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Lecturer: Mr. Hong Kiseng
1. Mr. Leang Channy
2. Miss Seng Saksreyney
3. Mr. Pha Rakim
4. Miss Phien Davy
1. Communication across Time and Space?
2. Morphemic and Phonetic Script
3. Chinese Script – A Morphemic System
4. Roman Script – An Alphabetic System
Do you know any country has no writing
Can you develop one nation without written
How can you study a history of one country?
Some societies have no writing system and
no society has developed a written language
and only subsequently decided to transmit
the utterances orally.
Writing has played an important part in the
development of society.
Our society requires communication to be
made across space and time.
Writing is allowing you to study the subject
of language without having to travel to a
particular place at a particular time.
Rival means of communication or bridging
space and time (TV, Phone, Tape recorder,
or Video…), but writing still develops.
The written representation of an object, of a
concept, of an action, and so on may be a
direct representation of the object itself or a
representation of the word that represents
Morphemic are the characters or graphs <1>
and <5> represent a concept directly.
Phonetic are the written words <one> and
<five> or symbols of symbols represent the
sounds that represent the concept.
<Seven> is generally called Phonetic systems
but <Seven> /sevәn/ is called an Alphabetic
Alphabetic are character for each sound
segment or symbols represent individual
Syllabic refer to symbols represent syllables.
(Mostly, in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean
好 吃 好吃
Hǎo Chī Hǎo chī
Good Eat Delicious
好 看 好看
Hǎo Kàn Hǎo kàn
Good Look Attractive
Ex: “4” is morphemic symbol that represent:
“quatre in French”
“four in English”
“si ‘四’ in Chinese”
is internationally understood !
Symbols that represent an object, a concept, an
action, and so on without the intermediate element of
the spoken word, they are called “Morphemic
It is a written
can be understood by
people who speak so
differently that they
would not understand
each other’s spoken
do, however, present
problems in the
modern age. Having a
different graph for each
means that thousands
of graphs must be used.
Generally speaking Phonetic systems develop out
of Morphemic systems. When humans first wanted
to convey or express visually the idea of an object it
was natural that they should draw an image of that
object rather than attempt to represent the sound
of whatever word they used to denote or represent
semi-circle represented full-circle
Morphemic symbols can be
Pictogram or Ideogram
If we want to consider pictograms or ideograms
to be different:
1. One, stylized
visual, is more
about image or
picture is called
2. And the other one
is more about
idea is called
3 Chinese Script- A Morphemic
As we have seen, the Chinese system of
writing is primarily morphemic, the
characters being associated directly with the
object or concept that they denote rather
than with the sound of a spoken word.
Images become more stylized and more
angular, but in some cases one can still see a
resemblance between character and the
As with the digraph for China , concepts
may be represented by combining or
The characters for the sun and the moon
together (明), denote the concept of
The characters for women together with that
for child (好), denotes goodness and love.
These may be referred to as symbolic
The Chinese characters representing one
concept may also come to be used to denote
another concept that is denoted by a words
that sound similar. Thus it may be sound
rather than concept that is the common
thread linking different use of character.
The semantic element, the radical, is
supplemented by a phonetic element that
indicate the spoken word. This specifying
the sense of the semantic element.
For example, the character for a woman can
be accompanied by another indicating the
sound /ma/ to denote the particular kind of
woman indicated by these sounds, a mother.
The writing system that we use came to us
from the Middle East by way of the Greeks
and the Romans.
Allograph is a member of grapheme or the
variant forms of a written character (grapheme
is a fundamental unit in a written language: alphabet,
punctuation, number, signature, and any other individual
symbol in a writing system).
A and a are Allographs of the grapheme A in
that replacing them does not alter the
meaning of the word, as calm, CALM and
cAlm, except oddness.
As we know, writing system can help our
communication to transcend time and space.
But the development of writing system will help
However, in order to develop writing system
successfully we need to understand each
concept in this unit.