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Foundation of education 6


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  • 1. 1 Chapter 6: PHILOSOPHY ROOTS OF EDUCATION Lecturers : Soeung Sopha Presented by : Pha Rakim : Yous Ponleu : Sam Sreypech
  • 2.  Contents 2 1. Philosophies and Theories 2. Special Terminology 3. Idealism 4. Realism 5. Pragmatism 6. Existentialism 7. Postmodernism 8. Educational Theories 9. Essentialism 10. Perennialism 11. Progressivism 12. Critical Theory
  • 3. 1- Philosophies and Theories 3 Philosophies:  is a general worldview that includes education. Theories:  often derived from philosophies or arising from practice focus more specifically on education, school, curriculum, and teaching and learning.
  • 4.  Differences between “ Philosophies and Theories ” of education. 4 Philosophies  Wide-ranging, systematic complete, global  Components related to metaphysics, axiology, episte mology, and logic.  Insights derived from the general philosophical system Theories  Focus on education; no complete philosophical system offered  Components related to specifics of education, such as curriculum, teaching and learning  Insights derived from more general philosophies or from school contexts
  • 5. 2. Special Terminology 5 As its special terminology, the philosophy of education uses the basic terms metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. Metaphysics examines the nature of ultimate reality. Epistemology which deal with knowledge and knowing, influence methods , of teaching and learning.
  • 6. 2. Special Terminology 6  Axiology which prescribes values- what we should or should not do- as subdivided into ethic and aesthetic.  Ethic examines moral values and prescribes the standards of ethical behavior.  Aesthetics addresses values in beauty and art.
  • 7. 2. Special Terminology 7  Logic  Logic are subdivided in to two parts:  Deductive logic move from general statements to particular instances and applications.  Inductive logic moves from the particular instance to tentative generalizations that are subject to further verification and possible revision.
  • 8.  Philosophy’s Relationships to Education SUBDIVISION OF PHILOSOPHY RELATED EDUCATIONAL CONCERNS 8  Metaphysics:  What is real?  Knowledge of most worth: The curriculum  Epistemology:  What is knowledge based on?  How we teach and learn: Method of instruction  Axiology:  What is moral and right?(ethics)  What is beautiful and good?(aesthetics)  Behavior, character, civility, and appreciation and expression  Logic:  How can we reason ?  How we organize and structure course, lessons and units
  • 9. 3. Idealism  Key Concepts 9  Metaphysics Metaphysics idealists, believe that the spiritual, nonmaterial world is ultimately real  Macrocosm and microcosm  Macrocosm refer to the universal mind, the first cause, creator, or God.  Microcosm refer to the personal mind or spirit.
  • 10.  Key Concepts 10  Epistemology The idealist believe that the idea that make up reality have always existed in the mind of the Absolute, or God.
  • 11.  Key Concepts 11  Axiology The ideal believe that truth, goodness, and beauty exist in a universal and eternal order. idealists prescribe value that are unchanging and applicable to all people everywhere.  Logic The ideal base on the whole-to-part relationship between the absolute and individual minds.
  • 12.  The Basic Questions 12 The Basic Questions Knowledge of universal ideas Schooling: an intellectual pursuit of truth High standars
  • 13.  Implications for Today’s Classroom Teacher 13  Intellectual development, not vocational training  Internet use
  • 14. 4. Realism  Key Concepts 14  Knowing as sensation, then abstraction Metaphysics and Epistemology Realists believe in a material world that is independent of and external to the knower’s mind.  Curriculum of organized subjects Believe that a curriculum of organized, separate subject provide the most accurate and efficient way to learn about reality
  • 15. 15  Axiology Axiology For realist, certain rules should govern intelligent rational behavior.  Deductive and inductive logic Realist teachers may use logic both deductively and inductively.
  • 16.  The basic Questions 16 The Basic Question Knowledge concerns objects Education via subject- matter
  • 17.  Implications for Today’s Classroom Teacher 17  Classrooms for learning not therapy  Teachers as subject-matter experts  Example of a realist approach
  • 18. 5. Pragmatism 18  Key Concepts  Experience Metaphysics and Epistemology Unlike the idealist and realist philosophies that assert a metaphysical foundation of universal and unchanging reality, pragmatism dismisses metaphysics as empirically unverifiable speculation. Experience, defined as the interaction of the person with the environment, is a key pragmatist concept.
  • 19. 19  Reconstruction of person and environment The environment are constantly changing, a curriculum based on supposedly permanent realities or universal truth is untenable.  Relativity of values Axiology and Logic Pragmatic axiology is highly situational and culturally relative.  Inductive logic Following the scientific method, experimentalist logic is inductive rather than deduced from first principles as in idealism and realism.
  • 20. 20 The Basic Question Knowledge is tentative An experiment process Cultural diversity, but shared learning processes School as microcosm of society Transmitting cultural heritage Interdisciplinary approach
  • 21.  Application for Today’s Classroom Teacher 21  Subject matter as instrumental  Applying the scientific method  Classroom as community  Teacher as risk takers
  • 22. 6. Existentialism 22  Existentialism is more a process of philosophizing than it is systematic philosophy (like idealism and realism).
  • 23.  Key concepts 23  Personal reflection -The existentialist author Jean-Paul Sartre stated that “Existence precedes.”  Creating one’s essence through choices -That we did not choose to be in and that we did not make.
  • 24. 24  Existential angst - This conception of a human being as the creator of his or her own essence differs substantially from the idealist and realist, who see the person as an already-defined category in a universal system.  Choosing self-determination - We must also cope with the constant threat that other person, institution, and agencies pose to our choose making freedom.
  • 25.  The Basic Questions 25  Creating personal values  Awakening consciousness of human condition  Some opportunities for all  Question and dialogue  Self-expression need
  • 26.  Implications for Today’s Classroom Teacher 26  Teacher encourages awareness  External standards depersonalize education
  • 27. 7. Postmodernism 27  Postmodernism - Contends that the modern period of history has ended and that we now live on postmodern era.  Constructivism - A psychology and a method of education.
  • 28.  Key Concepts 28  Derrida and Foucault - The French philosopher Michel Foucault, Jacques, and Nietzsche, rejected the postmodern idealist and realist claims that there are universal and unchanging truths.  Deconstruction - Claiming that knowledge as a human construction is expressed by language, Derrida developed deconstruction as a method to trace the origin and the meaning of texts or canons.
  • 29.  The Basic Questions  School reproduce status quo  Struggle over curriculum  Teaching as representation 29
  • 30.  Implications for Today’s Classroom Teacher  Teacher empowerment  Site-based philosophy  Postmodernists deconstruct standards 30
  • 31. 8. Educational Theories  Educational Theories examine the role and the functions of school, curriculum, teaching, and learning.  In following sections, we examine four educational theories: essentialism, perennaislism, progressivis31
  • 32. 9. Essentialism  Essentialism - The achievements of human civilization by transmitting them to students as skills and subjects in a carefully organized curriculum. 32
  • 33.  The Basic Questions 33  Role of school to teach basic - Essentialist argue that schools and teachers must be committed to their primary academic mission and not be diverted into nonacademic areas.  Subject-matter boundaries - Essentialist favor a subject-matter curriculum that differentiates and organize subjects according to their internal logical or chronological principle.
  • 34. 34  Suspicious of innovations - Essentialists the students construct their own knowledge in a collaborative fashion, and of authentic assessment in which students evaluate their own progress.
  • 35.  Implications for Today’s Classroom Teacher  Transmitting essential skills  An essentialist lesson 35
  • 36. 10. Perennialism  Perennialism : Shares many common features with essentialism, such as using subject matter to transmit the cultural heritage across generations.  School cultivate  Perennia curiculum  Education develop the mind 36
  • 37.  The Paideia Proposal 37  An Educations Manifesto is revival of perennialism. Paideia a Greek word, refer to a person complete education and cultural formation
  • 38.  The basic questions  A general education - Perennialists assert that in a democratic society all students have the right to the same high-quality intellectual education.  Against cultural relativism - 38
  • 39. 39  The school primary role is to develop students reasoning power.  Progressivism : originated as a general reform movement in American society and political.  prolonging childhood.
  • 40. 11. Progressivism 40  Progressivism - Originated as a general reform movement in American society and political life in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
  • 41.  Key concepts  Practices opposed by progressives 1. Authoritarian teachers 2. Exclusively book-based instruction 3. Passive memorization of factual information 4. The isolation of schools from society 5. Using physical or pyschological 41
  • 42.  Practices favored by progressives 1. The child should be free to develop naturally 2. Interest, motivated by direct experience 3. The teacher should facilitate learning 4. Close cooperation needs to be encouraged between the school and the home 5. The progressive school should be a laboratory for experimentation.  Progressive reforms in schools 42
  • 43.  The basic questions  Readiness, interests, and needs  Constructing reality 43
  • 44.  Example of a progressive strategy  Pre-project preparation  Student initiative  On-site learning 44
  • 45. 12. Critical theory  Critical Theory is a highly influential contemporary theory education. 45
  • 46.  Key concepts  Neo-Marxist influence  Powerful groups dominate 46
  • 47.  The basic questions  A new public philosophy  Social control  Teacher empowerment  Official curriculum  “Hidden” curriculum  Student life story 47
  • 48.  Implications for today classroom teacher  Teachers must empower themselves 1. Find out who their real friends are in struggle for control of school. 2. Learn who their students are by helping them explore their own self-identities. 3. Collaborate with local people for school and community improvement. 4. Join with like-minded teachers in teacher- controlled professional organizations that work for genuine education reform 5. Participate in critical dialogues about political, economic, and educational issues that confront American society. 48
  • 49. 49 Thank you for your pay attention! Q & A