Unit I: Social Science Theories of Education
a. Consensus Theory
b. Conflict Theory
c. Interaction Theory
Unit II: The Four Pillars of Education
Unit III: Intercultural Communication
a. Language and Communication
b. Cultural Dimensions of Teaching Learning Processes
Unit III: Social Institutions
a. School as an agents of Change
b. Factors Affecting School’s Conceptualization and Studies
Unit IV: Development Issues and Education
a. Gender and Development
b. Globalization and Development
Activating Prior Knowledge
• Enumerate five (5) different kinds of social
organization or institutions present in your
• What do you think are the functions or
responsibilities of these institutions?
• How did you learn English language?
• Draw a map of your community and indicate
various groups and institutions present
Understanding Social Science
The social dimension of education starts with the
awareness on how social theories influence
education. A number of theories attempted to
explain how human behavior affects our
individualization and interaction.
What is social science?
is the scientific approach to studying the origin
and growth, custom and tradition, group life and
institutions of human society.
Some of the questions pointing to the
importance of social science are:
• Origin and growth: how do we see and behave as
individuals and as part of social group? How can
individuals and social groups influence society?
• Custom and tradition: what is influence and value
of ideas and philosophy? The issue of ideology? Is
it a philosophy or a blueprint for action?
• Group life and Institutions: Does a collective past
give value to our lives? Can we control our
The nature of Education
• Sociology provides educators a special
perspective in studying the relationship
between school and society. Schools are social
organizations (Ballantine, 1989) because of
the nature of education. The study of school
system becomes the concern of sociologists.
Sociologist study the social issues and
concerns in education which impact on
socialization (Bago, p.1)
The role of schools
Dr. Adelaida Bago, in her book Social
Dimensions in Philippine Education
stresses two possible roles of schools:
1. To educate citizens to fit into society.
2. To educate citizens to change the
Specific Purposes of School
1. Cognitive purposes – teaching the basic
cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and
2. Political purposes- inculcation of patriotism or
loyalty to the existing political order.
3. Social purposes- concerns with the socializations
of citizens into their various roles in society.
4. Economic purposes - involves training and
preparations of citizens for the world of work.
• Shared norms and values are fundamental to
society, focus on social order based on tacit
agreements, and view social change as
occurring in a slow and orderly fashion.
• It emphasizes social order, stability, and social
• It examines value integration in society.
– Consensus - is a general agreement among all
members of a particular society.
• Conflict is a clash between ideas, principles, and
• Conflict Theory focuses on the struggle of social
classes to maintain dominance and power in
• Emphasize the dominance of some social groups
by others , see social order as based on
manipulation and control by dominant groups ,
and view social change as occurring rapidly and in
a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups
overthrow dominant groups (Ritzer, 2000)
• It focuses on the heterogenous nature of society
and the differential distribution of political and
social power. There is a struggle between social
classes and class conflicts between the powerful
and less powerful groups. (Horton & Hunt, 1984)
• Assumes that social behavior is best understood
in terms of conflict or tensions between
• It grew out of the work of Karl Marx and focuses
on struggle of social classes to maintain
dominance and power social system
• Conflict Theorists are interested in how
society’s institutions- the family, government,
religion, education, and media – may help to
maintain the privileges of some groups and
keep others in a subservient position. Their
emphasis on social change and redistribution
of resources makes conflict theorists more
radical and activist than functionalists
• The consensus and conflict sociological theories are
reflected in the works of certain dominant and other
prominent social theorists such as;
– Karl Marx
– Emile Durkheim
– Max Weber
– Talcott Parsons
– Robert Merton
– Louis Althusser
– Ralph Dahrendorf
– Herbert Mead
– Herbert Blumer
• The works of Marx in his early years was
interpreted by some social theorists as
emphasizing the role of human beings in
social conflict. They explained change as
emerging from the crisis between human
beings and their society. They argued that
Marx’s theory was a theory characterized by
class conflicts or the conflict between the
bourgeoisie (rich owners) and the proletariate
• Max Weber argues that schools teach and maintain
particular (status culture) that is, groups in society with
similar interests and positions in the status of
• Education systems may train individuals in specialities
to fill needed positions or prepare “cultivated
individuals” those who stand above others because of
their superior knowledge and reasoning abilities.
Individuals who had access to this type of education in
early China were from the educated elite, thus
perpetuating their family status culture (Sadovnik et
• A dominant sociological theory for many years according to Talcott
Parsons and Robert Merton. However in the last three decades it
has declined dramatically in importance (Chriss,1995)
• Parsons’ structural functionalism has four functional imperatives
embodied in his AGIL scheme:
– Adaptation: a system must cope with external situational
exigencies. It must adapt to its environment and adapt
environment to its needs.
– Goal attainment – a system must define and achieve its primary
– Integration – a system must regulate the interrelationship of its
component parts. It must also manage the relationship among
the other three functional imperatives (AGL).
– Latency (pattern maintenance) – a system must furnish,
maintain, and renew both the motivation of individuals & the
• Parsons designed the AGIL scheme to be used at
all levels in this theoretical system
– Action system – handles the adaptation function by
adjusting to and transforming the external world.
– Personality system – performs the goal attainment
function by defining system goals and mobilizing
resources to attain them.
– Social system – copes with the integration function by
controlling its component parts.
– Cultural system – performs the latency function by
providing actors with the norms and values that
motivate them for action (Ritzer, 2000)
Structure of the General Action System
Cultural system Social system
Action system Personality
Parsons sets of assumptions re-
problem of order
• Systems have the property of order and interdependence
• System tends toward self-maintaining order, or equilibrium
• The system may be static or involved in an ordered process
• The nature of one part of the system has an impact on the
form that the order parts can take
• Systems maintain boundaries with their environments
• Allocation and integration are two fundamental processes
necessary for a given state of equilibrium.
• Systems tend toward self-maintenance of the relationships
of parts to the whole, control of environmental variations,
& control of tendencies to change the system from within.
Parsons conception of the social
• Social system begins at the micro level with
interaction between ego and alter ego,
defined as the most elementary form of the
• He described a social system as something
which consists of a plurality of individual
actors interacting with each other in a
situation which has at least a physical or
Functional requisites of a social system
1. Social system must be structured so that they operate
compatibly with other systems.
2. To survive, the social system must have the requisite from
3. The system must meet a significant proportion of the needs
of its actors.
4. The system must elicit adequate participation from its
5. It must have at least a minimum of control over potentially
6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it must be
7. Finally, a social system requires a language in order to
Component parts of a social structure
• Interdependency – one of the most important principles
of functionalist theory is that society is made up of
• Functions of structure and control
– Closely related to interdependency is the idea that
each part of the social system exists because it serves
some function. This principle is applied by
functionalists to both social structure and culture.
• Social structure – refers to the organization of society
including its institution, its social positions, and its
distribution of resources.
• Culture – refers to a set of beliefs, language, rules, values,
and knowledge held in common by members of a society
• Consensus and cooperation
– Its key principle is that “societies have a tendency
toward consensus”; that is a certain basic values
that nearly everyone in the society agrees upon.
– This view holds that once a society has achieved
the form that is best adapted to its institution, it
has reach a state of balance, and it will remain in
that condition until it is force to change by some
Social structure provide
preset patterns which
evolve to meet human
• Structural functionalism
– Puts emphasis on social order and social stability not on
– It claims that society is made up of different institutions or
organizations that work together in cooperation to achieve
their orderly relationship and to maintain social order and
– Parsons believed that education is a vital part of a modern
society, a society that differs considerably from all previous
societies. From this perspective, SCHOOLING performs an
important function in the development and maintenance of
modern democratic society, especially with regard to equality
of opportunity for all citizens. Thus, in modern societies,
education becomes the key institution in a meritocratic
• Are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and
• Two Basic forms of Social Interaction
1. Symbolic interactionism views the self as socially
constructed in relation to social forces and social
structures and the product of ongoing negotiations of
meanings. Thus, the social self is an active product of
human agency rather than a deterministic product of
social structure. It requires mental processes.
2. Non-Symbolic Interactionism – it does not involve
– The basic is a result of interaction between individuals
mediated by symbols in particular, language.
Principles of Symbolic Interactionism
• Human beings unlike lower animals are endowed
with a capacity for thought.
• The capacity for thought is shaped by social
• In social interaction, people learn the meanings
and the symbols that allow them to exercise their
distinctively human capacity for thought.
• Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on
distinctively human action & interaction
• People are able to modify or alter meanings and
symbols that they use in action and interaction on the
basis of their interpretation of the situation.
• People are able to make this modifications and
alterations because in part of their ability to interact
with themselves, which allow them to examine
possible courses of action, assess their relative
advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one.
• The intertwined patterns of action and interaction
make up groups and societies.
Mead’s approach to symbolic interaction rested on three
1. People act toward the things they encounter on the
basis of what those things mean to them.
2. We learn what things are by observing how other
people respond to them, that is through social
3. As a result of ongoing interaction, the sounds (or
words), gestures, facial expressions, & body postures
we use in dealing with others acquire symbolic
meanings that are shared by people who belong to
the same culture.
• The importance of thinking to symbolic
interactionists is reflected in their views on
• Objects are seen simply as things “out there” in
the real world. What is significant is, the way they
are defined by actors.
• Three types of objects: (Blumer)
– Physical objects ( chair, tree)
– Social objects ( mother, child)
– Abstract objects ( ideas, moral principles)
• Looking- glass Self
– means we see ourselves as others see
–This concept was developed by the
early symbolic interactionist theorist:
Charles Horton Cooley.
• Education is one of the major institutions that constitute
society. There are various social science theories that relate
to education – consensus, conflict, structural functionalism,
and interaction theories.
• Conflict theory deals with the emergence of conflict within
a particular human society.
• Consensus is a concept of society in which the absence of
conflict is seen as the equilibrium state of society based on
a general or widespread agreement among all members of
a particular society.
• Consensus and conflict theories are reflected in the works
of certain dominant social theorists: Karl Marx, Emile
Durkheim, Max Weber, and other social theorists.
• Structural functionalism is concerned with the
functions of schooling in the maintenance of social
order. It asserts that society is made up of different
institutions or organizations that work together in
cooperation to achieve orderly relationship and to
maintain social order and social stability.
• Symbolic interactionists are interested not simply in
socialization but in interactions between students and
students and between students and teachers. All types
of interactions refine our ability to think.
PILLARS OF EDUCATION
• “Learning the Treasure Within”. Stresses
that each individual must be equipped to
seize learning opportunities throughout
life, both to broaden her/his knowledge,
skills, and attitudes, and adapt to a
changing, complex and interdependent
1. Learning to know-
– acquiring the instrument of understanding.
– This implies learning how to learn by developing
one’s concentration, memory skills and ability to
– To learn to know, students need to develop
learn-to-learn skills such as: learning to read
with comprehension, listening, observing, asking
questions, data gathering, note taking, and
assessing, processing, & selecting information.
• The teacher’s roles are:
• The process of learning to think is a lifelong
one and can be enhanced by every kind of
• This implies knowledge competency.
2. Learning to do
– able to act creatively in one’s
- This implies the skilful, creative and
discerning application of knowledge
which requires development of
competence, life skills, personal
qualities, aptitudes and attitudes.
3. Learning to live together
- able to participate in and cooperate
with other people in all human activities.
- This implies that the teacher should
help the students to develop an
understanding of other people and
appreciation of interdependence since
we live in a closely connected world.
4. Learning to be
– able to develop one’s personality and to
act with ever greater autonomy, judgment
and personal responsibility.
- It describes complete fulfilment of man, in
all the richness of his personality; physical,
emotional, intellectual, and ethical
integration of the individual into a complete
Determine what Pillar of Education is
• Material development at the expense of human development points to
the need to do more _____ in school;
• The specialization required of every professional teacher for him/her
to be competent is in line with which pillar of learning?
• Teaching students and adults the art of dialogue is in accordance with
which pillar of learning?
• Inculcating the spirit of empathy among learners fulfills which pillar of
• Developing an understanding of life, the world around us and other
people is the concern of which pillar of learning?
• Transforming certified skills into personal competence is the concern
of which pillar of learning?
• The world today is characterized by an ever
growing number of contacts resulting in
communication between people with different
linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This
communication takes place because of contacts
in the different organization that composed
society. With these, constructive communication
is deemed necessary to avoid misunderstandings
Communication & Language
Communication- is far more than speech and writing.
Two types of communication
1. Verbal – refers to use of language
2. Non-verbal – refers to the use of gestures, facial expressions,
and other body movements.
Language – is an abstract system of word meaning and
symbols for all aspects of culture. It includes speech,
written characters, numerals, symbols, and gestures and
expressions of non-verbal communication
Paralanguage- is the language of gestures, expressions,
A man’s language is a reflection of the kind of
person he is, the level of education he has
attained, and an index to the behavior that
may be expected from him.
Language is the key factor in the success of
human race in creating and preserving culture,
for without language the ability to convey
ideas and traditions is impossible.
Four areas of language
1. Phonology – refers to a system of sounds.
2. Semantics – is a study of word meanings and word
3. Grammar – refers to the structure of language
through its morphology and syntax.
Morphology- is the study of the language smallest units of
meanings called morphemes – prefixes, suffixes, and root
Syntax- specifies how words are combined into sentence
4. Pragmatics – is a concerned rules for the use of
appropriate language particular contexts.
Relationship Between Language and Culture
Language is an integral part of culture and human culture
cannot exist without it.
The structure of language determines the way in which
speakers of that language view the world.
If culture affects the structure and content of its language,
then it follows that linguistic diversity derives in part from
Edward Sapir, a linguist, acknowledge the close
relationship between language and culture, maintaining
that they were inextricably related so that you could not
understand or appreciate the one without a knowledge of
The linguistic-relativity hypothesis asserts that
language determines thought and therefore
culture. In reality language and culture
influence each other.
Every society has a culture, no matter how
simple the culture may be, and every human
being is cultured in the sense of participating
in some culture of others.
Culture – refers to the attitudes, values,
customs, and behavior patterns that
characterize social group.
It is a set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes,
values, and ideals that are characteristics of a
particular society (Ember, 1999).
It is the learned norms, values, knowledge,
artifacts, language, & symbols that are constantly
communicated among people who share a
common way of life (Calhoun, et al., 1994)
The sum total of symbols, ideas, forms of expressions, and
material products associated with a system (Allan Johnson,
A complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals,
law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by
man as a member of society (E.B. Taylor).
An organization of phenomena that is dependent upon symbols,
phenomena which includes acts(patterns of behavior), objects
(tools and things made), ideas (beliefs and knowledge), and
sentiments (attitudes and values) - Leslie A. White.
Hofstede (1997) states that culture consists of patterns, explicit
and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by
symbols constituting the distinctive achievement of human
groups, including their embodiments in artifacts.
Characteristics of Culture
Culture is learned
Culture is shared by group of people
Culture is cumulative
Culture is dynamic
Culture is ideational
Culture is diverse
Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior
Components of Culture
Language- medium of communication
Symbols- the backbone of symbolic interaction.
Ideas- mental representations
Knowledge- storehouse where we accumulate representations,
information, facts, assumptions
Beliefs- accept a propositions, statement, description of facts as
Values- a defined standards of desirability, goodness, & beauty
which serve as guideline for social being.
Accounts- refers to how people use common language to explain,
justify, rationalize, excuse, or legitimize our behavior to themselves
Material- this refers to physical objects of culture such
Behavioral ( refering to how we act)
Norms- rules & expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its
Mores- are customary behavior patterns or folkways which have taken taken a
Laws- formalized norms enacted by people who are vested with government
power & enforced by political & legal authorities designated by the
Folkways- are behavior patterns of society which are organized & repetitive.
Rituals – are highly scripted ceremonies or strips of interaction that follow a
specific sequence of actions
How is culture transmitted?
Enculturation – the process of learning culure of
Acculturation – the process of learning some new
traits from another culture
Assimilation – the process wherein an individual
entirely loses any awareness of his/her previous
group identity and takes on the culture and
attitudes of another group.
Importance and Functions of Culture
Culture helps the individual fulfil his potential as
Culture helps man overcome his physical
disadvantages and allows him to provide himself
with fire, clothing, food, and shelter.
Culture provides rules of proper conduct for living
in a society.
Culture also provides the individual his concepts
of family, nation, and class.
Practices considered immoral or taboo to a
certain group of people but are accepted by other
groups with different cultural orientation.
Stresses that in a particular setting certain traits
are right because they work in that setting while
other traits are wrong because they clash painfully
with parts of the culture (Hunt et al., 1998)
The meaning of the behavior is related to the
• Cultural relativism is an approach to the question of
the nature and role of values in culture.(Rosado,2003)
• In anthropology, it is a key methodological concept
which is universally accepted within the discipline.
• According to Glazer(1996), cultural relativism is an
anthropological approach which posits that all cultures
are of equal value and need to be studied in a neutral
point of view. This indicates that every culture
determines its own ethical judgments to regulate the
proper behavior of its members.
• In a group of ten, share your
practices, customs, values, and
way of life. Then, think of a
unique presentation that will
show cultural relativism. You are
given 10 minutes for planning
and 3 minutes presentation.
• According to Harrison (1984), it is a theory about the
foundations of a culture rather than a practice which
subsumes cultural ideas.
• it is a policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics
of different cultures, especially as they relate to one
another in receiving nations.
• Multiculturalism as one model of democratic policy
response to culture and ethnic diversity is of interest to
UNESCO, in so far as it corresponds to the ideal of a
culture of peace, based on respect of diversity, as well
as universally shared values and norms.
Referents of Multiculturalism and its
related adjective multicultural
1. Demographic – descriptive refers to the
existence of linguistically, culturally, and
ethnically diverse segments in the population of
society or state.
2. Ideological- normative constitutes a specific
focus towards the management and
organization of governmental responses to
3. Programmatic-political refers to the specific
policies developed to respond and manage
• It is an emerging discipline whose aim is to create
equal educational opportunities from diverse
racial, ethnic, social class and cultural groups. (
Banks and Banks, 1995)
• Its goal is to transform the school so that male
and female students, exceptional students, and
students from diverse cultural, social-class, racial,
and ethnic groups experience an equal
opportunity to learn.(James Banks, 2001)
Approaches to Multicultural
1. Contributions approach – the ethnic heroes ,
holidays and food become a special focus on
a particular day, recognizing the
contributions of various groups.
2. Additive approach – special units and topics
about various groups are added to, but do
not fundamentally alter the curriculum
3. Transformation – curriculum is
changed, so that students see the
world from the different perspective
of various groups.
4. Social Action – students make
decisions about their world and
become directly involved in social
DIMENSIONS OF MULTICULTURAL
1. Content Integration
• it deals with the extent to which
teachers use examples and content from
a variety of cultures and groups to
illustrate key concepts, generalizations
and issues within their subject
2. Knowledge Construction Process
It describes how teachers help students
to understand, investigate, and
determine how the biases, frames of
reference, and perspectives within a
discipline influence the ways in which
knowledge is constructed within it.
3. Prejudice Reduction
It describes lessons and activities
used by teachers to help students
develop positive attitudes toward
different racial, ethnic, and cultural
4. Equity Pedagogy
It exists when teachers modify their
teaching in ways that will facilitate
the academic achievement of
students from diverse racial, cultural,
and social class groups.
5. Empowering School Culture
and Social Structure
The culture and organization of the
school are transformed in ways that
enable students from diverse racial,
ethnic, and gender groups to
experience equality and equal status.
To implement multicultural
education effectively, teachers
and administrators must attend
to each of the five dimensions of
THE GROWTH OF STUDENT
refers to cultural patterns that set apart
some segment of a society’s population.
It can be based on age, ethnicity,
residence, sexual preference, occupation
and many other factors.
Functions of Subcultures
1. Permit specialized activity
2. Identity in mass media
3. Cultural adaptation and change
Cultural Dimensions of Learning,
Teaching, & Educational Processes
• As our nation continues to change, teachers as
well as the students interact with others from
quite different background from their own in
• The manner in which we respond to others
who seem different can have a serous impact
on success in school, work, and harmonious
relationships with others.
imply the transmission of ideas from
generation to generation by
significant members of the older
generation (parents, teachers,
religious leaders, etc.)
• Any discussion of social-cultural influences on
development stress that cultures differ in their
views of acceptable child-rearing practices.
• Children from different cultures are
interacting with each other, thus presenting
parents and educators with unique
opportunities for further understanding across
What is a Culturally-Responsive
• Culturally responsive teaching
acknowledges cultural diversity in
classrooms and accommodates this
diversity in instruction.
• To work effectively with students
from different cultures, teachers
must understand those cultures.
What is Social institutions?
A group of social positions, connected
by social relations, performing a social
Any institution in a society that works to
socialize the groups of people in it.
Characteristics of an institution
1. Institutions are purposive
2. Institutions are permanent in their content
3. Institutions are structured
4. Institutions are a unified structure
5. Institutions are necessarily value-laden
Functions of Institutions
1. Institutions simplify social behavior for the
2. Institutions provide ready-made forms of social
relations and social roles for the individual
3. Institutions also act as agencies of coordination
and stability for the total culture
4. Institutions tend to control behavior
5 Major Social Institutions
– It is the smallest social institution with the unique
function of producing and rearing the young.
– It is also the basic unit of Philippine society and the
educational system where the child begins to learn
– It is also the basic agent of socialization because it is
here where the individual develops values,
behaviors, and ways of life through interaction with
members of the family (Vega, 2004)
Characteristics of the Filipino Family
1. The family is closely knit and has strong family
2. The family is usually an extended one and
therefore big. Kinship ties are extended to
include the “compadre” or sponsors. They are
regarded as relatives and closer ties are formed.
3. A much higher regard is attributed to the Filipino
woman especially with the changing roles and
functions of the family.
Functions of the Family
1. Reproduction of the race and rearing of the
2. Cultural transmission or Enculturation
3. Socialization of the child
4. Providing affection and a sense of security
5. Providing the environment of personality
development & growth of self-concept in
relation to others
6. Providing social status
Kinds of Family Patterns (Sociologists)
Membership Marriage Residence Authority Descent
• Conjugal/nuclear family- consisting of husband, wife, and
• Consanguine/extended family – consist of married couple,
their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and
• Monogamy- single marriage
• Polygamy- plural marriage
– polyandry –one woman is married to two or more men at the
– Polygamy – one man is married to two or more women at the
– Cenogamy – two or more men mate with two or more women
in group marrige
• Patrilocal – a newly married couple lives with
the parents of the husband.
• Matrilocal – a newly married couple lives with
the parents of wife.
• Neolocal – a newly married couple maintains a
separate household and live by themselves
• Patriarchal – the father is considered as head
and plays a dominant role.
• Matriarchal – the mother is the head and makes
the major decisions
• Equalitarian- both the father ad mother share in
making decisions and are equal in authority
• Patrilineal – the descent is recognized through
the father’s line.
• Matrilineal – the descent is recognized through
the mother’s line.
• Bilineal – the descent is recognized through both
the father’s and mother’s line.
• an established organization having an
identifiable structure and a set of functions
meant to preserve and extend social order.
• Its basic purpose is the transmission of
knowledge to move young people in the
mainstream of society.
• Teachers see to it that children are developed
in all aspects physically, emotionally, socially,
• Intellectual purpose
teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.
To transmit specific knowledge
Help students acquire higher-order-thinking skills
• Political purpose
– Inculcate allegiance to the existing political order
– Prepare students who will participate in the political order
– Teach children the basic laws of society
– Helps assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order
• Social purpose
– Socialize children into the various roles, behavior, and values of the
• Economic purpose
– Prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train,
and allocate individuals into the division of labor.
Multiple Functions of School
• Technical/Economic – contributions of schools to the technical
or economic development and needs of the individual, the
institution, the local community, the society, and the
• Human/Social- contribution of schools to human
development and social relationships at different levels of
• Political- contribution of schools to the political development
at different levels of society.
• Cultural- contribution of schools to the cultural transmission
and development at different levels of society.
• Education – contribution of schools to the development and
maintenance of education at the different levels of society.
Manifest functions of school
1. Social control
3. Social placement
4. Transmitting culture
5. Promoting social and political integration
6. Agent of change
Manifest functions are defined as the open and intended
goals or consequences of activities within an
organization or institution.
Latent functions of school
1. Restricting some activities
2. Matchmaking and production of social
3. Creation of generation gap
– Latent function is defined as the hidden,
unstated and sometimes unintended
consequences of activities within an organization
Other functions of school as stated by
1. Conservation function
2. Instructional function
3. Research function
4. Social service function
• is a socially defined patterns of beliefs
concerning the ultimate meaning of life. It
assumes the existence of the supernatural.
• A system of beliefs and rituals that serves to
bind people together through shared
worship, thereby creating a social group.
Characteristics of Religion
1. Belief in deity or in a power beyond the
2. A doctrine (accepted teaching) of salvation
3. A code of conduct
4. The use of sacred stories
5. Religious Rituals (acts and ceremonies)
Functions of Religion (calderon,1998)
1. Religion serves as a means of social control.
2. Exerts great influence upon personality development.
3. Allays fear of the unknown.
4. Explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of
5. Gives man comfort, strength, and hope in times of crisis and despair.
6. Preserves and transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual and cultural
values and practices.
7. Serves as an instrument of change.
8. Promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness and helpfulness.
9. Alleviates sufferings from major calamities
10. Provides hope for a blissful life after death.
Elements of Religion
1. Sacred and Profane-
– Sacred refers to phenomena that are regarded as extraordinary,
transcendent, and outside the everyday course of events- that is
– Profane refers to all phenomena that are not sacred.
2. Legitimation of Norms
– Religious sanctions and beliefs reinforce the legitimacy of many rules and
norms in the community.
– Formal patterns of activity that express symbolically a set of shared
meanings, in the case of rituals such as baptism or communion, the shared
meanings are sacred.
4. Religious Community
Establishes a code of behavior for the members who belong and who does not.
• Is centered on the task of making a living,
the most absorbing interest of man.
• Microeconomics – concerned with the
specific economic units of parts that makes
an economic system and the relationship
between those parts.
• Macroeconomics – concerned with the
economy as a whole, or large segments of it.
What are the basic economic
1. What goods and services to produce
and how much?
2. How to produce goods and services?
3. For whom are the goods and services?
• an institution which resolves conflicts that are
public in nature and involve more than a few
people . It can be city, provincial, national, or
• An institution by which an independent society
makes and carries out those rules of action which
are necessary to enable men to live in a social
state.( the Supreme Court of the Philippines)
Three branches of government
1. Executive- proposes and enforces rules and
2. Legislative- makes rules and laws
3. Judicial- adjudicates rules and laws
A government is aimed at maintaining good
social order where the people enjoy the
political and economic blessings of life in an
atmosphere of justice, freedom and equality.
Functions of government
1. The constituent functions contributes to the very
bonds of society and are therefore compulsory
– Keeping an order and providing for the protection of
persons and property fro violence and robbery
– Fixing of the legal relations between husband and wife,
and between parents and children.
– The regulation of the holding, transmission, and
interchange of property, and the determination of its
liabilities for debt and for crime.
– The determination of contractual rights between
– Definition and punishment of crimes
– The administration of justice and civil cases
– The administration of political duties, privileges,
and relations of citizens
– The dealings of the state with foreign growers, the
preservation of the state from external danger.
2. Ministrant functions are those undertaken to
advance the general interest of society, such as
public works, public charity, and regulation of
trade and industry. This function is optional.
In any human society are social structures and social
mechanisms of social order and cooperation that
govern the behavior of its members. These are called
social institutions & according to functional theorists
perform five essential tasks namely:
1. Replacing members or procreation
2. Teaching new members
3. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and
4. Preserving order
5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
GENDER – is one of the universal dimensions on
which status differences are based. It also
shapes the lives of all people in all societies. It
influences all aspects of our lives, the
schooling we receive, the social roles we play,
and the power and authority we command.
Population process- where women and men
live, how they bear and rear children, and how
they die- are shaped by gender as well
THEORIES OF GENDER AND
1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
– Parents are distributors of reinforcement. They need to
reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors. It
emphasizes good relationship.
2. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
– Derives from Kohlberg’s speculations about gender
development. Piaget’s work shows that children engage
in symbolic thinking by about 2 years of age.
3. SCHEMA THEORY
– A SCHEMA is a mental blueprint/picture for organizing
information, and children develop and formulate an
– Defined as the beliefs humans hold about the
characteristics associated with males and females
– Explains the same entitlements to all aspects of
human development, including economic, social,
cultural, civil and political rights, the same level of
respect, the same opportunities to make choices,
and the same level of power to shape the
outcomes of these choices.
– Men and women are situated in society not only differently but
– Women get less of material resources, social status, power, and
opportunities for self-actualization than men who share their
– Inequality results from the organization of society, not from any
significant biological or personality differences between men
– Women are situationally less empowered than men to realize
the need they share with men for self actualization.
– All inequality theories assume that both men and women will
respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social
structures and situations
GENDER AND POWER
– Gender refers to the different ways men and women
play in society, and to the relative power they yield.
– Power is a basic fabric of society and is possessed in
varying degrees by social actors in diverse social
categories. Power becomes abusive and exploitative
only when independence and individuality of one
person or group of people becomes dominant that
freedom for the other is compromised.
– Max Weber defined power as potentially coercive but
also considered ways in which power can be achieved
DETERMINANTS OF POWER
1. Status Resources
GENDER AND EDUCATION
• Investing in education is seen as one of the
fundamental ways in which nation states and
their citizens can move toward long-term
development goals and improve both social and
economic standards of living.
• Women education is seen as providing the key to
securing intergenerational transfer of knowledge,
and providing the substance of providing the
substance of long-term gender equality and social
• Research has shown that gender inequality tends to
slow down economic growth and make the rise from
poverty more difficult.
• Half of the world’s population is female.
• Women have always had lower status than men but
the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across
culture and time.
• Gender equality accelerates overall economic growth,
strengthens democratic governance and reduces
poverty and insecurity. Equality between women and
men is a worthy goal that is central to progress in
GLOBALIZATION & EDUCATION
• Globalization refers to an increasing
interconnectedness and convergence of activities and
forms of life among diverse cultures throughout the
• Education systems constitute the core of the
• Global education extends students’ awareness of the
world in which they live by opening them to the
diverse heritage of human thoughts, actions and
• Globalization links individuals and institutions across
the world with unprecedented interconnection.
CORE VALUES AND COMPETENCIES FOR GLOBAL
1. Peace and non-violence
2. Social justice and human rights
3. Economic well-being and equity
4. Cultural integrity
5. Ecological balance
6. Democratic participation
CORE SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES
1. Self-worth and self-affirmation
2. The affirmation of others including cultural &
3. Critical thinking
4. Effective communication skills
5. Non-violent conflict resolution & mediation
7. Effective organizing
Socio-cultural issues on globalization
• Massive migration
• Managing differences
• Global changes in culture
Economic Issues on globalization
– Globalization brings about opportunities for
education particularly in the ways that new
technologies can be put to work to improve both
the quantity and quality of education worldwide.
– Illiteracy anywhere creates economic and political
Political issues on Globalization
– Constraint on national/state policy making posed
by external demands from transnational
– Economic coordination and exchange have
become increasingly well-regulated economic
– there has also been a growing internationalization
of global conflict, crime, terrorism, &
Role of education in understanding globalization
– Education creates a capacity to mitigate the
disparities in the world today that are potentially
destabilizing both from an economic and a
political point of view. (Bloom 2002)
– Education shapes the cognitive skills,
interpersonal sensibilities and cultural
sophistication of children and youth whose lives
will be both engage in local context s and
responsive to larger transitional processes.
Education and its impact on globalization
– Education will need rethinking and restructuring if
schooling is to best prepare the children and the
youth of the world to engage globalization’s new
challenges, opportunities, and costs.
– Globalization influence all sectors of development.
– It also casts its shadow on the system of education
– Needed reforms within the educational system
Needed reforms in education
1. Content :
• curriculum up-gradation
• Productivity orientation
2. The fall out of globalization
• Internationalization of education
• Finance-related issues
• Privatization of secondary and higher education
Education for globalization nurtures higher order cognitive
and interpersonal skills required for problem finding,
problem solving, articulating arguments and employing
• Education systems can be seen as the core of the globalization
• The forces of globalization are affecting youth, families, and
education systems worldwide.
• All social systems are predicated on the need to impart values,
morals, skills, and competencies to the next generation.
• The lives and experiences of the youth are linked to economic
realities, social processes, technological and media innovation.
• These global transformation requires the youth to develop new
• Education system needs rethinking and restructuring if schooling is
to best prepare the youth to engage in globalization’s challenges,
opportunities and costs.
Education in the New Milieu
A shift from A shift to
Possibly waiting for the teacher to give
directions and information
Always being in the role of the learner
Always following given procedures
Viewing the teacher as the one who has
all the answers
Actively searching for needed information
and learning experiences , determining
what is needed, and seeking ways to
Participating at times as the
Desiring to explore, discover, and create
unique solutions to learning problems
Viewing the teacher as a resource, model,
and helper who encourage exploration
and attempts to find unique solutions to
A shift from A shift to
Always being viewed as the content
expert and source for all of the answers
Being viewed as the primary source of
information who continually directs it to
Always asking the questions and
controlling the focus of student learning
Directing students to preset step by step
exercises so that all achieves similar
Participating at times as one who may not
know it all but desires to learn
Being viewed as a support, collaborator
and coach for students as they learn to
gather and evaluate information for
Actively coaching students to develop and
pose their own questions and explore
their own alternative ways of finding
Actively encouraging individuals to use
their personal knowledge and skills to
create unique solutions to problems