W yous ponleu. w 101. friedrich wilhelm august froebel


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W yous ponleu. w 101. friedrich wilhelm august froebel

  1. 1. Western University Foundation of Education Lecturer: Mr. Soeung Sopha Student’s name: Yous Ponleu Page 1 Name: Yous Ponleu Subject: Foundation of Education Lecturer: Soeung Sopha Room: W-101 Session: Afternoon Date: 17 Aug, 2013 Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was the youngest of five sons of Johann Jacob Froebel, a Lutheran pastor at Oberweissbach in the German principality of Schwarzburg- Rudolfstadt. Froebel's mother died when he was nine months old. When Friedrich was four years old, his father remarried. Feeling neglected by his stepmother and father, Froebel experienced a profoundly unhappy childhood. At his father's insistence, he attended the girls' primary school at Oberweissbach. From 1793 to 1798 he lived with his maternal uncle, Herr Hoffman, at Stadt- Ilm, where he attended the local town school. From the years 1798 to 1800 he was as an apprentice to a forester and surveyor in Neuhaus. From 1800 to 1802 Froebel attended the University of Jena. In 1805 Froebel briefly studied architecture in Frankfurt. His studies provided him with a sense of artistic perspective and symmetry he later transferred to his design of the kindergarten's gifts and occupations. In 1805 Anton Gruener, headmaster of the Pestalozzian Frankfurt Model School, hired Froebel as a teacher. Froebel shaped his educational philosophy during the high tide of German philosophical Idealism that was marked by the work of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), and Georg Wilhelm Hegel (1770–1831). In the Education of Man (1826), Froebel articulated the following idealist themes: (1) all existence originates in and with God; (2) humans possess an inherent spiritual essence that is the vitalizing life force that causes development; (3) all beings and ideas are interconnected parts of a grand, ordered, and systematic universe. Froebel based his work on these principles, asserting that each child at birth has an internal spiritual essence a life force that seeks to be externalized through self-activity. Further, child
  2. 2. Western University Foundation of Education Lecturer: Mr. Soeung Sopha Student’s name: Yous Ponleu Page 2 development follows the doctrine of preformation, the unfolding of that which was present latently in the individual. The kindergarten is a special educational environment in which this self-active development occurs. The kindergarten's gifts, occupations, and social and cultural activities, especially play, promote this self-actualization. Froebel was convinced that the kindergarten's primary focus should be on play the process by which he believed children expressed their innermost thoughts, needs, and desires. Froebel's emphasis on play contrasted with the traditional view prevalent during the nineteenth century that play, a form of idleness and disorder, was an unworthy element of human life. For Froebel, play facilitated children's process of cultural recapitulation, imitation of adult vocational activities, and socialization. He believed the human race, in its collective history, had gone through major epochs of cultural development that added to and refined its culture. According to Froebel's theory of cultural recapitulation, each individual human being repeated the general cultural epoch in his or her own development.