Foundation of education 5

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Foundation of education 5

  1. 1. Western University School of Arts, Humanities, and Languages Department of English Subject: Foundation of Education Chapter 5: Historical Development of American Education Lecturer: Mr. Soeung Sopha 1
  2. 2. This chapter examines : The history of the American educational experience and how individuals and groups shaped educational institutions in the United States. 2
  3. 3. This chapter discuss about: 1. The colonial period 2. The creation of a uniquely American educational system 3. The diffusion of universal education 4. The development of secondary education 5. The development of institutions of higher learning 6. The education of culturally diverse populations 7. Trends in the history of American education 3
  4. 4. In reading the chapter, you can situate yourself in the history of American education by assessing how these trends and developments shaped your own education. 4
  5. 5. The Colonial Period Effect on Native Americans The colonists at first recreated the socioeconomic-class-based on:  Dual-track school system  Latin grammar schools 5
  6. 6.  The Town school  Educated both boy and girl ( 6-14 )  Attendance could be irregular  The school’s curriculum included reading, writing, arithmetic, catechism, and religious hymns. 6
  7. 7.  Atmosphere of the town school  Dominated by the teacher’s pulpit- like desk at the front of the single room.  Most teacher were men.  Very few elementary teachers were trained in educational methods. 7
  8. 8.  The Latin Grammar school  Upper- class boys attended Latin grammar schools.  Entering the Latin grammar school at age eight and complete at fifteen or sixteen.  Study mathematics, science, or modern languages. 8
  9. 9.  Havard College  Havard was founded on the puritan belief  Students had to demonstrate competency in Latin and Greek to be admitted to Havard  Havard taught grammar, logic, rhetoric,mathematics, geometry, astronomy, ethics, philosophy, and natural science. 9
  10. 10.  Colonial Education  Parallels among regions  Gender discrimination  Tracking by social class  Provided basic literacy × Discouraged upward social mobility 10
  11. 11. The Early National Period  Primary schools and Latin grammar schools continued into the early national period.  New educational ideas for the new nation  During the early national period , several leaders, including : - Benjamin Franklin - Thomas Jefferson - Benjamin Rush - Noah Webster 11
  12. 12. 1. Prepare people for republican citizenship 2. Include utilitarian and scientific skills and subjects to aid in developing the nation’s vast expanses of frontier land and abundant natural resources 3. Be divested of European attitudes and create a uniquely American culture. 12
  13. 13. 1. Benjamin Franklin: “ The Academy ” Born: ( 1706-1790 ) A leading statesman, scientist, and publicist founded an academy 13
  14. 14.  Emphasis on science and practical skills - Useful knowledge and science - Recognized the future importance of science, invention, and technology. - Ignored such as carpentry, shipbuilding, engraving, printing, and farming. 14
  15. 15. 2. Thomas Jefferson : “ Education for Citizenship ” Born: ( 1743-1826 ) Author of the Declaration of Independence and the third president of the United States. 15
  16. 16. Jefferson expressed his educational philosophy “ Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge ”  Jefferson’s plan - Provide both equity and excellence in education. - The sate would pay for the first three years of a student’s attendance. - Would have established 20 grammar schools. 16
  17. 17.  Jefferson’s plan - Provide both equity and excellence in education. - The sate would pay for the first three years of a student’s attendance. - Would have established 20 grammar schools. 17
  18. 18. Scholarships based on merit - Male students would receive a scholarship - The 10 scholarship can attend the College of William and Mary. 18
  19. 19. 3. Benjamin Rush: “ Church-Related Schools” Born : ( 1745-1813 ) A leading physician and medicated educator of the early republic. 19
  20. 20.  Religion and science - Wanted the Bible and Christian principles taught in schools and in colleges. - Science revealed God. - Combined the state schools and college with the private and public interests. - A determined promoter of women’s education. 20
  21. 21. 4. Noah Webster : “ Schoolmaster of the Republic ” Born : ( 1758-1843 ) A leading educator and lexicographer. 21
  22. 22.  Learning American culture through language: - A common language and literature would build a sense of national identity.  Webster’s influence on “ Americanization ” - He wrote spelling and reading books that emphasized American identity. - His American Dictionary was published in 1828. 22
  23. 23. The Movement toward Public Schooling  Sunday schools: - Established in the larger cities such as New York and Philadelphia. - Provided a minimal basic education, consisting of writing, reading, arithmetic, and religion. 23
  24. 24. Students as assistant teacher: - The monitorial method used monitors such as teaching classes, taking attendance, and maintaining order.  Rise and fall of monitorial schools: - More than 600,000 children attended the monitorial schools. - In the 1840s, the common schools replaced monitorial schools. 24
  25. 25.  The common school - Growth of the common school - A school for all classes 25
  26. 26. 26 The development of American Secondary School  The Academy: Forerunner of the High School  Academy replaces grammar school • Academies were both single- sex and coeducational. • Offered wide range of other programs
  27. 27. 27  Academy programs followed three points 1. The traditional college preparatory curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. 2. The English language program 3. The normal course, which prepared elementary-school teacher
  28. 28. 28  Academies for women • Classical and modern languages • Science • Mathematic • Art • Music • Teacher preparation or normal curriculum
  29. 29. 29  The High School  Compulsory attendance • Established the age range that student had to attend school • Enactment of child labor law: which restricted the employment of children and adolescents so that they would attend the school rather than enter the work force
  30. 30. 30 • Opposed by immigrant parents who feared it was a strategy to erode their children’s ethnic heritage. • Opposed by among farmers who needed their children to work on the farm.
  31. 31. 31  Effort to standardize curriculum • In 1982, the National Education Association (NEA) established the Committee of Ten and made two important recommendations: 1. Subjects should be taught uniformly for both college preparatory students and those who completed their formal education upon graduation. 2. Eight years of elementary and four years of secondary education.
  32. 32. 32 • It identified four curricular as appropriate for the high school: 1. Classical 2. Latin-scientific 3. Modern language 4. English
  33. 33. 33  Secondary-School Organization • By 1920s, four curricular patterns were evident high schools: 1. The college preparatory program 2. The commercial or business program with courses in bookkeeping, shorthand, and typing 3. Industrial, vocational, home economics and agricultural programs 4. A general academic program for students who would completed their formal education upon graduation.
  34. 34. 34 • The typical high school pattern followed a four years sequence encompassing grade 9-12 and including ages 14 to 18. • Variation included reorganized six years school, where students attended a combined junior-senior high school. • Three years junior high school, grade 7-9 • Three years senior high school, grade 10-12.
  35. 35. 35  Middle School • Traditional institution between elementary and high school • Grade 6-8 (age 11-18) • Featured learning centers, language laboratories, and art centers
  36. 36. 36  The American College and University  Colleges of the colonial period • The general colonial curriculum included 1. Year1: Latin, Greek, Hebrew, rhetoric, logic 2. Year 2: Greek, Hebrew, logic, and natural philosophy 3. Year 3: natural philosophy, metaphysic, and ethics 4. Year 4: mathematics and review of Greek, Latin, logic, and natural philosophy.
  37. 37. 37  Community College • Two years • Originated as junior colleges • Providing training for technological change and those related to the communication and electronic data revolution.
  38. 38. 38 Education in a Culturally Diverse Society  African American  Freedmen’s Bureau • Provide economic and educational assistance to African American • Followed a New England common-school curriculum of reading, writing, grammar, geography, arithmetic, and music, especially singing.
  39. 39. 39  Stereotypes limited teaching • Most schools in the South were staffed by northern white school teacher, who believed that African American students needed only a limited basic education.
  40. 40. 40  Native Americans  Children learned skills, social roles, and cultural patterns from their group’s oral tradition, from parents and elders, and from direct experience with tribal life.  The federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) attempted to civilize Native American.
  41. 41. 41  Boarding School  Implemented the assimilationist educational policy.  Emphasized a basic curriculum of reading, writing, arithmetic, and vocational training.  Many Native American youngsters resisted and some ran away from school.
  42. 42. 42  Latino Americans  Spanish-speaking people  Originated in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, or other Latin American countries.  Shared Spanish tradition, but each group has its own distinctive culture.
  43. 43. 43  Asian Americans  Chinese and Japanese were the first Asians to settle in US.  More recent Asian immigrants include Filipinos, Indians, Thais, Koreans, Vietnamese, Laotians, and Cambodians.
  44. 44. 44  The Immigration Controversy  The debate focuses on immigrants’ impact on the economy, national security, and American culture identity.  Some people believe that immigrants are taking jobs away from Americans citizens.  Illegal immigrants are an expensive burden on the country’s educational, health care, social service, and especially terrorism.
  45. 45. 45 Two Closing Historical Issue  A Persistent Issue: Teaching about Evolution  Christian fundamentalists rejected the theory of evolution.  Scopes believed that it was impossible to teach biology without including evolution.
  46. 46. 46  A New Issue: Teaching in a global society  Globalization: as a multidimensional process is generating profound economic, entertainment… between people of different countries.  Economic changes
  47. 47. 47 Thanks for your attention!

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