distributionelj/ ~ capital TuneRbImin)aneBjelj r)ayvismFn 2> GñkKµankargareFVIeBjelj unexpected fall karFøak;cuHtrMBwgTukunderlease (see sublease) CYlbnþ unexpended balance smtulüminTan;cMNayundermanager bNÑaFikarrg unexpired cost (accounting) 96
  • 104. Economic Lexicon Part 1tMélkñúgbBa¢I/ tMélKNenyü unproductive assets RTBüskmµKµanunfair KµansmFm’/ minyutþiFm’ plitPaBunfavourable minGMeNaypl/ unqualified acceptance karTTYlRBm~ conditions lkçxNÐminGMeNaypl edaytsMécunfilled order b½NÑbBa¢aTijmin)anGnuvtþ unquestionable KµanGVIKYrq¶l;unfit for work EdleFVIkarminekIt unrecorded adj. min)ankt;Rtaunforeseen adj. min)anRbemIleXIj/ unregistered Edlmin)ancuHbBa¢ItRBagTuk ¬cMNay¦ unremunerative adj. Kµan)anpl/unfounded adj. KµanmUldæan KµancMeNjunification n. karbRgYbbRgYm/ ÉkPavUbnIykmµ unrestricted random sampleunified rYmEtmYy/ ~ as one rYmKñaCaFøúgmYy KMrUtagécdnüKµankMNt;uniformity lkçN³ÉkPaB unsafe adj. KµansuvtßiPaBunify v. bRgYbbRgYm unserviceable adj. minGaceRbIR)as;)anunilateral ÉketaPaKI unsettled adj. minnwgn ¬FatuGakas¦/ minunincorporated mincUlCaRkumh‘un Tan;edaHRsay ¬vivaT¦/ minTan;sg ¬bMNul¦unintentionally edayGectna unskilled adj. KµanCMnaj/ ~ labourunionisation karcUlshCIB BlkmµKµanCMnajunit 1> Ékta/ ~ of analysis ÉktaviPaK/ unstable adj. KµansßirPaB~ of account ÉktaKit/ ~ price/rate unstratified sampling karykKMrUtagéføÉkta 2> GgÁPaB KµanRsTab;united rYbrYmKña unsuccessful adj. min)aneCaKC½yunknown (factor, quantity...) GBaØat unsuitable adj. minsmRsbunlawful elµIsc,ab;/ ~ means meFüa)ay untied aid CMnYytcMNgelµIsc,ab; up and down eLIgehIycuHunlimited liability karTTYlxusRtUvKµankMrit up to date (information) adj. Tan;eBlunloading karerITMnij update v. eFVIbc©úb,nñPaB ¬kñúgÉksarxøHunmarketable, unmerchantable eFVIcrnþkar¦Edllk; minecj¼mindac; upgrade v. tMelIg smtßPaB¼KuNPaB/unpaid (cheque) ¬mUlb,Tanb½Rt¦minTUTat; eFVI[RbesIrunpaid balance smtulüminTan;TUTat; upheaval karvwkvr/ claclxøaMgunpaid capital TunminTan;)anbg; upkeep (expenses) cMNayEfTaM 97
  • 105. Economic Lexicon Part 1upper credit tranche PaKNTanxagelI valuables n. vtßúmantMélupward tendency ninñakareLIg valuation ekaslvic½y/ karkMNt;tMélurbanisation nKrUbnIykmµ/ Ministry of value added (VA) tMélbEnßmLand Management, Urbanisation and value added tax (VAT) GakrelItMélConstruction RksYgerobcMEdndI bEnßm ¬Gtb¦nKrUbnIykmµ nigsMNg; value date éf¶KitkarR)ak;urgent bnÞan;/ ~ needs tMrUvkarbnÞan; value n. & v. 1> tMél 2> vaytMéluseful life (accounting) GayukaleRbI value, declared tMél)an Rbkas¼R)as; ¬énRTBüskmµ¦ raykarN_¼RbtievTn_ variable n. & adj. 1> Gefr 2> ERbRbYluser costs bnÞúkcMNaycMeBaHGñkeRbIR)as; variance (statistics) v:arIy:g;¬kñúgkareRbIR)as;GVImYy dUcCa fñl;>>>¦ variation bMErbMrYl/ karERbRbYlusual supplier m:UypÁt;pÁg;CaRbcaM vault cash sac;R)ak;kñúgXøaMgusurer RBwT§ikr ¬GñkykkarR)ak;x<s;hYsehtu¦ vehicle yan/ motor ~ yanynþusury RBwT§ikmµ ¬karykkarR)ak;x<s;hYsehtu¦ velocity of circulation el,Ón ¬én¦utensil Rbdab;RbdareRbIR)as;kñúgpÞH¬BiesskñúgpÞH)ay¦ cracr velocity of money el,ÓncracrrUbiyvtßúutilities karpÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ vendee GñkTijutility company Rkumh‘unpÁt;pÁg;saFarN³ vendor Gñklk;¬Rkumh‘un Twk ePøIg esvakmµsMxan;² sMrab; verbal (widely used in error for “oral”)saFarN³Cn¦ pÞal;mat;/ ~ agreement kic©RBmeRBog pÞal;mat;/ ~ warning karRBmanpÞal;mat; verbally (used in error for “orally”)V, v edaypÞal;mat; vertical bBaÄr/ ~ programme kmµviFIbBaÄrvacancy kEnøg¬eFIVkar¦TMenr ~ communication karR)aRs½yTak;Tgtamvaccine fñaMbgáarvalidate v. pþl;suBlPaB/ bBa¢ak;faBit ExSbBaÄr/ ~ integration smahrNkmµbBaÄrvalidity suBlPaB/ PaBmantMél/ ry³kal ¬Rkumh‘un¦/ vested interest plRbeyaCn_cak;b£smantMél veteran (soldier) GtItyuT§Cnvalorem (see ad valorem) viability PaBGacrs;)anvaluable goods TMnijmantMél vibration rMj½r 98
  • 106. Economic Lexicon Part 1vicious circle n. GnÞak;vilvg; ¬Gt;Rckecj¦ voucher sMeNA/ b½NÑtMNagR)ak;/ b½NÑcMnayvicious cycle n. GnÞak;Cavdþ vulnerability PaBgayrgeRKaHvideo vIedGUvideo CD suIDI vIedGUview TsSn³/ karyl;eXIj W, wvillage development committee (VDC) KN³kmµkarGPivDÆn_PUmi wage ebovtSr_/ R)ak;kMér/ R)ak;QñÜl/ ~ riseviolate v. rMelaP ¬c,ab;>>>¦ (US: raise) eLIgebovtSr_/ ~ and priceviolence higSa/ GMeBIhigSa controls karRtYtBinitüebovtSr_nigéfø/ ~virtue KuNFm’ earner GñkeFVIkarykebovtSr_/ Ptikar/ ~visible adj. ¬Gac¦emIleXIj/ ~ trade freeze karbgákebovtSr_ ¬mineGaycuHeLIg¦/BaNiC¢kmµrUbI ~ indexation kardak;snÞsSn_ebovtSr_vision ckçúvis½y ¬pSarP¢ab;nwgGRtakMeNIncMNayRTRTg;CIvPaB¦/visual control karRtYtBinitüedayeRbIEPñk ~ scale taragkaMebovtSr_/ ~ workvocation ]bnisS½y/ to have a ~ for kargarsuIR)ak;kMérman]bnisS½ykñúgkar>>> waive v. lHbg;siT§i ¬]> edIm,IeFVIkartva:¦/vocational training karbNþúHbNþal ~ tax eGayrYcBn§viC¢aCIIv³/ ~ center mCÄmNÐlbNþúHbNþal waiver n. 1> karlHbg;siT§i/ karelIkElgviC¢aCIv³¼]bnisS½y 2> Éksar lHbg;siT§i¼elIkElgvoid adj. emaX³/ null and ~ emaX³ warehouse XøaMg/ PNÐaKarvolume of exports (or imports) warehouseman qµaMXøaMgbrimaNTMnijnaMecj ¬rWnaMcUl¦ warehousing karTukdak;TMnijkñúgXøaMgvoluntary adj. edaysµ½RKcitþ/ ~ restriction/ warning karRBman/ kardas;etOnlimitation kardak;kMrit¼kMhit edaysµ½RKcitþ warrant 1> dIka 2> b½NÑGnuBaØat/ ~ ofvote kare)aHeqñat/ ~ of confidence kar attorney lixitepÞrsiT§ie)aHeqñatTukcitþ/ kare)aHeqñatsMEdgkarTukcitþ warrantee GñkTTYl)ankarFanavote-counting station warrantor GñkFanakariyal½yrab;snøwkeqñat warranty karFanavoter registration station kariyal½y war-risk insurance karFanar:ab;rgcuHeQµaHGñke)aHeqñat haniP½ybgáedays®gÁamvoting right siT§ie)aHeqñat wastage karx¢Hx¢ay 99
  • 107. Economic Lexicon Part 1waste kaksMNl;/ liquid ~ kaksMNl;rav/ work kargar/ GVIEdleFVI)an/ sñaéd/ ~ insolid ~ kaksMNl;rwg progress (WIP) kMBugplit ¬RTBükMBugwatershed TICMral plit KWtMéleFVI)anenAcugRKa¦waterways pøÚvTwk work out v. KNnaweak market pSarexSay ¬minsUvmanGñkTij¦ work v. eFVIkar/ ~ full time eFVIkareBjwear and tear karswkric em:ag/ ~ overtime eFVIkarem:agbEnßm/weighted average mFümPaKsmta ~ part time eFVIkarmineBjem:agwelfare state rdæmanKitKUreRcInxagsgÁmkic©/ work, art sñaédsil,³suxevTn_RbeTs worker 1> Blkr 2> kmµkrwell GNþÚg/ drilled ~ GNþÚgxYg/ ring ~ workforce kMlaMgBlkmµ ¬BlkrTMagGs;GNþÚgdak;lU kñúgkariyal½y rW eragcRk¦wetlands dIesIm ¬dITMnabmanTwkdk;edayGenøI¦ working capital TunbgVil/ Tuncl½twhite book esovePAs working condition lkçxNÐkargarwhite-collar worker nieyaCit/ buKÁlik working day éf¶eFVIkarkariyal½y working group Rkumkargarwhole TaMgmUl/ TaMgGs; working paper ÉksarBiPakSawholesale karlk;dMu/ ~ price éfølk;dMu/ ¬r)aykarN_sikSaRsavRCavBIerOgGVImYy¦~ trade BaNiC¢kmµlk;dMu workman kmµkrwholesaler Gñklk;dMu work-related illness CMgWbNþalBIkargarwildlife stVéRB/ ~ sanctuary EdnCMrkstVéRB workshop 1> eragCag/ 2> sikçasala/will 1> qnÞ³ 2> mrtksasn_ vKÁGnuvtþwilful damage karxUcxatbgáeLIgeday writ dIkabgÁab; ¬tulakar¦ectna write down v. kt;RtabBaú©HtMélRTBüskmµwindfall profit cMeNjPøam²trMBwgTuk ¬kñúgbBa¢IKNenyü¦winding up 1> karrMlay ¬Rkumh‘un¦ write v. off a debt lubbMNul ¬ecjBIbBa¢I¦2> karCMrHbBa¢I write-back (of provisions...)winner GñkQñH/ C½ylaPI karykvijnUv ¬sMviFanFn>>> kñúgKNenyü¦withdraw v. dk/ dkxøÜn/ ~ an order lubecal written, in writing CalaylkçN_GkSrkarbBa¢aTij/ ~ money dkR)ak; ¬BIKNnI¦withholding tax Bn§kat;Tuk/ ~ payableBn§kat;TukRtUvbg; 100
  • 108. Economic Lexicon Part 1Y, yyardstick xñatyear (fiscal, financial...) qñaM/ kariybriecäT¬sareBIBn§/ hirBaØvtßú>>>¦year on year qñaMelIqñaM/ BImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM/~ change bMErbMrYlqñaMelIqñaM ¬bMErbMrYleFobnwgeBldUcKñaénqñaMmun¦yield Tinñplyoung people RbCaCnv½yekµg/ RsTab;yuvv½yZ, zzero population growth (ZPG)kMeNInRbCaCnkMritsUnüzone tMbn;/ hSÚn/ core ~ tMbn;sñÚl/ buffer~ tMbn;RTnab;/ inter ~ GnþrtMbn;zoning karEbgEcktMbn; 101

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