Many educational reformers have suggested
that the United States could improve its
educational system by emulating other countries.
Although educational system differ
considerably between nations, they tend to
confront the similar problem of providing effective
instruction for large numbers of students whose
opportunities and performance relate to their
social and cultural background.
Few of the teachers have a high-school
diploma; the curriculum and teaching; which rely
heavily on memorization and recitation, are
determined by the country’s ministry of education.
Teacher are highly respected professionals
with college degree.
They are given considerable latitude in devising
activities and adapting materials that satisfy the
national guidelines; which emphasize development of
children’s thinking and problem-solving skills; as well
as social, moral, and physical instruction that benefits
the whole person.
The strong relationships between students’
social-class origins and their success in school, the
educational challenges posed by multicultural
populations, typical teaching approaches, and
professional conditions teachers face. 5
Social-Class Origins and Outcome
Donald Treiman and others have fond that
individual’s social-class origins and background
related to their educational and occupational
attainment regardless of whether their society is
rich or poor, politically liberal or conservation.
Multicultural Populations and Problem
Except in a few homogeneous countries,
nationwide systems of education enroll diverse
groups of students who differ significantly with
respect to race, ethnicity, religion, native
language, and cultural practice.
These force more or less ensure that you, as
a teacher, will have students from other nation in
Teaching Approaches and Conditions
Although instructional approaches vary
considerably from one teacher to another and the
conditions for teaching and learning change
accordingly in different classroom and schools,
practices emphasized around the world typically
show much similarity.
In general, in all ten participating countries,
the primary classroom activities included teacher-
presented lectures or demonstrations plus
Each nation’s educational system also differs in
important ways from other system.
Resources Devoted to Education
One fundamental way in which nations differ is
in the percentage of their resources they devote to
education rather than to priorities such as highways,
health care, and military forces.
Relatively wealthy nations, as well as nation
that allocate many of their resources to education,
can provide a higher level of services than poor
nations that mobilize relatively few resources for
The same pattern has appeared in other
developed nations. With a few exceptions, such as
Japan and Turkey, female enrollment in colleges
and universities in wealthy nations has been
growing to the extent that more women than men
obtain first degrees.
Data on teacher salary averages indicate that
for both beginning and experienced teachers,
average salaries in countries such as Ireland and
Norway are a good deal lower than in the United
States, but in some other countries they are
Extent of Centralization
In some countries, centralization has led to
long lines of citizens from all parts of the nation
waiting outside the ministry of education for
appointments with central school officials who
determine what schools children will and how
students will be treated.
Curriculum Content and Instructional Emphasis
• New Zealand primary schools are known for their
systematic emphasis on learning to read though
natural language learning
• The education system in Finland has become known
for high achievement and attainment at all levels from
preschool though higher education.
• School in certain Islamic countries build much of the
curriculum around religious.
Vocational versus Academic Education
School system around the world also differ
greatly in how they are organized to provide
education through the postsecondary level.
Most nation provide at least 4 years of first-level
(during which all student attend primary and
Many countries students are divided between a
academic-track schools and vocational schools
after 4 to 8 years of first-level education.
Secondary students enrolled in primarily vocational
programs varies from less than one-tenth (industries
countries Denmark and US), more than one-fifth
The current education system comprises primary (grades
1–6), lower secondary (grades 7–9),and upper secondary
(grades 10–12). Basic education is defined as grades 1–9.
Technical and vocational education programs run parallel
to upper secondary programs and are the responsibility of
the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training.(Cambodia)
Enrollment in higher Education
Countries that channel student into vocational
pragmas tend to have low percentages of youth
attending intuitions of higher education. By contrast,
more youth go on to higher education in countries
that provide general academic studies for most high-
Other factor that help determine enrollment
education include :
• Nation’s investment of resources in higher
• Emphasis on postsecondary learning rather than
• Traditions regarding the use of higher education
to equalize educational opportunities.
• Extent to which colleges and universities admit
only high-achieving students.
School enrollment has increased during the
2000s (decade) in Cambodia. USAID data shows
that in 2011 primary enrollment reached 96% of
the child population, lower secondary school
34% and upper secondary 21%. (Cambodia)
Depending on their histories, political
structures, religious composition, legal frameworks,
and other factor, nations differ greatly in size and
function of their nonpublic education sector.
Proportion of students in private school
(Netherland, more than half, and most countries less than
10% but Cuba, North Korea have prohibited.)
Problem of defining a private school.
- People think private schools are expected to play in
- Some countries, nonpublic school enroll a
relatively small (elite group and prestigious colleges).
- Enrolling poor students in urban slums.
Problems and Prospects in Developing
Education and economic development
Problem in upgrading education
Recommendations for developing counties.(7
steps ) Page 485.
Exemplary Reforms: A Selection
Early Childhood Education France
Varying child-care arrangements:
Recognizing the critical importance of the
preschool in a child’s social, physical, and
educational development, many countries have taken
steps to provide stimulating learning opportunities
and positive day-care arrangements for most or all
French preschool programs:
Nearly all three-to-five-year-olds are enrolled in
Average salaries of preschool teachers are
considerably higher than the United states and
most other countries.
France has what many observers consider a
model approach to preschool services.
Participating children pursue stimulating
activities before and after school, during
vacation, and at other time when school is out.
Equally important, parents have financial
incentive to enroll their children in high-
quality programs that provide pediatric and
other preventive health services.
Positive features of French programs:
Virtually all children have access to a
coordinated system linking early education,
day care, and health services.
Paid parental leave from jobs after childbirth or
adaption helps to nurture positive parent-child
Good salaries and training for early childhood
teachers help to keep turnover low and program
Nearly all young children are enrolled in
The government provides additional
resources to ensure high quality at locations
enrolling low-income children.
Elementary-School Reading and Mathematics in
British literacy and numeracy initiatives
A requirement that school have at least a daily
literacy hour and a daily mathematics hour.
A reduction in prescribed curriculum content
outside these core subjects.
Additional fund and other resources for low-
Providing the services of hundreds of expert
literacy and numeracy consultants.
An Emphasis on early intervention and catch-up
for students who fail behind.
The appointment of more than two thousand
math teachers and several hundred literacy
teachers as lead teachers to model best practice
for their colleagues.
Major investments in books for schools.
Regular monitoring and extensive evaluation
by a national inspection agency.
Mathematics and Science Education in
International achievement studies indicate that
Japanese students consistently attain high scores in
mathematics, science, and other subjects areas.
Possible reasons for Japanese success
Outstanding day care can help prepare children
for school success. In addition, socialization
practices in family and in early childhood help
students learn to adapt to classroom situations and
Intense parental involvement is expected.
Long school year
Student attend school 240days a year
Students are given much responsibility for
school work and learning, beginning at an
Large amount of homework correlated with
classroom lessons contribute to high student
Careful planning and delivery of a national
curriculum help students acquire important
concepts within a sequential and comprehensive
The schools emphasize the development of
students’ character and sense of responsibility.
Status of teacher
Responsibility for students learning.
Prospective teachers must pass rigorous
examinations and are intensely supervised when
they enter the profession.
Japanese educators have high social status.
School schedules provide considerable time for
counseling students, planning, instruction, and
engaging in other activities that make teachers
Multicultural Education in Europe and
Model multicultural programs:
The United States is trying to provide bilingual
education for millions of English language learner
Canada has implemented sizable bilingual education
France has provided in-service training
nationwide to help teachers learn to teach
French as a second language.
Belgium provides reception classes, in which
immigrant children receive up to two years of
instruction from both a Belgian teacher and a
Conclusion: The International Context
and the Challenge Facing U.S. Schools
Growing similarities among nations
Much to learn, much to offer