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Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
Foundation of education 12
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Foundation of education 12

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  • 1. សសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសសស Western University Year IV, Semester I Academic Year: 2013-2014 18/30/2013
  • 2. 2  Desegregation: Attendance by students of different racial background in the same school and classroom.  integration: The step beyond simple desegregation that includes effective action to develop positive interracial contacts and improve the performance of low-achieving minority students. Desegregation 8/30/2013
  • 3. 3  A Brief History of Segregation in American Education  Slavery and the Constitution After the Civil War, the Thirteenth ,Fourteenth ,and Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution attempted to extend rights of citizenship irrespective of race. During Reconstruction, African Americans made some gains, but, after 1877, legislative action segregated blacks throughout the South and in other parts of the country. 8/30/2013
  • 4. 4  Separate, unequal schools In many cases, African American students had to travel long distances at their own expense to attend the nearest black school, and in many instances black senior high schools were a hundred miles or more away from a black student’s home.  The Brown case Supreme Court was a case in which lawyers for Linda Brown asked that she be allowed to attend white school in Topeka, Kansas. 8/30/2013
  • 5. 5  Civil rights movement: after three civil-rights workers were murdered in Mississippi, the U.S. Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act and other legislation that attempted to guarantee equal protection of the laws for minority citizens.  Resistance to desegregation: this resistance took such forms as delaying reassignment of African American student to white school, opening private schools with tuition paid by public funds, gerrymandering school boundary lines to increase segregation, suspending or repealing compulsory attendance law, and closing desegregated school. 8/30/2013
  • 6. 6  The progress of Desegregation Efforts  Type of segregation  de jure segregation: segregation resulting from laws or government.  de facto segregation: segregation associated with and resulting from housing patterns.  Increasing segregation for Latinos: the percentages of African American and Hispanic Students in Racially segregated public schools increased since 1969 to 2007. 8/30/2013
  • 7. 7  Trend toward cessation: In the 1990s and 2000s, many school districts ceased all o part of the segregation plans they had introduced in previous decades.  Some urban districts had predominantly enrollment in all their schools and it difficult or impossible to maintain desegregated schools even with substantial student busing.  In some districts, courts ruled that the district had accomplished enough to overcome discriminatory effects attributable to the original constitutional violations. 8/30/2013
  • 8. 8  In other districts, public and school officials concluded that desegregation efforts did little to actually help minority students.  In 2007, supreme Court ruled that school districts could no longer use race as the sole or major factor in devising a desegregation plan. 8/30/2013
  • 9. 9  Desegregation plans Components of desegregation plans to accomplish desegregation usually involve one or more of the following actions: • Alter attendance areas to include a more desegregated population. • Establish magnet school-school that use specialized programs and personnel attract student throughout a school district. • Bus students involuntarily to desegregated school. • Pair school, bringing two school in adjacent areas together in one larger zone. • Allow controlled choice, a system in which students may select the school they wish to attend as long as such choice does not result in desegregation. • Provide voluntary transfer of city students to suburban schools. 8/30/2013
  • 10. 10  Emphasizing quality of instruction: for these end similar reasons, desegregation plans in many big cities generally concentrate on trying to improve the quality of instruction.  Magnet schools: the most frequently used themes include arts, business, foreign language, health professions, international studies, Montessori early childhood, science and mathematics, and technology. 8/30/2013
  • 11. 11  Nonblack Minorities  What is a minority group? Depending on regional and local circumstances and court precedents, various racial minority group may not be counted as minority for the purposes of school desegregation. 8/30/2013
  • 12. 12  Effects on Student performance and Attitudes  Importance of implementation: positive intergroup relationships develop only if desegregation is implemented well and if educators promote equal-status contact between minority and nonminority students.  Moral and political imperatives: (1) resources were focused on attaining goals. (2) administrative leadership was outstanding. (3) parents were more heavily in the classroom. (4) staff systematically promoted positive interracial attitudes 8/30/2013
  • 13.  Compensatory Education  Another aspect of our nation’s commitment to equal educational opportunity is the Compensatory education movement, which has sought to overcome ( that is, compensate for ) disadvantaged background and thereby improve the performance of low achieving students, particularly those from low –income families. 138/30/2013
  • 14.  The Elementary and Secondary Education Act ( ESEA ), passed in 1965, among other provisions immediately provided $1 billion to improve the education of economically disadvantaged children. The moneys are known as Title I funds, named after the portion of the ESEA that describes them. The federal government distributes the funds to the states, which, along with school districts , identify schools with sufficient disadvantaged students to receive a share. Nearly $200 billion were spent on Title I between 1965 and 2009. 148/30/2013
  • 15.  Early Childhood Compensatory Education Discouraging early results During the first decade of compensatory education, most interventions appeared to be relatively ineffective in raising student achievement levels and cognitive development. Despite the expenditure of billions of dollar per year, students generally were not making long-range academic gains. 158/30/2013
  • 16.  Improved procedures and funding The federal and state governments improved monitoring procedures, required more adequate evaluation, and sponsored studies to improve compensatory education. Some states also began to provide additional money for compensatory programs. By the early 1980s, research suggested that compensatory education in preschool and the primary grades could indeed improve the cognitive development and performance of disadvantaged students. 168/30/2013
  • 17.  Comprehensive Ecological Intervention  Importance of early family environment Educators face great difficulty working to overcome the extreme disadvantages of students who grow up in poverty neighborhoods. For this reason, policy makers and educators increasingly support Ecological Intervention– comprehensive efforts to improve the home and neighborhood environment of young children. 178/30/2013
  • 18.  The No Child Left Behind Act  In 2001, Congress reauthorized the ESEA and Title I established sweeping new requirements for all elementary and secondary schools. The newest version of the law, known as the No Child Left Behind Act ( NCLB ), has affected not only schools that receive Title I funding, but nearly all public schools. 188/30/2013
  • 19.  Challenging Standards and annual test  Standards and Testing States and school districts are required to develop challenging academic content and achievement standards for all children in reading/language arts, mathematics, and science, with the goal of having all students.  Students with Special Needs States, districts, and schools must identify English Languages Learner ( ELL ) students and develop instructional benchmarks and a proficiency test to assess their progress in learning English. Schools and districts must include both ELL students and students with disabilities in the annual testing required of all other students. 198/30/2013
  • 20.  Adequate Yearly Progress A key provision of NCLB is that all schools and districts must make Adequate Yearly Progress ( AYP ) toward their 2013-2014 goals. Schools and districts that fail to make sufficient progress are designated as “ needing improvement ” . The school is identified as needing improvement if the school as a whole or any disaggregated subgroup has achievement scores below those the state government has determined are required in moving forward to meet its 2013-2014 goals. 208/30/2013
  • 21.  Multicultural Education  Multicultural education refer to the various ways in which schools can take productive account of cultural differences among students and improve opportunities for students with cultural backgrounds distinct form the U.S mainstream. As a teacher, you should also be concerned with the larger implications of multicultural education that make it valuable for all students. 218/30/2013
  • 22. 22  Bilingual Education  Bilingual education means that instruction in their native language provided for students whose first language is not English.  Bilingual education has been expanding in US public schools as immigration has increased. 8/30/2013
  • 23. 23  Controversy over bilingual education  As in the case of teaching through dialect, argument erupt between those who would immerse children in an English-language environment and those who believe initial instruction will be more effective in the native language.  First-language maintenance  Transitional bilingual education 8/30/2013
  • 24. 24  Conclusion for bilingual education  Claude Goldenberg reviewed much of the research and concluded that “primary-language instruction enhances English-language learners’ academic achievement.  He also presented the following conclusions that he believes can be drawn from multiple studies on instruction for ELL students: 1. If feasible, children should be taught reading in their primary language. 2. As needed, students should be helped to transfer what they know in their first language to learning tasks presented in English. 8/30/2013
  • 25. 25 3. Teaching in the first and second languages can be approached similarly. 4. ELLs need intensive oral English language development, especially vocabulary and academic English instruction. 5. ELLs also need academic content instruction, just as all students do; although ELD is crucial, it must be in addition to—not instead of— instruction designed to promote content knowledge.  Conclusion for bilingual education (Cont.) 8/30/2013
  • 26. 26  Education for Students with Disabilities  Special education: the education of children who have physical problems or learning problems.  The basic requirements are as follows: 1. Children cannot be labeled as disabled or placed in special education on basis of a single criterion such as an IQ score; testing and assessment service must be fair and comprehensive. 2. If a childe is identified as disabled, school official must conduct a functional assessment and develop suitable intervention strategies. 8/30/2013
  • 27. 27  Education for Students with Disabilities (Cont.) 3. Parents or guardians must have access to information diagnosis and may protest decisions of school officials. 4. Every student eligible for special education services must be taught according to an individualized education program that includes both long-range and short-range goal. 5. Educational services must be provided in the least restrictive environment, which mean that children with disabilities should be in regular classes to the extent possible. 8/30/2013
  • 28. 28  Mainstreaming and inclusion  Mainstreaming: placing students with disabilities in regular classes fro much or all of the school day, while also providing additional services, programs and classes as needed.  Inclusion: educating students with disabilities in regular classroom in their neighborhood school, with collaborative support services as needed. 8/30/2013
  • 29. 8/30/2013 29  Issues and Dilemmas  We focus on 4 issues or dilemmas that may have particular prominence in the next several year: 1. Financial dilemmas: Schools must provide the services necessary to help children with special need, for example: special assistance. However, providing an optimal learning environment for students with severe disabilities can be expensive.
  • 30. 8/30/2013 30 2. Standard and Assessment: How should special-education students prepare for state testing? Many educators are concerned that applying statewide standards may prove disastrous for learning disabled and other students in special education. 3. Potential effects on nondisabled students: if school officials divert substantial amounts of money from regular budgets to pay for separate placements or special services for disable student, will the classroom conditions fro nondisabled students suffer? Observers disagree.
  • 31. 8/30/2013 31 4. What services should we provide for which students, where, when, and how? Many issues we have discussed remain unresolved, for example: to what extent should we make differing arrangements for severely and mildly disabled students, to what extent should is it desirable or feasible to provide regular classroom support services, such as a sign language interpreter for deaf students or a nurse to assist incontinent students.
  • 32. 8/30/2013 32  Suggested policies and guidelines for students with disabilities  Congress should provide more fund to help schools implement its mandate  Legislation should require that teachers receive adequate training  State and school districts should find ways to quickly identify classrooms or school were full inclusion or other arrangement are not working well.  State should pass legislation to expedite quick removal from regular classes of disabled students who are violent or extremely disruptive.
  • 33. 8/30/2013 33  School opting to pursue full inclusion should receive whatever technical help is necessary.  Teachers and staff in inclusive classrooms should receive training and support in using appropriate instructional strategies that will help all of their students master basic and advanced learning skills.
  • 34. 8/30/2013 34 Thanks for your attention!!!

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