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Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
Module 1 -  Pet Nutrition
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Module 1 - Pet Nutrition

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Pet Nutrition Course Module 1 …

Pet Nutrition Course Module 1

Table of Content
講座內容
What is Nutrition?
什麼是營養?
Function of Different Nutrients
不同營養成份的用途
Why is a Balance Diet Important?
均衡飲食的重要性
Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human
人類和貓狗消化系統的分別
Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement
不同寵物的營養需要
Important Nutritional Characteristics of Dog & Cats
貓狗分別需要的營養特性
Type of Pet Foods
不同種類的寵物食品

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  • 1. PET NUTRITION I 寵物營養學 I Presented to you by Pet Elements & Pet Elements Animal Hospital www.petelements.com.hk
  • 2. Table of Content 講座內容   What is Nutrition? 什麼是營養?  Function of Different Nutrients 不同營養成份的用途  Why is a Balance Diet Important? 均衡飲食的重要性  Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human 人類和貓狗消化系統的分別  Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要  Important Nutritional Characteristics of Dog & Cats 貓狗分別需要的營養特性  Type of Pet Foods 不同種類的寵物食品
  • 3. What is Nutrition? 什麼是營養?  Intake of food + biochemical processes => maintenance of life 從食物中吸收 + 身體產生化學作用 => 維持生命 What are Nutrients 什麼是養份?  Provide energy 提供能量  Provide material for growth, repair, reproduction 提供物質幫助身體 - 生長,修復,生育  Starting & controlling various processes 開始及控制身體進行上述的運作
  • 4. What is Nutrition? 什麼是營養?   Nutrients includes 養份包括: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carbohydrates 碳水化合物 Lipid 脂肪 Protein 蛋白質 Water 水 Vitamins 維他命 Minerals 礦物質
  • 5. What is Nutrition? 什麼是營養?  Carbohydrates 碳水化合物 1. 2. Lipid 脂肪 3. Protein 蛋白質 They are energy-boosting nutrient and help body perform day-today functions 以上三項養份為身體提供能量 & 幫助身體進行日常運作 1 gram of protein / carbohydrate = 4 kcal energy 1 克蛋白質 /碳水化合物 = 提供 4 卡路里熱量 1 gram of fat = 9 kcal of energy 1 克脂肪 = 提供 9 卡路里熱量
  • 6. Carbohydrates 碳水化合物  身體的能量來源  Source of energy for the body Source of Carbohydrates 碳水化合物來源 1. Dietary sources 食物中攝取 2. Produced in the body 身體自行製造 Liver uses fat & protein to produce glucose 肝臟利用 脂肪 & 蛋白質 -> 葡萄糖
  • 7. Carbohydrates 碳水化合物   In cats & dogs, dietary carbohydrate is not really necessary as long as there is enough fat + protein for production of glucose. 貓狗 - 只要食物中有足夠的脂肪 & 蛋白 質可被身體轉化為葡萄糖,牠們可以不 需要從食物攝取碳水化合物。 Exception ? 有例外嗎? • Gestation 懷孕期 • Lactation 哺乳期 Increase demand for glucose due to foetal development & milk production 需要額外葡萄糖幫助 胎兒成長 & 生產乳汁 • Growing kitten & puppies 成長中的幼貓 & 幼犬
  • 8. Lipid 脂肪  Lipid 脂肪 1. Absorb, store & transport vitamins (fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K) 吸收,貯存,運送維他命 ( 脂溶性維他命 - A, D, E, K) 2. Primary source of energy 主要能量來源 3. Moisturize skin & coat 滋潤皮膚及毛髮 4. Provide great taste to pet food 使食物更美味 5. Provide fatty-acid 為身體提供脂肪酸
  • 9. Lipid 脂肪  Fatty Acid 脂肪酸 Omega 3 奧米加3 Fish oil & Flaxseed 魚油 & 亞麻籽  Joint 關節  Brain & eye development for puppies & kittens 幼貓 & 幼犬腦部及眼睛發育 Omega 6 奧米加6 Vegetable oils 蔬菜油  maintain healthy skin & glossy coat 維持皮膚健康 及亮麗的披毛 What is DHA ? 什麼是DHA? • Omega-3 fatty acid 奧米加3 脂肪酸 • Useful for growth & development of healthy organs. Helps improve puppies’ ability to learn, interact & socialize. • 幫助身體器官生長及發育。促進幼犬的學習,互動及社交能力
  • 10. Protein 蛋白質 Compose main element of body tissue e.g. muscles, blood, skin, organ, hair & nails 形成身體組織主要成份,例如: 肌 肉,血液,皮膚,毛髮 & 趾甲 Protein are made up of amino acid, some amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body – these are known as essential amino acid 蛋白質由胺基酸組成。身體不能自行製造的 胺基酸稱為 “必須胺基酸” Dog has 10 essential amino acids 狗有10種必須胺基酸 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Arginine 精胺酸 Histidine 組胺酸 Isoleucine 異亮胺酸 Leucine亮胺酸 Lysine 離胺酸 Methionine 甲硫胺酸 Phenylalanine 苯丙酮胺酸 Threonine 羥丁胺酸 Tryptophane 色胺酸 Valine 纈胺酸 Cat has 11 essential amino acids 貓有11種必須胺基酸 Same as the list above for the dog with the addition of Taurine. 除以上10種胺基酸外,另有牛磺酸
  • 11. Protein 蛋白質   Functions of Proteins 蛋白質的作用 1. All tissue growth and repair 所有組織的成長及修復 2. Regulate of acid-base balance 調節身體酸鹼度 3. Enzymes & hormones are composed of protein 酵素及荷爾 蒙由蛋白質形成 4. Immune system, transport (haemoglobin) 免疫系統,運輸 (血清蛋白) 5. Energy 能量 If a pet eats too much protein. The excess is burnt as energy. If he does not need the energy immediately, it is made up into fat & stored for future use. 過多的蛋白質會化為能量燃燒。剩餘的會貯存為 脂肪為日後使用。
  • 12. Protein 蛋白質  Adult animal require  Protein 蛋白質 Plant or animal source 植物及動物來源 Protein quality is important 蛋白質質量十分重要 1. Digestibility – high quality diet have digestibility up to 80-95% 消化度 – 優質蛋白可以 被身體消化 80-95% 2. Amino Acid Profile – good quality protein will provide good levels of essential amino acid 胺基酸成份 -優質蛋白提 供良好水平的胺基酸 protein for maintenance e.g. hair, skin, digestive system 成年動物須要蛋白質維持身 體的修復,例如: 毛髮,皮膚, 消化系統  Protein requirement increase in growing animal or lactating animal for growth of new tissues & milk production 成長中& 餵 乳中動物的要較多蛋白質幫 助身體製造新的組織及乳汁
  • 13. Water 水 Function of water 水的功能  Most important nutrient 最重要的養份  15% loss in body water can make a pet seriously ill 身體流失15%水份已經可以令 寵物極度不適 1. 2. 3. Requirement of all body fluid 身體所有體液 Transport of nutrients around the body 運送養份至全身 Carrier of water soluble vitamins ( Vitamin B complex & Vitamin C)運送水溶性維他 命,維他命 B 群,維他命C 您知道嗎??  How much water should you pet drink a day?? 您的寵物一天 要飲多水?  50-60ml/ kg/ day 每公斤50-60 毫升
  • 14. Vitamins 維他命  Required for many body’s metabolic activities 維持身體身陳代謝 Fat soluble vitamins 脂溶性維他命  Vitamin A – Vision, reproduction, mucus membranes 視力,生育,黏膜  Vitamin D – Bone vitamin, help regulate calcium level in blood 骨骼中的維 他命,幫助調節血鈣  Vitamin E – Antioxidant 抗氧化  Vitamin K – required for blood clotting 凝血 Water soluble vitamins水溶性維他命 • B Group of Vitamins – thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, cobalamin - Facilitate conversion of nutrients into energy - 幫助身體將養份轉化為能量 • Vitamin C – anti-oxidant, preservative properties in diets 抗氧化,可以作為寵 物食品中的防腐劑
  • 15. Minerals 礦物質  Required for the normal maintenance, growth & development of body 身體需要礦物質維護修復,生長及發展  Macro- Mineral – required larger amount - g/kg 大量礦物質 Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride 鈣,鏻,鈉,鉀,氯  Micro- Mineral – required smaller amount – mg/kg 少量礦物質 Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Cobalt, Manganese, Iodine 鐵,鋅,銅,硒,鈷,錳,碘  Trace Elements – required minute amount –mcg/kg 微量礦物質 Chromium, Fluorine, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon & Vanadium 鉻,氟,鉬,鎳,硅,鐇
  • 16. Why is a Balance Diet Important? 均衡飲食的重要性   Proper and balanced nutrition helps prevent disease and promote optimal health.  適當及均衡飲食幫助預防疾 病及令寵物得到最佳健康。  Dogs and cats need the right nutrients in right quantities & their need change depending on age, lifestyle and activity.  寵物須要按其年齡,生活習 慣,活動量來決定牠們所須 的營養。
  • 17. Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human 人類和貓狗消化系統的分別   Stomach of Dog & Cats make up of 60%of whole digestive system, 10% in human 貓狗的胃部整個消化系統的的 60%; 人類的胃部整個消化系統的的 10%  The intestinal are much shorter than in human. It cannot digest carbohydrate as human. Human adult carbohydrate requirement is 60-65% while in dogs & cats, carbohydrate requirement is very small 貓狗的腸道比人類短。不能像人類一樣, 可以有效地消化碳水化合物。成年人大 約需要60-65%碳水化合物;但成年貓狗 只需要少量。
  • 18. Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human 人類和貓狗消化系統的分別   Dogs & Cats have less intestinal flora than man – means that man can more readily accept dietary changes and a variety of foods compared to dogs & cats.  貓狗小腸內微生物比人類少 –人 類比貓狗容易適應不同的飲食轉 變。  It is fine and better for dogs & cats to have the same food everyday.  每天餵貓狗食一同一種糧是沒有 問題的,而且對牠們腸胃較好。 Gut Flora 腸道內微生物
  • 19. Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human 人類和貓狗消化系統的分別  人類營養金字塔 Human Nutrition Pyramid
  • 20. Different Digestive System of Dog & Cat VS Human 人類和貓狗消化系統的分別  狗隻營養金字塔 Dog’s Nutrition Pyramid
  • 21. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要  Age 年齡 Neutering of Animals 已絕育 Size 身形 Breed/Type of Pet 不同種類/品種 Lifestyle 生活模式 Pet Have Disease 患病的寵物
  • 22. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要  Age年齡  Puppy & Kitten 幼犬及幼貓 • Fragility of digestive System • 腸胃道比較嬌嫩 • Immaturity of immune system • 免疫系統比較弱  Required higher levels of Protein, Energy, Vitamins & Minerals  需要額外的蛋白質,能量,維多命及礦物質  Well balance commercial diet is recommended for all growing puppies & kittens  建議餵食營養均行的商業合成糧 Overfeeding may cause 過份餵食的後果  Overweight in small dog 小型狗 – 過肥  Bone problem in large size dog 大型狗 – 骨骼生長有問題
  • 23. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要  Age年齡  Senior Pets 年長寵物 • Renal Function & arthritis can start to be important in older animals • 腎臟功能退化及關節炎 • Nutrition can help alleviate these problems 營養可幫助緩和這些問題 • By restricting the phosphorus levels in senior diet can help maintain renal function 減少磷質攝取可維持腎臟功能 • Adding chondrotin & glucosamine can help maintain joint health 加入軟骨素及葡萄糖胺可維持關節健康 • Adding anti-oxidants can help combat free raficals 加入抗氧化劑對抗自由基
  • 24. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要  Size 身形  Different length of growth 成長速度的不同 Small Dogs – 8 - 12 months 小型狗 – 8-12個月成長完成 Large Dogs – 18 - 24 months 大型狗 – 18-24個月才成長完成 Small dog 小型狗 More dental disease than a larger dog 較大型狗多口腔牙齒問題  Urinary Problems due to indoor sedentary lifestyles 室內居住的原因,較容易有泌尿系統問題  Large dog 大型狗  More problems with joints 較多關節問題 • • • • • •  
  • 25. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要   Neutering of Animals 已絕育的寵物  A neutered tom cat – less active and less likely to go hunting and looking for a mate 一隻已絕育的貓公 – 活躍力減低,捕食 及找尋異性的意慾減低  Caloric requirement decrease. But within 48 hours after neutering, pets eats more. 絕育後48小時內食慾會增加  Imbalance between energy intake & expenditure lead to obesity 能量攝取及吸收不成正比引致肥胖  Tailor nutrition can be used to prevent obesity 度身的營養配方可預防肥胖
  • 26. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要   Lifestyle 生活模式  Pets living indoor has a lower exercise level have a lower energy requirement then pets living outdoor who has a higher exercise level 居住於室內的寵物活動量較低,相 對所需要攝取的能量亦較少
  • 27. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要   Pet Having Diseases 患病的寵物  Renal – lower phosphorus & protein 腎病 – 低磷 及 低蛋白質  Heart disease – lower sodium 心臟病 – 低鈉  Diabetes – higher fiber, lower carbohydrates 糖尿病 – 高纖維 及 低碳水化合物  Food Allergy – specific protein 食物敏感 – 特別蛋白質  Bladder Stone – diet to maintain the PH level & prevent the relapse 膀胱石 – 維持尿液酸鹼度 及 預防復發 Need to be on prescription diet ONLY suggested by veterinarian to maintain the problem. We do not recommend to switch them back to normal diet before seeking the veterinrian advice. 只能餵食獸醫建議的處方糧食去維持及控制病情。不 建議未經獸醫同意前自行改變食糧
  • 28. Different Pets’ Nutritional Requirement 不同寵物的營養需要   Breed/Type of Pet 不同種類/品種  Labrador is gluttonous and easy to put on weight 拉布拉多 – 貪吃,容易肥胖  Larger size kibble to slow down ingestion 大粒狗糧可減慢進食速度  Bull Dog, Persian – brachycephalic breed have difficulty eating small kibbles 老虎狗,波斯貓 – 扁面品種進食比較小粒的乾 糧會困難  Special design kibble to easier pick up 特別設計的乾糧形狀可方便進食
  • 29. Important Nutritional Characteristics of Dog & Cats 貓狗分別需要的營養特性  Dogs – Omnivorous 狗 – 雜食性  Can eat food of both animal & vegetable origin. 可以分別食用不同的動物及 植物來源攝取所需養份  Dogs – “Gluttonous” .They eat their meal quickly 天生貪吃的,進食速度快  1-2 meals adult dog 成年狗每天上進食一至兩餐
  • 30. Important Nutritional Characteristics of Dog & Cats 貓狗分別需要的營養特性 Cats – Carnivores 貓 – 肉食性   Some essential nutrients can only found in foods of animal origin 一些特別的養份只能在動物來源中攝取  In wild – cat eats foods of animal origin e.g. mice and take in very little vegetable matter 野生的貓隻主要捕食動物,只攝取少量 的蔬菜  Cats are “grazers” 10-16 meals 貓 – 少食多餐。成年貓每天上進食十至十六餐  If a cat is fed a vegetarian diet – diet will be deficient in certain nutrients e.g. Taurine & Vitamin A which lead to serious deficiencies 如貓隻只食素食 – 會造成嚴重營養不良。缺乏 牛磺酸及維他命A
  • 31. Type of Pet Foods 不同種類的寵物食品   Home Cooked Diets 自家煮制食品  Commercially Prepared Diets 商業合成糧  Dry Food 乾糧  Wet Food 濕糧  Raw Dog Diet 生肉糧
  • 32. Home Cooked Diets 自家煮制食品   Time consuming & difficult to formulate a correct balanced diet 很難於家中調配出正確均衡營養,而且十分費時  e.g. Fat content, Calcium/ phosphorus balance & vitamin levels脂肪,鈣/璘比例,維他命指  Anthropomorphic tendencies 主人將寵物人性化  Taste is very important to human 味道對人類十分重要  Smell are is the most important sense for dog & cats. Aroma increase the chance of pet eating. 氣味對狗貓是最重要的觸覺。香味使食慾增 加 • Color of Food – not important 食物的顏色並不重要 • Palatability – most important 食物的適口性最重要 Human – 9000 taste bud 人類 – 9000 味蒥 • Dog - 1700 taste bud 狗 – 1700 味蒥 • Cat – 500 taste bud 貓 – 500 味蒥 •
  • 33. Home Cooked Diets 自家煮制食品  Recommendations: 建議: • Home Cooked Diets receive recipe from a veterinarian 由獸醫提供自家煮制的餐單 • All meats diet is not fine for growing puppies – can lead to serious consequences 成長中的幼犬不適合餵食全肉糧,長遠會 引起嚴重後遺症 • Ensure the diet is completely balanced 確保有均衡營養 • Animal may try to find balance in their diet themselves, but it is impossible for domesticated pets to seek out nutrients to balance their diet themselves • 動物於野外會自己補充所須營養,但成為寵 物後,沒有機會自行覓食
  • 34. Commercially Prepared Diets - Dry 商業合成糧  More popular choice 較為普遍使用   Dry Food 乾糧 Raw material -> Mix ingredients Grind down -> Extrude ->Cut -> Dry -> Add flavor enhancement 源材料 -> 混合材料 -> 壓碎 -> 擠出-> 切割 ->加入香味素 加工  Wet Food 濕糧 Raw material -> Mix ingredients Cooked-> Place in can->Vacuum sealed -> Sterilized 源材料 -> 混合材料 -> 烹煮 -> 真空包裝-> 消毒  Small dog tends to build up tartar easily on wet food 小型狗如經常餵食濕糧較容易形成牙石
  • 35. Commercially Prepared Diets Dry 商業合成糧 - 乾糧  優質狗糧及务質狗糧的比較 Low Quality 务質 15 nutrients 15 種養份 Nutrients Content 營養成份 Protein Digestibility 蛋白質消化度 High Quality 優質 50 nutrients 50 種養份 Poor Quality Source • Poorly Digestible • More stool volume • 务質蛋白來源 • 難被腸道消化 • 較多便便 • • Good Quality Source • Highly Digestible • More stool volume • 優質蛋白來源 • 容易腸道消化 • 較少便便
  • 36. Commercially Prepared Diets - Dry 商業合成糧 - 乾糧  優質狗糧及务質狗糧的比較 Low Quality 务質 Energy Value 能量價值 • • High Quality 優質 Low - Large amount required/day 低 – 每餵食仍份 量較多 Cost 成本 • • High – Small amount required/ day 低 –每餵食仍份量 較多 Same 一樣 Research & knowledge 研究及知識 None 無 Better 較好 Palatability 適口性 Lower 較低 Higher 較高
  • 37. How To Read Food Label?? 如何閲讀食品標籤?? 
  • 38. Raw Dog Diet 生肉糧   Food is all raw & so are the bones ( never give your dog cooked bones ) & veggies - 50/50  生肉及生骨 (千萬不要餵寵物食熟骨)及 蔬菜 50/50  Different type of veggies to provide different source of vitamins & nutrients 提供不同種類的蔬菜以提供不同的營養 及維他命  Bones provide nutritional value 提供生骨(骨碎)提供營養及礦物質  Fish oil Flaxseed Oil  提供魚油及亞麻籽
  • 39. Raw Dog Diet 生肉糧  Merits 好處  No artificial preservatives 沒有人造防腐製  Healthier teeth & breath 健康牙齒及口氣  Less stool production 較少便便量  Will not turn their dog into blood thirsty hounds 不會令狗隻變得兇殘 Raw food diet is not for everyone nor it is for every dog !! 不是每一位主人或狗隻都適合生肉糧!! Drawback 幣處  The Salmonella & E.coli Poisoning 沙門氐菌及大腸肝菌  Inhaling of bone 吞入生骨  Some of the veggies – like broccoli & cabbage can increase gas 有些蔬菜會增加胃氣   Ingredients Handling. Defrost properly. Clean all utensils and surface doe preparing food 處理食物時要十分小心。解凍及處理食物的容器都要徹底清潔
  • 40. Questions & Answers 問題時間 
  • 41. COMING SOON 預告 BASIC PET NUTRITION II 基本寵物營養學 II   Specific Need/Risk & Problems of Dogs and Cats 狗貓針對性的營養需要/危機及問題  Special Nutrient Requirements of Cats 貓隻的特別營養需要  Understand Nutritional Supplement & How to Choose ? 認識及如何選擇營養補充品?  10 Type of Food Not To Feed Your Pets 十種寵物不應吃的食物  Obesity in Dogs & Cats 狗貓的肥胖  Food Allergy & Food Intolerance 食物敏感及食物不耐
  • 42. Please Stay Behind… 請留步…   如你喜歡今天的講座內容,請 我們的FACEBOOK 圓方寵物 QR CODE 圓方寵物 地址: 元朗錦田市中心永隆圍大馬路74號地下 電話: 2475 1011 www.petelements.com.hk 錦田動物醫院 地址: 元朗錦田市中心永隆圍大馬路74號地下 電話: 2475 1011 www.petelements.com.hk 有精美禮品派發 !!! 錦田動物醫院 QR CODE

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