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  • 1. Water Management Institutional bodies in Sri Lanka C.M.K. Liyanage AG/3009/2786 1
  • 2. Page of contentsIntroduction 3Water Management Institutions-Government 4 The National Water Supply & Drainage Board 4 Irrigation Department 6 Water Resource Board 8 Mahaweli Authority 10Water Management Institutions, non-Government 11 International Water Management Institute 11 Lanka Jalani 13References 14 2
  • 3. Water Management Institutional bodies in Sri LankaIntroduction Water is the most important natural resource which keeps the world alive. Not onlydo we humans use it just about every day, but every living thing needs it to live. It has helpedform the Earth as we know it, and it covers over 70% of the Earth surface. Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing andmanaging the optimum use of water resources. In an ideal world, water managementplanning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on anequitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. The institutions which are related with suchkind of activities, called as “Water management Institutions.” Water management is not a new concept for Sri Lankans. For the centuries, ourancient people were engaging in large scale irrigation projects with their amazing watermanagement technologies and even now a days we can take benefits from them. But in thelast 2 decades, in here Sri Lanka “Water Management” is became very critical concept andsometimes it caused to even change the ruling parties of the government of Sri Lanka. Normally we can see two different types of water management institutions in SriLanka. They are government institutions and non government institutions. Basically the legalframe work of the water management is regulating by the government institutions anddistributing the water is also done by government while most of NGOs engage withsurveying, research, conservation and acknowledging the community about sustainable use ofwater resource. Water Management Institutions Government Non Government The National International Water Water Supply & Management Drainage Board Institute (IWMI) Irrigation Lanka Jalani Department Water Resources Board Mahawali Authority 3
  • 4. Water Management Institutions-Government According to above chart there are several government Institutional bodies which areengaging with water management of Sri Lanka. The National Water Supply & DrainageBoard is related with drinking water supply and drainage systems of Sri Lanka, while theirrigation sector is governed by the Ministry of Irrigation & Water Resources Management. As in most Asian countries, irrigation is the largest water user in Sri Lanka accountingfor about 90% of the total water use. The total irrigated area in the country is about 0.6million hectares. The irrigation sector consists of major surface irrigation schemes withcommand areas over 400 hectares, medium schemes with command areas of 80–400 hectaresand minor schemes with command areas less than 80 hectares. The larger schemes areadministered by the Irrigation Department and the Mahaweli Authority. The mediumschemes are administered by the provincial councils and the minor schemes are supposed tobe maintained by farmers with technical guidance of the Provincial Irrigation Departments(PIDs). 1. The National Water Supply & Drainage Board-under the Ministry of Water Supply & Drainage Vision- “To be the most prestigious utility organization in Sri Lanka through industry and service section.” Mission-“Serve the nation by providing sustainable water and sanitation ensuring total user satisfaction.” Goals- Goal 1 - Increase the water supply and sanitation coverage Goal 2 - Improve Business Efficiency Goal 3 - Improve services to customers and promptly attend to public complaints Goal 4 - Promote Information and Communication Technology solutions as a catalyst for business growth Goal 5 - Ensure greater accountability and transparency Goal 6 - Promote Human Resource Development Goal 7 - Facilitate safe drinking water supply and sanitation to rural and underserved communities 4
  • 5. The National Water Supply & Drainage Board had its beginning as a sub departmentunder the Public Works Department with responsibility for the water supply and drainagesystems of Sri Lanka. From 1965, it functioned as a division under various ministries untilJanuary 1975 when it was converted to a Statutory Board by an Act of Parliament. The National Water Supply & Drainage Board functions under the Ministry of WaterSupply & Drainage. This Ministry was established in 2007 separately for the subject area ofwater supply & drainage. Also, the National Water Supply & Drainage Board is the onlyorganization coming under the purview of this Ministry. Around 80% of the population hasaccess to safe drinking water of which 30% is through piped water supply systems of theNational Water Supply & Drainage Board. The National Water Supply & Drainage Board (NWSDB), which presently functionsunder the Ministry of Water Supply & Drainage, is the principal authority providing safedrinking water and facilitating the provision of sanitation in Sri Lanka. In accordance withthe Board Act, several major Urban Water Supply Schemes operated by Local Authoritieswere taken over by the NWSDB to provide more coverage and improved service. Consumermetering & billing commenced in 1982. Rural Water Supply & Sanitation programsincluding deep well programs are also being implemented by the NWSDB. During the past 36 years, the organization has considerably expanded its scope ofactivities. The employee numbers have increased from about one thousand (1,000) in 1975 tonine thousand and thirteen (9,013) in 2010. The NWSDB is presently operating 312 Water Supply Schemes which cover 39% ofthe total population with pipe borne Water Supply, 12% of the population is served with handpump tube wells. We hope to increase the coverage with pipe borne water to 45.7% by 2015so that the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of 85% safe drinking watercoverage can be achieved by that year. The NWSDB is also in charge of the seweragesystems in Colombo & suburbs, Hantane, Koggala, Hikkaduwa, Kataragama and in fewhousing schemes. 5
  • 6. 2. Irrigation Department Irrigation Department, in existence from 1900, is the premium water resourcedevelopment organization in Sri Lanka. It created productive farmlands out of the thickmalarial jungles that once covered most of the island. VISION OF THE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT"Not a single drop of water flow in to the sea without being used for the mankind"King Maha Parakramabahu the Great-1153-1186 AD MISSION OF THE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENTThe Irrigation Department is responsible for planning, design, construction, operation andmanagement of all major and medium Irrigation schemes and work related to flood control,drainage and salinity extrusion. 6
  • 7. Subjects and Functions Formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programmes in respect of Irrigation, Reservoirs and Water Management. Irrigation and drainage work Salt water exclusion schemes Rain water harvesting Flood protection Prevention of the pollution of rivers, streams and other watercourses Promotion, construction, operation and Maintenance of schemes of irrigation, drainage, flood control Engineering Consultancy Services and Construction 7
  • 8. 3. Water Resources Board (WRB)Established in 1966 the WRB, collects data and information on Water Resources for advisorypurposes, and undertakes Hydro geological investigation and Groundwater developmentprojects. This institution has developed capacity to handle ground water resourcesdevelopment.VisionAdequate access to clean and safe water for allMissionTo advise the government and the people and make necessary regulations & laws onassessing, conserving, harnessing, developing and frugally utilizing water resources in thecountry; and to implement the same in close collaboration with the rural society, relevantnational and provincial level government institutions, private sector, internationalorganizations and scientific communities here and abroad.To ensure that the society today doesn’t pollute the water of future.To be self dependent.Objectives - Long term /Medium term/ Short term Research contributions supportive of the formation of national policies in respect of water resources development, exploration and sustainable exploitation with quality maintenance for multipurpose utilization and meeting social, economic and environmental needs. In reinforcement of objective (1), systematic and accurate data collection and maintenance of scientific data in relation to the water resources of the country. Involvement of: (a) regional, that is, relevant local government authorities; (b) national and international organizations in regard to the knowledge transfer and information exchange and (c) other scientific investigations relating to water resources of the country. Awareness creation in the civil society about the importance of safe and sustainable use of water, and its responsibility on keeping the water unpolluted for future. Assessment of the possible benefits and economic feasibility of projects suggested/undertaken by those referred to in item 3 above, relating to the sustainable exploitation of water resources of the country. 8
  • 9. Setting up of an Inter-departmental Advisory Committee to reinforce greater mutual understanding for collaborative action where necessary, in relation to the above intended functions of the Water Resources Board (WRB), as per the Water Resources Board act. Commencement of Water Bottling Project and other commercial ventures to (a). Meet the self dependency and not to be a burden to the treasury. (b). To set industrial standards on the same.Values To undertake dedicated research bringing scientific truth into the surface. To attempt to unearth the magnanimous and unbelievably simple practices of sustainability approach of our forefathers for the benefit of the present and the future generation. To respect the view points of recognized organizations and eminent scholars of relevance in conducting collaborative research. To strive to disseminate accurate information to the relevant administrative bodies, scientific community and the civil society. To adhere to good governance, transparency and accountability. To maintain high degree of impartiality. And abstain from destructive criticism to foster constructive criticism. To be disciplined in the delivery of all our service functions. To be proactive rather than reactive. To increase productivity of the organization. To promote team work within the organization. To be self sufficient, financially. 9
  • 10. 4. Mahaweli Authority of Sri LankaMahaweli Development Programme envisages for development of 365,000 ha. of land foragriculture in 13 Systems identified in Mahaweli Master Plan in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Itwas planned for the construction of a series of reservoirs with hydro electricity plants and todevelop a large extent of land with irrigation facilities, for establishment of new settlementsand agriculture development.Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka was established in 1979 in Parliament Act with a mandateto implement the Mahaweli Development Programme. Presently, its task is to plan anddevelop balance area proposed by Master Plan and Gazetted areas and maintenance &rehabilitation of irrigation net work, land administration, increase agricultural production andpost settlement activities. Further, MASL is responsible for managing irrigation water for180,962 ha. of Irrigable land in the dry zone. At present, MASL is responsible for managingirrigation water for 175,000 ha. of Irrigable land In the dry zone. 10
  • 11. Water Management Institutions, non-Government 1. International Water Management InstituteThe International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organizationwith headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia. Research at theInstitute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim ofunderpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmentalprocesses.As water becomes scarcer, there is a growing need to find ways to produce sufficient food tofeed the world’s expanding population, while using less water, safeguarding fragileenvironmental services and without having much opportunity to open up new agriculturallands. The Institute undertakes research projects with this aim in mind.Its research focuses on: water availability and access, including adaptation to climate change;how water is used and how it can be used more productively; water quality and itsrelationship to health and the environment; and how societies govern their water resources.Part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), IWMI isabout to expand its collaborative work within its parent organisation under a new megaprogram known as CGIAR Research Project 5. This will widen its focus to Water,Ecosystems and Land.IWMI is one of 15 international research centers supported by the network of 60governments, private foundations and international and regional organizations collectivelyknown as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). It is a 11
  • 12. non-profit organization with a staff of 350 and offices in over 10 countries across Asia andAfrica and Headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka.IWMIs Mission is to improve the management of land and water resources for food,livelihoods and the environment.IWMIs Vision, reflected in the Strategic Plan is water for a food-secure world. IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities inthe developing world/or in developing countries and through this contributes towards theachievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty, hungerand maintaining a sustainable environment. These are also the goals of the CGIAR.Research is the core activity of IWMI. The research agenda is organized around four priorityThemes including Water Availability and Access; Productive Water Use; Water Quality,Health and Environment; and Water and Society. Cross cutting activities in all themesinclude, assessment of land and water productivity and their relationship to poverty,identification of interventions that improve productivity as well as access to and sustainabilityof natural resources, assessment of the impacts of interventions on productivity, livelihoods,health and environmental sustainability.IWMI works through collaborative research with many partners in the North and South andtargets policy makers, development agencies, individual farmers and private sectororganizations. 12
  • 13. 2. Lanka Jalani Lanka Jalani is an independent nonprofit association with a goal of promotingIntegrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in line with the concepts and principlesoutlined at international for a such as Rio, Dublin & 1st & 2nd World Water Forums. It is aninitiative supported by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) Membership is open andinclusive and currently represents a wide range of stakeholder interests. It has taken theinitiative in developing a Water Vision 2025 for Sri Lanka in the year 2000 and a program forAction (PFA) to translate the vision to action has been developed. It has set up Area WaterPartnerships (AWP) Youth networks and other basin level institutions to support River BasinManagement (RBM) and IWRM in Sri Lanka. Area Water Partnerships provide the localinstitutional base for representation & action at local level while the Country WaterPartnership (CWP) and associated CEO panel provides the forum for policy level dialogue ofthese issues for consideration at national level. Both levels encourage close interaction amonggroups of stakeholders for purposes of harmonizing approaches and integrating issues. 13
  • 14. References1. http://www.commonwealth-of- nations.org/Sri_Lanka/Organisation/Government/Government_Ministries/Ministry_of_Irrig ation_and_Water_Resources_Developme2. http://www.irrigation.gov.lk/index.html3. http://www.wrb.gov.lk/web/4. http://www.irrigationmin.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=113 &Itemid=85&lang=en5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Water_Management_Institute6. http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/About_IWMI/Overview.aspx7. http://www.lankajalani.org/index.html 14
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