SOCIAL
DIMENSIONS OF
EDUCATION
Course Outline
Unit I: Social Science Theories of Education
a. Consensus Theory
b. Conflict Theory
c. Interaction Theory
U...
Activating Prior Knowledge
• Enumerate five (5) different kinds of social
organization or institutions present in your
com...
Understanding Social Science
Introduction:
The social dimension of education starts with the
awareness on how social theor...
Some of the questions pointing to the
importance of social science are:
• Origin and growth: how do we see and behave as
i...
The nature of Education
• Sociology provides educators a special
perspective in studying the relationship
between school a...
The role of schools
Dr. Adelaida Bago, in her book Social
Dimensions in Philippine Education
stresses two possible roles o...
Specific Purposes of School
1. Cognitive purposes – teaching the basic
cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and
spea...
Social
Science
Theories
Consensus
Conflict
Structural
Functionalist
Interaction
Consensus Theory
• Shared norms and values are fundamental to
society, focus on social order based on tacit
agreements, an...
Conflict Theory
• Conflict is a clash between ideas, principles, and
people.
• Conflict Theory focuses on the struggle of ...
• It focuses on the heterogenous nature of society
and the differential distribution of political and
social power. There ...
• Conflict Theorists are interested in how
society’s institutions- the family, government,
religion, education, and media ...
• The consensus and conflict sociological theories are
reflected in the works of certain dominant and other
prominent soci...
• The works of Marx in his early years was
interpreted by some social theorists as
emphasizing the role of human beings in...
• Max Weber argues that schools teach and maintain
particular (status culture) that is, groups in society with
similar int...
Structural Functionalism
• A dominant sociological theory for many years according to Talcott
Parsons and Robert Merton. H...
• Parsons designed the AGIL scheme to be used at
all levels in this theoretical system
– Action system – handles the adapt...
Structure of the General Action System
Cultural system Social system
Action system Personality
system
Parsons sets of assumptions re-
problem of order
• Systems have the property of order and interdependence
of parts.
• Syst...
Parsons conception of the social
system
• Social system begins at the micro level with
interaction between ego and alter e...
Functional requisites of a social system
1. Social system must be structured so that they operate
compatibly with other sy...
Component parts of a social structure
families
associations
countries
neighborschurches
schools
banks
Key principles
of the
functionalist
theory
Interdependency
Functions of
social
structure &
culture
Equilibrium
Consensus &...
• Interdependency – one of the most important principles
of functionalist theory is that society is made up of
interdepend...
• Consensus and cooperation
– Its key principle is that “societies have a tendency
toward consensus”; that is a certain ba...
Social structure provide
preset patterns which
evolve to meet human
needs
Maintenance
of society
Stability, order,
& harmo...
• Structural functionalism
– Puts emphasis on social order and social stability not on
conflict.
– It claims that society ...
INTERACTIONIST THEORY
• Are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and
conflict perspectives.
• Two Basic forms of ...
Principles of Symbolic Interactionism
• Human beings unlike lower animals are endowed
with a capacity for thought.
• The c...
• People are able to modify or alter meanings and
symbols that they use in action and interaction on the
basis of their in...
Mead’s approach to symbolic interaction rested on three
basic premises
1. People act toward the things they encounter on t...
• The importance of thinking to symbolic
interactionists is reflected in their views on
objects.
• Objects are seen simply...
• Looking- glass Self
– means we see ourselves as others see
us.
–This concept was developed by the
early symbolic interac...
SUMMARY:
• Education is one of the major institutions that constitute
society. There are various social science theories t...
• Structural functionalism is concerned with the
functions of schooling in the maintenance of social
order. It asserts tha...
PILLARS OF EDUCATION
Introduction:
• “Learning the Treasure Within”. Stresses
that each individual must be equipped to
sei...
PILLARS OF
EDUCATION
LEARNING
TO KNOW
LEARNING
TO DO
LEARNING
TO LIVE
TOGETHE
R
LEARNING
TO BE
1. Learning to know-
– acquiring the instrument of understanding.
– This implies learning how to learn by developing
one’s...
• The teacher’s roles are:
– Facilitator
– Catalyst
– Monitor
– Evaluator
• The process of learning to think is a lifelong...
2. Learning to do
– able to act creatively in one’s
environment.
- This implies the skilful, creative and
discerning appli...
3. Learning to live together
- able to participate in and cooperate
with other people in all human activities.
- This impl...
4. Learning to be
– able to develop one’s personality and to
act with ever greater autonomy, judgment
and personal respons...
Determine what Pillar of Education is
emphasized below
• Material development at the expense of human development points t...
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Introduction:
• The world today is characterized by an ever
growing number of contacts resulti...
Communication & Language
Communication- is far more than speech and writing.
Two types of communication
1. Verbal – refe...
A man’s language is a reflection of the kind of
person he is, the level of education he has
attained, and an index to the...
Four areas of language
1. Phonology – refers to a system of sounds.
2. Semantics – is a study of word meanings and word
c...
Relationship Between Language and Culture
Language is an integral part of culture and human culture
cannot exist without...
The linguistic-relativity hypothesis asserts that
language determines thought and therefore
culture. In reality language ...
Culture – refers to the attitudes, values,
customs, and behavior patterns that
characterize social group.
It is a set of...
The sum total of symbols, ideas, forms of expressions, and
material products associated with a system (Allan Johnson,
199...
Characteristics of Culture
Culture is learned
Culture is shared by group of people
Culture is cumulative
Culture is d...
Components of Culture
Communication
Language- medium of communication
Symbols- the backbone of symbolic interaction.
...
 Material- this refers to physical objects of culture such
 Tools
 Medicines
 Books
 Transportation
 technologies
 ...
 How is culture transmitted?
Enculturation – the process of learning culure of
one’s group.
Acculturation – the process...
 Importance and Functions of Culture
Culture helps the individual fulfil his potential as
human being.
Culture helps ma...
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
Practices considered immoral or taboo to a
certain group of people but are accepted by other
groups w...
• Cultural relativism is an approach to the question of
the nature and role of values in culture.(Rosado,2003)
• In anthro...
GROUP ACTIVITY
• In a group of ten, share your
practices, customs, values, and
way of life. Then, think of a
unique presen...
MULTICULTURALISM
• According to Harrison (1984), it is a theory about the
foundations of a culture rather than a practice ...
Referents of Multiculturalism and its
related adjective multicultural
1. Demographic – descriptive refers to the
existence...
MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
• It is an emerging discipline whose aim is to create
equal educational opportunities from diverse...
Approaches to Multicultural
Education
1. Contributions approach – the ethnic heroes ,
holidays and food become a special f...
3. Transformation – curriculum is
changed, so that students see the
world from the different perspective
of various groups...
DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL
EDUCATION
1. Content Integration
• it deals with the extent to which
teachers use examples and...
2. Knowledge Construction Process
 It describes how teachers help students
to understand, investigate, and
determine how ...
3. Prejudice Reduction
It describes lessons and activities
used by teachers to help students
develop positive attitudes t...
4. Equity Pedagogy
It exists when teachers modify their
teaching in ways that will facilitate
the academic achievement of...
5. Empowering School Culture
and Social Structure
The culture and organization of the
school are transformed in ways that...
Important reminder:
To implement multicultural
education effectively, teachers
and administrators must attend
to each of ...
THE GROWTH OF STUDENT
SUBCULTURE
Subculture
 refers to cultural patterns that set apart
some segment of a society’s popul...
Functions of Subcultures
1. Permit specialized activity
2. Identity in mass media
3. Cultural adaptation and change
Cultural Dimensions of Learning,
Teaching, & Educational Processes
• As our nation continues to change, teachers as
well a...
Cultural Differences
imply the transmission of ideas from
generation to generation by
significant members of the older
ge...
• Any discussion of social-cultural influences on
development stress that cultures differ in their
views of acceptable chi...
What is a Culturally-Responsive
Teaching?
• Culturally responsive teaching
acknowledges cultural diversity in
classrooms a...
SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
What is Social institutions?
 A group of social positions, connected
by social relations, performing ...
Characteristics of an institution
(Palispis,1996)
1. Institutions are purposive
2. Institutions are permanent in their con...
Functions of Institutions
1. Institutions simplify social behavior for the
individual person
2. Institutions provide ready...
5 Major Social Institutions
1. Family
– It is the smallest social institution with the unique
function of producing and re...
Characteristics of the Filipino Family
1. The family is closely knit and has strong family
ties.
2. The family is usually ...
Functions of the Family
1. Reproduction of the race and rearing of the
young.
2. Cultural transmission or Enculturation
3....
Kinds of Family Patterns (Sociologists)
Membership Marriage Residence Authority Descent
Nuclear
Extended
Monogamy
polygamy...
• Conjugal/nuclear family- consisting of husband, wife, and
children.
• Consanguine/extended family – consist of married c...
• Patrilocal – a newly married couple lives with
the parents of the husband.
• Matrilocal – a newly married couple lives w...
• Matriarchal – the mother is the head and makes
the major decisions
• Equalitarian- both the father ad mother share in
ma...
2. Education
• an established organization having an
identifiable structure and a set of functions
meant to preserve and e...
• Intellectual purpose
 teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.
 To transmit specific kn...
Multiple Functions of School
• Technical/Economic – contributions of schools to the technical
or economic development and ...
Manifest functions of school
1. Social control
2. Socialization
3. Social placement
4. Transmitting culture
5. Promoting s...
Latent functions of school
1. Restricting some activities
2. Matchmaking and production of social
network
3. Creation of g...
Other functions of school as stated by
Calderon (1998)
1. Conservation function
2. Instructional function
3. Research func...
3. Religion
• is a socially defined patterns of beliefs
concerning the ultimate meaning of life. It
assumes the existence ...
Characteristics of Religion
1. Belief in deity or in a power beyond the
individual
2. A doctrine (accepted teaching) of sa...
Functions of Religion (calderon,1998)
1. Religion serves as a means of social control.
2. Exerts great influence upon pers...
Elements of Religion
1. Sacred and Profane-
– Sacred refers to phenomena that are regarded as extraordinary,
transcendent,...
4. Economic
• Is centered on the task of making a living,
the most absorbing interest of man.
• Microeconomics – concerned...
What are the basic economic
problems?
1. What goods and services to produce
and how much?
2. How to produce goods and serv...
5. Government
• an institution which resolves conflicts that are
public in nature and involve more than a few
people . It ...
Three branches of government
1. Executive- proposes and enforces rules and
laws.
2. Legislative- makes rules and laws
3. J...
Functions of government
1. The constituent functions contributes to the very
bonds of society and are therefore compulsory...
– The administration of justice and civil cases
– The administration of political duties, privileges,
and relations of cit...
SUMMARY
In any human society are social structures and social
mechanisms of social order and cooperation that
govern the b...
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
GENDER – is one of the universal dimensions on
which status differences are based. It also
shapes t...
THEORIES OF GENDER AND
DEVELOPMENT
1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
– Parents are distributors of reinforcement. They need to
rei...
GENDER STEREOTYPING
– Defined as the beliefs humans hold about the
characteristics associated with males and females
GENDE...
GENDER INEQUALITY
– Men and women are situated in society not only differently but
also unequally.
– Women get less of mat...
GENDER AND POWER
– Gender refers to the different ways men and women
play in society, and to the relative power they yield...
DETERMINANTS OF POWER
1. Status Resources
2. Experience
3. Self-confidence
GENDER AND EDUCATION
• Investing in education is seen as one of the
fundamental ways in which nation states and
their citi...
SUMMARY:
• Research has shown that gender inequality tends to
slow down economic growth and make the rise from
poverty mor...
GLOBALIZATION & EDUCATION
• Globalization refers to an increasing
interconnectedness and convergence of activities and
for...
CORE VALUES AND COMPETENCIES FOR GLOBAL
EDUCATION
1. Peace and non-violence
2. Social justice and human rights
3. Economic...
CORE SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES
1. Self-worth and self-affirmation
2. The affirmation of others including cultural &
racial d...
Socio-cultural issues on globalization
• Massive migration
• Managing differences
• Global changes in culture
Economic Issues on globalization
– Globalization brings about opportunities for
education particularly in the ways that ne...
Political issues on Globalization
– Constraint on national/state policy making posed
by external demands from transnationa...
Role of education in understanding globalization
– Education creates a capacity to mitigate the
disparities in the world t...
Education and its impact on globalization
– Education will need rethinking and restructuring if
schooling is to best prepa...
Needed reforms in education
1. Content :
• curriculum up-gradation
• Productivity orientation
2. The fall out of globaliza...
SUMMARY:
• Education systems can be seen as the core of the globalization
process.
• The forces of globalization are affec...
Education in the New Milieu
STUDENT
A shift from A shift to
Possibly waiting for the teacher to give
directions and inform...
TEACHER
A shift from A shift to
Always being viewed as the content
expert and source for all of the answers
Being viewed a...
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Social dimensions of Education

  1. 1. SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION
  2. 2. Course Outline Unit I: Social Science Theories of Education a. Consensus Theory b. Conflict Theory c. Interaction Theory Unit II: The Four Pillars of Education Unit III: Intercultural Communication a. Language and Communication b. Cultural Dimensions of Teaching Learning Processes Unit III: Social Institutions a. School as an agents of Change b. Factors Affecting School’s Conceptualization and Studies Unit IV: Development Issues and Education a. Gender and Development b. Globalization and Development
  3. 3. Activating Prior Knowledge • Enumerate five (5) different kinds of social organization or institutions present in your community. • What do you think are the functions or responsibilities of these institutions? • How did you learn English language? • Draw a map of your community and indicate various groups and institutions present therein.
  4. 4. Understanding Social Science Introduction: The social dimension of education starts with the awareness on how social theories influence education. A number of theories attempted to explain how human behavior affects our individualization and interaction. What is social science? is the scientific approach to studying the origin and growth, custom and tradition, group life and institutions of human society.
  5. 5. Some of the questions pointing to the importance of social science are: • Origin and growth: how do we see and behave as individuals and as part of social group? How can individuals and social groups influence society? • Custom and tradition: what is influence and value of ideas and philosophy? The issue of ideology? Is it a philosophy or a blueprint for action? • Group life and Institutions: Does a collective past give value to our lives? Can we control our collective present?
  6. 6. The nature of Education • Sociology provides educators a special perspective in studying the relationship between school and society. Schools are social organizations (Ballantine, 1989) because of the nature of education. The study of school system becomes the concern of sociologists. Sociologist study the social issues and concerns in education which impact on socialization (Bago, p.1)
  7. 7. The role of schools Dr. Adelaida Bago, in her book Social Dimensions in Philippine Education stresses two possible roles of schools: 1. To educate citizens to fit into society. 2. To educate citizens to change the society
  8. 8. Specific Purposes of School 1. Cognitive purposes – teaching the basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and speaking. 2. Political purposes- inculcation of patriotism or loyalty to the existing political order. 3. Social purposes- concerns with the socializations of citizens into their various roles in society. 4. Economic purposes - involves training and preparations of citizens for the world of work.
  9. 9. Social Science Theories Consensus Conflict Structural Functionalist Interaction
  10. 10. Consensus Theory • Shared norms and values are fundamental to society, focus on social order based on tacit agreements, and view social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion. • It emphasizes social order, stability, and social regulation. • It examines value integration in society. – Consensus - is a general agreement among all members of a particular society.
  11. 11. Conflict Theory • Conflict is a clash between ideas, principles, and people. • Conflict Theory focuses on the struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and power in social systems • Emphasize the dominance of some social groups by others , see social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups , and view social change as occurring rapidly and in a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups (Ritzer, 2000)
  12. 12. • It focuses on the heterogenous nature of society and the differential distribution of political and social power. There is a struggle between social classes and class conflicts between the powerful and less powerful groups. (Horton & Hunt, 1984) • Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tensions between competing groups. • It grew out of the work of Karl Marx and focuses on struggle of social classes to maintain dominance and power social system
  13. 13. • Conflict Theorists are interested in how society’s institutions- the family, government, religion, education, and media – may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position. Their emphasis on social change and redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more radical and activist than functionalists (Scaefer, 2003)
  14. 14. • The consensus and conflict sociological theories are reflected in the works of certain dominant and other prominent social theorists such as; – Karl Marx – Emile Durkheim – Max Weber – Talcott Parsons – Robert Merton – Louis Althusser – Ralph Dahrendorf – Herbert Mead – Herbert Blumer
  15. 15. • The works of Marx in his early years was interpreted by some social theorists as emphasizing the role of human beings in social conflict. They explained change as emerging from the crisis between human beings and their society. They argued that Marx’s theory was a theory characterized by class conflicts or the conflict between the bourgeoisie (rich owners) and the proletariate (poor workers).
  16. 16. • Max Weber argues that schools teach and maintain particular (status culture) that is, groups in society with similar interests and positions in the status of hierarchy. • Education systems may train individuals in specialities to fill needed positions or prepare “cultivated individuals” those who stand above others because of their superior knowledge and reasoning abilities. Individuals who had access to this type of education in early China were from the educated elite, thus perpetuating their family status culture (Sadovnik et al,1994).
  17. 17. Structural Functionalism • A dominant sociological theory for many years according to Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton. However in the last three decades it has declined dramatically in importance (Chriss,1995) • Parsons’ structural functionalism has four functional imperatives embodied in his AGIL scheme: – Adaptation: a system must cope with external situational exigencies. It must adapt to its environment and adapt environment to its needs. – Goal attainment – a system must define and achieve its primary goals. – Integration – a system must regulate the interrelationship of its component parts. It must also manage the relationship among the other three functional imperatives (AGL). – Latency (pattern maintenance) – a system must furnish, maintain, and renew both the motivation of individuals & the cultural patterns.
  18. 18. • Parsons designed the AGIL scheme to be used at all levels in this theoretical system – Action system – handles the adaptation function by adjusting to and transforming the external world. – Personality system – performs the goal attainment function by defining system goals and mobilizing resources to attain them. – Social system – copes with the integration function by controlling its component parts. – Cultural system – performs the latency function by providing actors with the norms and values that motivate them for action (Ritzer, 2000)
  19. 19. Structure of the General Action System Cultural system Social system Action system Personality system
  20. 20. Parsons sets of assumptions re- problem of order • Systems have the property of order and interdependence of parts. • System tends toward self-maintaining order, or equilibrium • The system may be static or involved in an ordered process of change • The nature of one part of the system has an impact on the form that the order parts can take • Systems maintain boundaries with their environments • Allocation and integration are two fundamental processes necessary for a given state of equilibrium. • Systems tend toward self-maintenance of the relationships of parts to the whole, control of environmental variations, & control of tendencies to change the system from within.
  21. 21. Parsons conception of the social system • Social system begins at the micro level with interaction between ego and alter ego, defined as the most elementary form of the social system. • He described a social system as something which consists of a plurality of individual actors interacting with each other in a situation which has at least a physical or environmental aspect.
  22. 22. Functional requisites of a social system 1. Social system must be structured so that they operate compatibly with other systems. 2. To survive, the social system must have the requisite from other systems 3. The system must meet a significant proportion of the needs of its actors. 4. The system must elicit adequate participation from its members. 5. It must have at least a minimum of control over potentially disruptive behavior. 6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it must be controlled. 7. Finally, a social system requires a language in order to survive.
  23. 23. Component parts of a social structure families associations countries neighborschurches schools banks
  24. 24. Key principles of the functionalist theory Interdependency Functions of social structure & culture Equilibrium Consensus & cooperation
  25. 25. • Interdependency – one of the most important principles of functionalist theory is that society is made up of interdependent parts. • Functions of structure and control – Closely related to interdependency is the idea that each part of the social system exists because it serves some function. This principle is applied by functionalists to both social structure and culture. • Social structure – refers to the organization of society including its institution, its social positions, and its distribution of resources. • Culture – refers to a set of beliefs, language, rules, values, and knowledge held in common by members of a society
  26. 26. • Consensus and cooperation – Its key principle is that “societies have a tendency toward consensus”; that is a certain basic values that nearly everyone in the society agrees upon. • Equilibrium – This view holds that once a society has achieved the form that is best adapted to its institution, it has reach a state of balance, and it will remain in that condition until it is force to change by some new condition.
  27. 27. Social structure provide preset patterns which evolve to meet human needs Maintenance of society Stability, order, & harmony
  28. 28. • Structural functionalism – Puts emphasis on social order and social stability not on conflict. – It claims that society is made up of different institutions or organizations that work together in cooperation to achieve their orderly relationship and to maintain social order and social stability. – Parsons believed that education is a vital part of a modern society, a society that differs considerably from all previous societies. From this perspective, SCHOOLING performs an important function in the development and maintenance of modern democratic society, especially with regard to equality of opportunity for all citizens. Thus, in modern societies, education becomes the key institution in a meritocratic selection process.
  29. 29. INTERACTIONIST THEORY • Are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives. • Two Basic forms of Social Interaction 1. Symbolic interactionism views the self as socially constructed in relation to social forces and social structures and the product of ongoing negotiations of meanings. Thus, the social self is an active product of human agency rather than a deterministic product of social structure. It requires mental processes. 2. Non-Symbolic Interactionism – it does not involve thinking. – The basic is a result of interaction between individuals mediated by symbols in particular, language.
  30. 30. Principles of Symbolic Interactionism • Human beings unlike lower animals are endowed with a capacity for thought. • The capacity for thought is shaped by social interaction. • In social interaction, people learn the meanings and the symbols that allow them to exercise their distinctively human capacity for thought. • Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on distinctively human action & interaction
  31. 31. • People are able to modify or alter meanings and symbols that they use in action and interaction on the basis of their interpretation of the situation. • People are able to make this modifications and alterations because in part of their ability to interact with themselves, which allow them to examine possible courses of action, assess their relative advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one. • The intertwined patterns of action and interaction make up groups and societies.
  32. 32. Mead’s approach to symbolic interaction rested on three basic premises 1. People act toward the things they encounter on the basis of what those things mean to them. 2. We learn what things are by observing how other people respond to them, that is through social interaction. 3. As a result of ongoing interaction, the sounds (or words), gestures, facial expressions, & body postures we use in dealing with others acquire symbolic meanings that are shared by people who belong to the same culture.
  33. 33. • The importance of thinking to symbolic interactionists is reflected in their views on objects. • Objects are seen simply as things “out there” in the real world. What is significant is, the way they are defined by actors. • Three types of objects: (Blumer) – Physical objects ( chair, tree) – Social objects ( mother, child) – Abstract objects ( ideas, moral principles)
  34. 34. • Looking- glass Self – means we see ourselves as others see us. –This concept was developed by the early symbolic interactionist theorist: Charles Horton Cooley.
  35. 35. SUMMARY: • Education is one of the major institutions that constitute society. There are various social science theories that relate to education – consensus, conflict, structural functionalism, and interaction theories. • Conflict theory deals with the emergence of conflict within a particular human society. • Consensus is a concept of society in which the absence of conflict is seen as the equilibrium state of society based on a general or widespread agreement among all members of a particular society. • Consensus and conflict theories are reflected in the works of certain dominant social theorists: Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and other social theorists.
  36. 36. • Structural functionalism is concerned with the functions of schooling in the maintenance of social order. It asserts that society is made up of different institutions or organizations that work together in cooperation to achieve orderly relationship and to maintain social order and social stability. • Symbolic interactionists are interested not simply in socialization but in interactions between students and students and between students and teachers. All types of interactions refine our ability to think.
  37. 37. PILLARS OF EDUCATION Introduction: • “Learning the Treasure Within”. Stresses that each individual must be equipped to seize learning opportunities throughout life, both to broaden her/his knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and adapt to a changing, complex and interdependent world.
  38. 38. PILLARS OF EDUCATION LEARNING TO KNOW LEARNING TO DO LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHE R LEARNING TO BE
  39. 39. 1. Learning to know- – acquiring the instrument of understanding. – This implies learning how to learn by developing one’s concentration, memory skills and ability to think. – To learn to know, students need to develop learn-to-learn skills such as: learning to read with comprehension, listening, observing, asking questions, data gathering, note taking, and assessing, processing, & selecting information.
  40. 40. • The teacher’s roles are: – Facilitator – Catalyst – Monitor – Evaluator • The process of learning to think is a lifelong one and can be enhanced by every kind of human experience. • This implies knowledge competency.
  41. 41. 2. Learning to do – able to act creatively in one’s environment. - This implies the skilful, creative and discerning application of knowledge which requires development of competence, life skills, personal qualities, aptitudes and attitudes.
  42. 42. 3. Learning to live together - able to participate in and cooperate with other people in all human activities. - This implies that the teacher should help the students to develop an understanding of other people and appreciation of interdependence since we live in a closely connected world.
  43. 43. 4. Learning to be – able to develop one’s personality and to act with ever greater autonomy, judgment and personal responsibility. - It describes complete fulfilment of man, in all the richness of his personality; physical, emotional, intellectual, and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man.
  44. 44. Determine what Pillar of Education is emphasized below • Material development at the expense of human development points to the need to do more _____ in school; • The specialization required of every professional teacher for him/her to be competent is in line with which pillar of learning? • Teaching students and adults the art of dialogue is in accordance with which pillar of learning? • Inculcating the spirit of empathy among learners fulfills which pillar of learning? • Developing an understanding of life, the world around us and other people is the concern of which pillar of learning? • Transforming certified skills into personal competence is the concern of which pillar of learning?
  45. 45. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Introduction: • The world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This communication takes place because of contacts in the different organization that composed society. With these, constructive communication is deemed necessary to avoid misunderstandings and breakdowns.
  46. 46. Communication & Language Communication- is far more than speech and writing. Two types of communication 1. Verbal – refers to use of language 2. Non-verbal – refers to the use of gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements. Language – is an abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and gestures and expressions of non-verbal communication Paralanguage- is the language of gestures, expressions, and postures
  47. 47. A man’s language is a reflection of the kind of person he is, the level of education he has attained, and an index to the behavior that may be expected from him. Language is the key factor in the success of human race in creating and preserving culture, for without language the ability to convey ideas and traditions is impossible.
  48. 48. Four areas of language 1. Phonology – refers to a system of sounds. 2. Semantics – is a study of word meanings and word combination. 3. Grammar – refers to the structure of language through its morphology and syntax.  Morphology- is the study of the language smallest units of meanings called morphemes – prefixes, suffixes, and root words  Syntax- specifies how words are combined into sentence 4. Pragmatics – is a concerned rules for the use of appropriate language particular contexts.
  49. 49. Relationship Between Language and Culture Language is an integral part of culture and human culture cannot exist without it. The structure of language determines the way in which speakers of that language view the world. If culture affects the structure and content of its language, then it follows that linguistic diversity derives in part from cultural diversity. Edward Sapir, a linguist, acknowledge the close relationship between language and culture, maintaining that they were inextricably related so that you could not understand or appreciate the one without a knowledge of the other.
  50. 50. The linguistic-relativity hypothesis asserts that language determines thought and therefore culture. In reality language and culture influence each other. Every society has a culture, no matter how simple the culture may be, and every human being is cultured in the sense of participating in some culture of others.
  51. 51. Culture – refers to the attitudes, values, customs, and behavior patterns that characterize social group. It is a set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristics of a particular society (Ember, 1999). It is the learned norms, values, knowledge, artifacts, language, & symbols that are constantly communicated among people who share a common way of life (Calhoun, et al., 1994)
  52. 52. The sum total of symbols, ideas, forms of expressions, and material products associated with a system (Allan Johnson, 1996). A complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (E.B. Taylor). An organization of phenomena that is dependent upon symbols, phenomena which includes acts(patterns of behavior), objects (tools and things made), ideas (beliefs and knowledge), and sentiments (attitudes and values) - Leslie A. White. Hofstede (1997) states that culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts.
  53. 53. Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned Culture is shared by group of people Culture is cumulative Culture is dynamic Culture is ideational Culture is diverse Culture changes Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns
  54. 54. Components of Culture Communication Language- medium of communication Symbols- the backbone of symbolic interaction. Cognitive Ideas- mental representations Knowledge- storehouse where we accumulate representations, information, facts, assumptions Beliefs- accept a propositions, statement, description of facts as true. Values- a defined standards of desirability, goodness, & beauty which serve as guideline for social being. Accounts- refers to how people use common language to explain, justify, rationalize, excuse, or legitimize our behavior to themselves and others.
  55. 55.  Material- this refers to physical objects of culture such  Tools  Medicines  Books  Transportation  technologies  Behavioral ( refering to how we act)  Norms- rules & expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.  Mores- are customary behavior patterns or folkways which have taken taken a moralistic value.  Laws- formalized norms enacted by people who are vested with government power & enforced by political & legal authorities designated by the government.  Folkways- are behavior patterns of society which are organized & repetitive.  Rituals – are highly scripted ceremonies or strips of interaction that follow a specific sequence of actions
  56. 56.  How is culture transmitted? Enculturation – the process of learning culure of one’s group. Acculturation – the process of learning some new traits from another culture Assimilation – the process wherein an individual entirely loses any awareness of his/her previous group identity and takes on the culture and attitudes of another group.
  57. 57.  Importance and Functions of Culture Culture helps the individual fulfil his potential as human being. Culture helps man overcome his physical disadvantages and allows him to provide himself with fire, clothing, food, and shelter. Culture provides rules of proper conduct for living in a society. Culture also provides the individual his concepts of family, nation, and class.
  58. 58. CULTURAL RELATIVISM Practices considered immoral or taboo to a certain group of people but are accepted by other groups with different cultural orientation. Stresses that in a particular setting certain traits are right because they work in that setting while other traits are wrong because they clash painfully with parts of the culture (Hunt et al., 1998) The meaning of the behavior is related to the culture.
  59. 59. • Cultural relativism is an approach to the question of the nature and role of values in culture.(Rosado,2003) • In anthropology, it is a key methodological concept which is universally accepted within the discipline. • According to Glazer(1996), cultural relativism is an anthropological approach which posits that all cultures are of equal value and need to be studied in a neutral point of view. This indicates that every culture determines its own ethical judgments to regulate the proper behavior of its members.
  60. 60. GROUP ACTIVITY • In a group of ten, share your practices, customs, values, and way of life. Then, think of a unique presentation that will show cultural relativism. You are given 10 minutes for planning and 3 minutes presentation.
  61. 61. MULTICULTURALISM • According to Harrison (1984), it is a theory about the foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural ideas. • it is a policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures, especially as they relate to one another in receiving nations. • Multiculturalism as one model of democratic policy response to culture and ethnic diversity is of interest to UNESCO, in so far as it corresponds to the ideal of a culture of peace, based on respect of diversity, as well as universally shared values and norms.
  62. 62. Referents of Multiculturalism and its related adjective multicultural 1. Demographic – descriptive refers to the existence of linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse segments in the population of society or state. 2. Ideological- normative constitutes a specific focus towards the management and organization of governmental responses to ethnic diversity 3. Programmatic-political refers to the specific policies developed to respond and manage ethnic diversity.
  63. 63. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION • It is an emerging discipline whose aim is to create equal educational opportunities from diverse racial, ethnic, social class and cultural groups. ( Banks and Banks, 1995) • Its goal is to transform the school so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students from diverse cultural, social-class, racial, and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.(James Banks, 2001)
  64. 64. Approaches to Multicultural Education 1. Contributions approach – the ethnic heroes , holidays and food become a special focus on a particular day, recognizing the contributions of various groups. 2. Additive approach – special units and topics about various groups are added to, but do not fundamentally alter the curriculum
  65. 65. 3. Transformation – curriculum is changed, so that students see the world from the different perspective of various groups. 4. Social Action – students make decisions about their world and become directly involved in social actions
  66. 66. DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION 1. Content Integration • it deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, generalizations and issues within their subject discipline.
  67. 67. 2. Knowledge Construction Process  It describes how teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the biases, frames of reference, and perspectives within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it.
  68. 68. 3. Prejudice Reduction It describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.
  69. 69. 4. Equity Pedagogy It exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social class groups.
  70. 70. 5. Empowering School Culture and Social Structure The culture and organization of the school are transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status.
  71. 71. Important reminder: To implement multicultural education effectively, teachers and administrators must attend to each of the five dimensions of multicultural education.
  72. 72. THE GROWTH OF STUDENT SUBCULTURE Subculture  refers to cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population. It can be based on age, ethnicity, residence, sexual preference, occupation and many other factors.
  73. 73. Functions of Subcultures 1. Permit specialized activity 2. Identity in mass media 3. Cultural adaptation and change
  74. 74. Cultural Dimensions of Learning, Teaching, & Educational Processes • As our nation continues to change, teachers as well as the students interact with others from quite different background from their own in the classroom. • The manner in which we respond to others who seem different can have a serous impact on success in school, work, and harmonious relationships with others.
  75. 75. Cultural Differences imply the transmission of ideas from generation to generation by significant members of the older generation (parents, teachers, religious leaders, etc.)
  76. 76. • Any discussion of social-cultural influences on development stress that cultures differ in their views of acceptable child-rearing practices. • Children from different cultures are interacting with each other, thus presenting parents and educators with unique opportunities for further understanding across cultures.
  77. 77. What is a Culturally-Responsive Teaching? • Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction. • To work effectively with students from different cultures, teachers must understand those cultures.
  78. 78. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS What is Social institutions?  A group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role.  Any institution in a society that works to socialize the groups of people in it.
  79. 79. Characteristics of an institution (Palispis,1996) 1. Institutions are purposive 2. Institutions are permanent in their content 3. Institutions are structured 4. Institutions are a unified structure 5. Institutions are necessarily value-laden
  80. 80. Functions of Institutions 1. Institutions simplify social behavior for the individual person 2. Institutions provide ready-made forms of social relations and social roles for the individual 3. Institutions also act as agencies of coordination and stability for the total culture 4. Institutions tend to control behavior
  81. 81. 5 Major Social Institutions 1. Family – It is the smallest social institution with the unique function of producing and rearing the young. – It is also the basic unit of Philippine society and the educational system where the child begins to learn the ABC. – It is also the basic agent of socialization because it is here where the individual develops values, behaviors, and ways of life through interaction with members of the family (Vega, 2004)
  82. 82. Characteristics of the Filipino Family 1. The family is closely knit and has strong family ties. 2. The family is usually an extended one and therefore big. Kinship ties are extended to include the “compadre” or sponsors. They are regarded as relatives and closer ties are formed. 3. A much higher regard is attributed to the Filipino woman especially with the changing roles and functions of the family.
  83. 83. Functions of the Family 1. Reproduction of the race and rearing of the young. 2. Cultural transmission or Enculturation 3. Socialization of the child 4. Providing affection and a sense of security 5. Providing the environment of personality development & growth of self-concept in relation to others 6. Providing social status
  84. 84. Kinds of Family Patterns (Sociologists) Membership Marriage Residence Authority Descent Nuclear Extended Monogamy polygamy Neolocal Matrilocal Patrilocal Patriarchal Matriarchal Equalitarian Bilineal Patrilineal Matrilineal
  85. 85. • Conjugal/nuclear family- consisting of husband, wife, and children. • Consanguine/extended family – consist of married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins. • Monogamy- single marriage • Polygamy- plural marriage – polyandry –one woman is married to two or more men at the same time. – Polygamy – one man is married to two or more women at the same time. – Cenogamy – two or more men mate with two or more women in group marrige
  86. 86. • Patrilocal – a newly married couple lives with the parents of the husband. • Matrilocal – a newly married couple lives with the parents of wife. • Neolocal – a newly married couple maintains a separate household and live by themselves • Patriarchal – the father is considered as head and plays a dominant role.
  87. 87. • Matriarchal – the mother is the head and makes the major decisions • Equalitarian- both the father ad mother share in making decisions and are equal in authority • Patrilineal – the descent is recognized through the father’s line. • Matrilineal – the descent is recognized through the mother’s line. • Bilineal – the descent is recognized through both the father’s and mother’s line.
  88. 88. 2. Education • an established organization having an identifiable structure and a set of functions meant to preserve and extend social order. • Its basic purpose is the transmission of knowledge to move young people in the mainstream of society. • Teachers see to it that children are developed in all aspects physically, emotionally, socially, and academically.
  89. 89. • Intellectual purpose  teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.  To transmit specific knowledge  Help students acquire higher-order-thinking skills • Political purpose – Inculcate allegiance to the existing political order – Prepare students who will participate in the political order – Teach children the basic laws of society – Helps assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order • Social purpose – Socialize children into the various roles, behavior, and values of the society • Economic purpose – Prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.
  90. 90. Multiple Functions of School • Technical/Economic – contributions of schools to the technical or economic development and needs of the individual, the institution, the local community, the society, and the international community. • Human/Social- contribution of schools to human development and social relationships at different levels of the society. • Political- contribution of schools to the political development at different levels of society. • Cultural- contribution of schools to the cultural transmission and development at different levels of society. • Education – contribution of schools to the development and maintenance of education at the different levels of society.
  91. 91. Manifest functions of school 1. Social control 2. Socialization 3. Social placement 4. Transmitting culture 5. Promoting social and political integration 6. Agent of change Manifest functions are defined as the open and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution.
  92. 92. Latent functions of school 1. Restricting some activities 2. Matchmaking and production of social network 3. Creation of generation gap – Latent function is defined as the hidden, unstated and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization or institution.
  93. 93. Other functions of school as stated by Calderon (1998) 1. Conservation function 2. Instructional function 3. Research function 4. Social service function
  94. 94. 3. Religion • is a socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning the ultimate meaning of life. It assumes the existence of the supernatural. • A system of beliefs and rituals that serves to bind people together through shared worship, thereby creating a social group.
  95. 95. Characteristics of Religion 1. Belief in deity or in a power beyond the individual 2. A doctrine (accepted teaching) of salvation 3. A code of conduct 4. The use of sacred stories 5. Religious Rituals (acts and ceremonies)
  96. 96. Functions of Religion (calderon,1998) 1. Religion serves as a means of social control. 2. Exerts great influence upon personality development. 3. Allays fear of the unknown. 4. Explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of man 5. Gives man comfort, strength, and hope in times of crisis and despair. 6. Preserves and transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual and cultural values and practices. 7. Serves as an instrument of change. 8. Promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness and helpfulness. 9. Alleviates sufferings from major calamities 10. Provides hope for a blissful life after death.
  97. 97. Elements of Religion 1. Sacred and Profane- – Sacred refers to phenomena that are regarded as extraordinary, transcendent, and outside the everyday course of events- that is supernatural. – Profane refers to all phenomena that are not sacred. 2. Legitimation of Norms – Religious sanctions and beliefs reinforce the legitimacy of many rules and norms in the community. 3. Rituals – Formal patterns of activity that express symbolically a set of shared meanings, in the case of rituals such as baptism or communion, the shared meanings are sacred. 4. Religious Community Establishes a code of behavior for the members who belong and who does not.
  98. 98. 4. Economic • Is centered on the task of making a living, the most absorbing interest of man. • Microeconomics – concerned with the specific economic units of parts that makes an economic system and the relationship between those parts. • Macroeconomics – concerned with the economy as a whole, or large segments of it.
  99. 99. What are the basic economic problems? 1. What goods and services to produce and how much? 2. How to produce goods and services? 3. For whom are the goods and services?
  100. 100. 5. Government • an institution which resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than a few people . It can be city, provincial, national, or even international. • An institution by which an independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state.( the Supreme Court of the Philippines)
  101. 101. Three branches of government 1. Executive- proposes and enforces rules and laws. 2. Legislative- makes rules and laws 3. Judicial- adjudicates rules and laws A government is aimed at maintaining good social order where the people enjoy the political and economic blessings of life in an atmosphere of justice, freedom and equality.
  102. 102. Functions of government 1. The constituent functions contributes to the very bonds of society and are therefore compulsory – Keeping an order and providing for the protection of persons and property fro violence and robbery – Fixing of the legal relations between husband and wife, and between parents and children. – The regulation of the holding, transmission, and interchange of property, and the determination of its liabilities for debt and for crime. – The determination of contractual rights between individuals. – Definition and punishment of crimes
  103. 103. – The administration of justice and civil cases – The administration of political duties, privileges, and relations of citizens – The dealings of the state with foreign growers, the preservation of the state from external danger. 2. Ministrant functions are those undertaken to advance the general interest of society, such as public works, public charity, and regulation of trade and industry. This function is optional.
  104. 104. SUMMARY In any human society are social structures and social mechanisms of social order and cooperation that govern the behavior of its members. These are called social institutions & according to functional theorists perform five essential tasks namely: 1. Replacing members or procreation 2. Teaching new members 3. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services 4. Preserving order 5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
  105. 105. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT GENDER – is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. It also shapes the lives of all people in all societies. It influences all aspects of our lives, the schooling we receive, the social roles we play, and the power and authority we command. Population process- where women and men live, how they bear and rear children, and how they die- are shaped by gender as well (Riley,1997)
  106. 106. THEORIES OF GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT 1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY – Parents are distributors of reinforcement. They need to reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors. It emphasizes good relationship. 2. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY – Derives from Kohlberg’s speculations about gender development. Piaget’s work shows that children engage in symbolic thinking by about 2 years of age. 3. SCHEMA THEORY – A SCHEMA is a mental blueprint/picture for organizing information, and children develop and formulate an appropriate gender.
  107. 107. GENDER STEREOTYPING – Defined as the beliefs humans hold about the characteristics associated with males and females GENDER EQUALITY – Explains the same entitlements to all aspects of human development, including economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, the same level of respect, the same opportunities to make choices, and the same level of power to shape the outcomes of these choices.
  108. 108. GENDER INEQUALITY – Men and women are situated in society not only differently but also unequally. – Women get less of material resources, social status, power, and opportunities for self-actualization than men who share their social location – Inequality results from the organization of society, not from any significant biological or personality differences between men and women. – Women are situationally less empowered than men to realize the need they share with men for self actualization. – All inequality theories assume that both men and women will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structures and situations
  109. 109. GENDER AND POWER – Gender refers to the different ways men and women play in society, and to the relative power they yield. – Power is a basic fabric of society and is possessed in varying degrees by social actors in diverse social categories. Power becomes abusive and exploitative only when independence and individuality of one person or group of people becomes dominant that freedom for the other is compromised. – Max Weber defined power as potentially coercive but also considered ways in which power can be achieved through justice.
  110. 110. DETERMINANTS OF POWER 1. Status Resources 2. Experience 3. Self-confidence
  111. 111. GENDER AND EDUCATION • Investing in education is seen as one of the fundamental ways in which nation states and their citizens can move toward long-term development goals and improve both social and economic standards of living. • Women education is seen as providing the key to securing intergenerational transfer of knowledge, and providing the substance of providing the substance of long-term gender equality and social change.
  112. 112. SUMMARY: • Research has shown that gender inequality tends to slow down economic growth and make the rise from poverty more difficult. • Half of the world’s population is female. • Women have always had lower status than men but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across culture and time. • Gender equality accelerates overall economic growth, strengthens democratic governance and reduces poverty and insecurity. Equality between women and men is a worthy goal that is central to progress in human development.
  113. 113. GLOBALIZATION & EDUCATION • Globalization refers to an increasing interconnectedness and convergence of activities and forms of life among diverse cultures throughout the world. • Education systems constitute the core of the globalization process. • Global education extends students’ awareness of the world in which they live by opening them to the diverse heritage of human thoughts, actions and creativity. • Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world with unprecedented interconnection.
  114. 114. CORE VALUES AND COMPETENCIES FOR GLOBAL EDUCATION 1. Peace and non-violence 2. Social justice and human rights 3. Economic well-being and equity 4. Cultural integrity 5. Ecological balance 6. Democratic participation
  115. 115. CORE SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES 1. Self-worth and self-affirmation 2. The affirmation of others including cultural & racial differences 3. Critical thinking 4. Effective communication skills 5. Non-violent conflict resolution & mediation 6. Imagination 7. Effective organizing
  116. 116. Socio-cultural issues on globalization • Massive migration • Managing differences • Global changes in culture
  117. 117. Economic Issues on globalization – Globalization brings about opportunities for education particularly in the ways that new technologies can be put to work to improve both the quantity and quality of education worldwide. – Illiteracy anywhere creates economic and political risks everywhere.
  118. 118. Political issues on Globalization – Constraint on national/state policy making posed by external demands from transnational institutions. – Economic coordination and exchange have become increasingly well-regulated economic activity. – there has also been a growing internationalization of global conflict, crime, terrorism, & environmental issues.
  119. 119. Role of education in understanding globalization – Education creates a capacity to mitigate the disparities in the world today that are potentially destabilizing both from an economic and a political point of view. (Bloom 2002) – Education shapes the cognitive skills, interpersonal sensibilities and cultural sophistication of children and youth whose lives will be both engage in local context s and responsive to larger transitional processes.
  120. 120. Education and its impact on globalization – Education will need rethinking and restructuring if schooling is to best prepare the children and the youth of the world to engage globalization’s new challenges, opportunities, and costs. – Globalization influence all sectors of development. – It also casts its shadow on the system of education – Needed reforms within the educational system
  121. 121. Needed reforms in education 1. Content : • curriculum up-gradation • Productivity orientation 2. The fall out of globalization • Internationalization of education • Finance-related issues • Privatization of secondary and higher education Education for globalization nurtures higher order cognitive and interpersonal skills required for problem finding, problem solving, articulating arguments and employing verifiable facts.
  122. 122. SUMMARY: • Education systems can be seen as the core of the globalization process. • The forces of globalization are affecting youth, families, and education systems worldwide. • All social systems are predicated on the need to impart values, morals, skills, and competencies to the next generation. • The lives and experiences of the youth are linked to economic realities, social processes, technological and media innovation. • These global transformation requires the youth to develop new skills. • Education system needs rethinking and restructuring if schooling is to best prepare the youth to engage in globalization’s challenges, opportunities and costs.
  123. 123. Education in the New Milieu STUDENT A shift from A shift to Possibly waiting for the teacher to give directions and information Always being in the role of the learner Always following given procedures Viewing the teacher as the one who has all the answers Actively searching for needed information and learning experiences , determining what is needed, and seeking ways to attain it Participating at times as the expert/knowledge provider Desiring to explore, discover, and create unique solutions to learning problems Viewing the teacher as a resource, model, and helper who encourage exploration and attempts to find unique solutions to problems
  124. 124. TEACHER A shift from A shift to Always being viewed as the content expert and source for all of the answers Being viewed as the primary source of information who continually directs it to students Always asking the questions and controlling the focus of student learning Directing students to preset step by step exercises so that all achieves similar conclusions Participating at times as one who may not know it all but desires to learn Being viewed as a support, collaborator and coach for students as they learn to gather and evaluate information for themselves Actively coaching students to develop and pose their own questions and explore their own alternative ways of finding answers Actively encouraging individuals to use their personal knowledge and skills to create unique solutions to problems

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