12 writing systems (why does the coming together of two women in china result in a quarrel)

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  • 1. Lecturer: Mr. Hong Kiseng Students: 1 1. Mr. Leang Channy 2. Miss Seng Saksreyney 3. Mr. Pha Rakim 4. Miss Phien Davy
  • 2. 1. Communication across Time and Space? 2. Morphemic and Phonetic Script 3. Chinese Script – A Morphemic System 4. Roman Script – An Alphabetic System 5. Allographs 6. Conclusion 2
  • 3.  Do you know any country has no writing system?  Can you develop one nation without written language?  How can you study a history of one country? 3
  • 4.  Some societies have no writing system and no society has developed a written language and only subsequently decided to transmit the utterances orally. 4
  • 5.  Writing has played an important part in the development of society.  Our society requires communication to be made across space and time.  Writing is allowing you to study the subject of language without having to travel to a particular place at a particular time. 5
  • 6. 6  Rival means of communication or bridging space and time (TV, Phone, Tape recorder, or Video…), but writing still develops.
  • 7. The written representation of an object, of a concept, of an action, and so on may be a direct representation of the object itself or a representation of the word that represents the object. 7
  • 8.  Morphemic are the characters or graphs <1> and <5> represent a concept directly.  Phonetic are the written words <one> and <five> or symbols of symbols represent the sounds that represent the concept. 8
  • 9. 9 <Seven> is generally called Phonetic systems but <Seven> /sevәn/ is called an Alphabetic system. Alphabetic are character for each sound segment or symbols represent individual speech sounds.
  • 10. 10  Syllabic refer to symbols represent syllables. (Mostly, in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean symbols)  好 吃  好吃 Hǎo Chī  Hǎo chī Good Eat  Delicious  好 看  好看 Hǎo Kàn  Hǎo kàn Good Look  Attractive
  • 11. 11
  • 12. Ex: “4” is morphemic symbol that represent: “quatre in French” “four in English” “si ‘四’ in Chinese” is internationally understood ! 12 Symbols that represent an object, a concept, an action, and so on without the intermediate element of the spoken word, they are called “Morphemic Symbols”.
  • 13. 13 Advantage: It is a written communication which can be understood by people who speak so differently that they would not understand each other’s spoken language. Disadvantage: Morphemic symbols do, however, present problems in the modern age. Having a different graph for each morpheme clearly means that thousands of graphs must be used.
  • 14. 14 Generally speaking Phonetic systems develop out of Morphemic systems. When humans first wanted to convey or express visually the idea of an object it was natural that they should draw an image of that object rather than attempt to represent the sound of whatever word they used to denote or represent that object. Ex: semi-circle represented full-circle represented moon sun
  • 15. 15 Morphemic symbols can be Pictogram or Ideogram If we want to consider pictograms or ideograms to be different: 1. One, stylized visual, is more about image or picture is called “pictogram”. 2. And the other one is more about idea is called “ideogram”.
  • 16. 3 Chinese Script- A Morphemic As we have seen, the Chinese system of writing is primarily morphemic, the characters being associated directly with the object or concept that they denote rather than with the sound of a spoken word. Images become more stylized and more angular, but in some cases one can still see a resemblance between character and the objective denoted.
  • 17.  As with the digraph for China , concepts may be represented by combining or reduplicating characters.  The characters for the sun and the moon together (明), denote the concept of brightness.
  • 18. The characters for women together with that for child (好), denotes goodness and love.  These may be referred to as symbolic compound. 19
  • 19. The Chinese characters representing one concept may also come to be used to denote another concept that is denoted by a words that sound similar. Thus it may be sound rather than concept that is the common thread linking different use of character.
  • 20.  The semantic element, the radical, is supplemented by a phonetic element that indicate the spoken word. This specifying the sense of the semantic element. 21
  • 21. For example, the character for a woman can be accompanied by another indicating the sound /ma/ to denote the particular kind of woman indicated by these sounds, a mother.
  • 22.  The writing system that we use came to us from the Middle East by way of the Greeks and the Romans. 23
  • 23. 24
  • 24. 25 The script has been modified for over 10 times. Here is some example of Khmer script: Pre-Angkorian Script
  • 25. 26 Angkorian Script
  • 26. 27 Post-Angkorian Script
  • 27. 28 Modern Script
  • 28.  Allograph is a member of grapheme or the variant forms of a written character (grapheme is a fundamental unit in a written language: alphabet, punctuation, number, signature, and any other individual symbol in a writing system). 29
  • 29.  A and a are Allographs of the grapheme A in that replacing them does not alter the meaning of the word, as calm, CALM and cAlm, except oddness. 30
  • 30. As we know, writing system can help our communication to transcend time and space. But the development of writing system will help us better. However, in order to develop writing system successfully we need to understand each concept in this unit. 31
  • 31. Thanks for your attention! 32