Foundation of Education
Submitted to Mr. Seoung Sopha
- Lay Sun
-Taing Kung Ann Year IV, Semester I
- Thab Chanthorn Afternoon class
I. Imperative to improve the schools
• Underprepared workers
• Several major national reports and studies have
suggested that American students are leaving
school unprepared to participate in jobs.
• Compelling need for equity
• Nearly all the recent reports and studies dealing
with educational reform also call for (need)
improving the performance of economically
disadvantaged students in order to make
educational outcome more equitable.
• *** Specific areas of concern for educators
working to reform educational opportunities for
disadvantage students include the following:
• At-risk students and schools: Social and
economic opportunities have declined rapidly
for low-achieving students.
• Council of Chief State School Officer (CCSSO)
argued that state law should guarantee
educational programs and other services to
enable all persons to graduate from high
• Inner-city poverty: The part near the center of
a large city, which often has social problem.
• (Pocket of rural poverty) Concentrated rural
poverty: Some rural areas have communities
of concentrated poverty.
II. Characteristic of Effective Classroom and Schools
• The push for greater educational effectiveness
becomes a national growth industry in 1983. Many
studies have been designed to identify the
characteristics of effective classroom teaching and
• Classroom Management
• Effective Classroom practices.
• Making sure that students know what the teacher
• Letting students know how to obtain help.
• Following through with reminders between activities
and rewards to enforce the rules.
• Providing smooth transition activities.
• Giving students assignments of sufficient variety to
• Monitoring the class for signs of confusion or
• Being careful to avoid embarrassing students in front of
• Responding flexibility to unexpected developments.
• Designing tasks that draw on students’ prior knowledge
• Helping students develop self-management skills.
• Attending to students’ cultural background.
• Ensuring that all students are part of classroom
Time On tasks
• Time on Tasks: That is, time engaged in learning
• Skillful questioning and wait time: With the
skillful questioning, teacher should ask students
with appropriate questions and give time to
mentally manipulate ideas by themselves.
• Direct instruction and explicit Teaching.
• The terms direct instruction and explicit
teaching frequently used as synonym. Here is
the six steps as central to direct instruction:
• Begin with a review of previous learning and a
preview and goal statement.
• Present new material in steps, with clear
explanations and active student practice after
• Guide students in initial practice; ask questions
and check for understanding.
• Provide systematic feedback and corrections.
• Supervise independent practice; monitor and
• Provide weekly and monthly review and testing.
• Techniques for explicit comprehension instruction
• Prediction activities in which students infer what will be
found in the text based on their prior knowledge.
• Reciprocal teaching, student team learning and other
approaches to cooperative learning through with
students learn to take more responsibilities for helping
each other comprehended mental.
• Semantic maps and thinking maps that organize
• Computer simulations designed to develop concept and
• Metacognitive learning strategies through which
students monitor and assess their own learning process.
Techniques for explicit comprehension instruction
• Research on effective teaching and
instruction suggests that successful reform
projects should include several changes:
• Improving teachers’ classroom management
• Questioning skills
• Increasing time on tasks
• Expanding the use of direct instruction and
explicit comprehension instruction
• Introducing cognitive instruction for low-
Cognitive Instruction for Low-Achieving Students
Effective School Research
• Elementary Schools
• Characteristics of effective school
• Safe and orderly environment conducive to
teaching and learning and not oppressive.
• A clear school mission through which the staff
shares a commitment to instructional priorities,
assessment procedures, ad accountability.
• Instructional leadership by a principal who
understands the characteristics of instructional
• A climate of high expectations in which the
staff demonstrates that all students can
master challenging skills
• High time-on-task brought about when
students spend a large percentage of time
engaged in planned activities to master basic
• Frequent monitoring of student progress,
using the results to improve both individual
performance and the instructional program.
• Positive home-school relations in which
parents support the school’s basic mission and
play an important part in helping to achieve it.
• Coordinating methods and materials.
• Another characteristic that contribute to school
effectiveness is curriculum alignment.
• Other key factors
• Attention to goals involving cultural pluralism and
• Emphasis on responding to students’ personal
problems and developing the social skills.
• Faculty who strive to improve students’ sense of
• Continuous concern for making teaching skill tasks
realistic and manageable.
• Targeting interventions on low-performance students.
• Collaborative problem-solving by the entire faculty.
• The following approaches have frequently been
• School within a school for low achievers. If their teachers
are selected for ability and willingness to work with low
achievers, participating students can make large gains in
basic skills and transfer to regular courses.
• Career academies. Functioning as schools-within-a-school
that enroll students of various abilities across several
grades, career academies focus on such fields as
computers, biology or other science, humanity or arts, or
occupational studies such as law enforcement or
• Smaller high-school units in general. Assigning students to
these smaller schools or units can create a more
personalized environment in which the staff provide
individual help to students.
Evaluation of Effective School Research
• Evaluation of Effective School Research
• First,Some people have in mind a school with
high academic achievement ( taking account of
social class ), others are thinking about a self-
renewing school that can identify and solve
internal problems, a school that promotes
students’ personal growth, a school that have
shown improvement in achievement, or a
school that concentrates on developing
independent study skills and love for learning.
• Second, many rigorous studies have focused on
high poverty elementary schools in which
academic achievement is higher than at most
other schools with similar disadvantaged
• Third, other methodologies problems have left
much of the research vulnerable to criticism. The
high achievement might be attributable more to
the students’ background than to school
• Fourth, the literature often tends to beg the
question of what teacher and principal should do
in the schools.
Characteristic of Successful School Reform
• Adaptive Problem Solving
• Innovations usually fail unless the organization
introducing them is adaptive in the sense that it
can identify and solve day-to-day problems.
• School-level focus, with external support.
• Because the innovation organization must solve
day-to-day problems, it must focus at the
individual school level.
• Potential for implementation. Successful school
reform also depends on whether changes can
feasibly be implemented in typical schools. Three
characteristics that make successful
implementation more likely are :
• Innovation’s compatibility with the context of
• Its accessibility to those who do not already
understood the underlying ideas.
• Its “doability” in terms of demands on teachers’
times and energy.
• Leadership and share agreements: Meaningful
innovation requires change in many institutional
arrangements, including scheduling of staff and
student time, selection and mechanism for
• Staff training: Staff development is a core activity
in the school improvement process.
Coherence: Coherence in school reform efforts
has at least two major dimensions. The first
refers to coherence across grade levels and
coherence refers to consistency and
compatibility across the instructional program
and approaches used in the school.
• Professional community: Schools can ensure
that all students learn only if teachers work
together, trust their colleagues, and challenge
each other to take responsibility for the
difficulty task of helping low-achievers master
increasingly challenging material.
The effective teaching practice cited earlier in this
chapter work in individual class rooms, but
numerous instructional approach are designed for
use at several or all grade levels in a school.
For example, many reading improvement
programs often target students in kindergarten
and the primary grades.
1.1 Higher-Order Thinking Skills(HOTS) Program
Stanley Pogrow and his colleagues
Aim: Remedial-reading activities
grade 4 through 6.
2. emphasis on dramatization technique that require student to
verbalize, thereby stimulating language
3. Socratic questioning
4. a thinking skills curriculum that stresses metacognitive learning,
learning to learn, and other comprehension-enhancement technique.
1. Use of computer for problem solving
1.2 Success for All
students, success for
all provides intensive
for student in
It also emphasizes
support and staff
provided by full-time
1.3 Degree of Reading Power Comprehension
Based in part on the Degrees of Reading Power test originally
developed by the College Board, The DPR approach is being
implemented successfully at several urban school.
The test is unlike most other standardized reading measures
in that. It assess how well a student actually can
comprehend written prose he or she encounter in or out
After using the DRP to determine their student’s
comprehension levels, teachers in all subject areas align
their instruction accordingly.
Standard Assessment: Stressing real-life comprehension
1.4 Comer School Development Program
.* Comer’s approach
Developed by James Comer and
his colleagues at Yale University
Aim: to improve achievement at inner-city elementary
schools through enhanced social and psychological services
for students, emphasis on parent involvement, and
encouragement and support for active learning.
Participating faculties involve parents, social workers, and
other specialists form” Mental Health Teams” that design
and supervise individualized learning arrangement for
students with particular problems .
1.5 The Equity 2000 and Algebra
* Transition to algebra.
The Equity 2000 project address aspects of
mathematics education in secondary schools.
Students receive assistance in pre-algebra, algebra,
geometry, and other course.
The Algebra Project involves curriculum
interventions that use disadvantaged students’
personal experience and intuition to help them shift
from arithmetic to algebraic thinking.
1.6 Knowledge Is Power Program
Aim: KIPP promotional information describes its schools as ‘open-
enrollment public schools where undeserved students develop
the knowledge, skills, and character traits.
Time: KIPP typically function from 7:30am to 5:30pm on
Wednesday, and students also attend every other Saturday and
for three weeks during summer.
KIPP further describes its approach as emphasizing rigorous ‘college
preparatory instruction….. Balanced with extracurricular
activities, experiential field lessons, and character development.
* Emphasis on time for learning and rigorous instruction
* Careful Expansion
Since its first school was opened in 1994, KIPP has
expand to include some 66 schools, mostly
middle school but also several high school and
Aim: carefully implementing plans to obtain dedicated
staff willing to work long hours with struggling students,
and to train and evaluate administrators and teacher,
develop networks of supportive KIPP schools nearby, and
articulate an effective program ranging from kindergarten
through high-school graduation.
1.7 Advancement via Individual Determination
• Helping middle-to-low-performing students
AVID is a support program for grades5-12 that prepare
students for college eligibility and success.
Aimed particularly at middle- to low-performing students
at schools with significant proportions of disadvantages
AVID provides many kinds of support, including help in
mastering study skills and learning strategies, personal and
career counseling and mentoring, and assistance in enrolling in
and completing advanced course.
1.8 Response to Intervention with Tiered
RTI key elements
RIT began as an approach to avoid mistaken
labeling and placement of students into special
education, but soon evolved to become a
.A key element of this approach involves careful
monitoring of all students’ status and progress,
along with assessment of the problems of
perhaps 20 or 25 percent of student are not
1.8 Response to Intervention with Tiered
• Most tiered-instruction implementation have
aimed to improve reading in elementary
schools, but school have begun to adapt RTI for
other subjects and for high schools.
-Choose and implement proven interventions to address students’
- Follow explicit rules identify students not making sufficient progres
- Monitor student outcome with at least biweekly assessment
- Ensure that the intervention is delivered accurately and consistently
- Determine the intensity of the support needed for student success
2. Comprehensive School Reform Programs
• Comprehensive reform
As described earlier, many reforms involve
instructional intervention designed for singles class
use or across several grades. More ambitious
programs, however, seek to improve most or all
subject areas throughout all grades in an entire
school. These efforts are variously referred to by
team such as ‘whole-school reform’ or ‘ school
* Whole-school reform models
The federal Comprehensive School Reform
Demonstration (CSRD) Program was initiated
in 1998. The program provides up to seventy-
five thousand dollars per year for three years
to help participating school introduce ‘whole
school reform’ models that affect all aspects of
the school’s operation and that have had
documented success in improving student
performance at other location.
3. Related Efforts and Aspect Involving
• Cooperation and Participation with Business,
Community, and Other Institutions
Type of cooperation
Expansion of the compact
Support from foundation
* Technology in School Reform
Educator confront many questions and challenges
with respect to the introduction of new and
emerging technologies as part of school reform
efforts. We will consider several majors topics,
including the effective introduction of new
technologies in school and classrooms, equity and
technology use in education, and cautions
regarding developments that have occurred during
the past decades.
. Effective Introduction of Computers and Other
Policies for Technology
Standards & Assessment
* Equity and the Use of Technology
Poverty schools bypassed
Community technology centers
• About 20 percent of students and 30
percent of schools are located in rural
• However, the rural education can’t
compare to the education in the city.
• Rural education reached several major
– 1- Tremendous diversity in rural America requires similarly
diverse school improvement efforts that also address
multicultural educations goals
– 2- The small scale of rural schools : teachers can know
students and parents personally, and schools can work
closely with community agencies.
a way of studying,
especially for a
degree, where you
study mostly at home,
receiving and sending
off work by post.
• Facing serious problem in attracting
• Low salary
• Not enough information of technology
• Certificates are not well-recognized
• Gifted education (also known as Gifted
and Talented Education (GATE), is a broad
term for special practices, procedures,
and theories used in the education of
children who have been identified as gifted
• “Gifted” refers to
• “Talented” means that
Having a natural aptitude or
skill for something
• Several national reports recommended
providing more time for teaching and
– Extending the school year
– Lengthening (longer) the school day
– Offering after-school and summer learning program.
• Will give teachers more contact
time and an opportunity to
teach students in depth- useful
for at-risk students who need
• Countries indicate that
increased time spent in school
can assist in raising
• Can help to solve the problems
of latchkey children (alone at
home) this can benefit the
• Indicate taxpayer that schools
are serious about raising
taxpayers will be more willing to
support the schools.
• Will not compensate for poor
teaching- not quantity but quality.
• Not much evidence show it will
raise achievement scores.
• Will add to the growing
institutional interference with
basic family life.
• Will require parents to pay more
fees to support teacher salaries.
Taxpayers are not willing to pay.
• In recent years, school choice plans have been advocated as a
way to introduce greater flexibility and accountability into
• President of the school
• School curriculum
How to choose the right school?
• Systemic restructuring means
Systemic Improvement- that is
reform that simultaneously
addressed all or most major
components in the overall system.
• School must be restructured to
bring about systematic
improvement in teaching and
• Professional developments
• Assessment of student
• School performance
• Curriculum and materials
• School finance
• Course requirements
• Other aspects of education