Age of reason
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Age of reason

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  • IT PROMOTED SCIENCE AND INTELLECTUAL INTERCHANGE AND OPPOSED SUPERSTITION, INTOLERANCE AND ABUSES IN CHURCH AND STATE.

Age of reason Age of reason Presentation Transcript

  • AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT (AGE OF REASON)
  • AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENTOR SIMPLYTHE ENLIGHTENMENT OR AGE OF REASONWAS ACULTURALMOVEMENT OFINTELLECTUALS IN 18TH-CENTURY EUROPE, THATSOUGHT TO MOBILIZETHE POWER OF REASON,IN ORDER TO REFORMSOCIETY AND ADVANCEKNOWLEDGE
  • THE WORLD OF THE OLD REGIME BUILT ON TRADITION WORLD OF HIERARCHY, PRIVILEGE AND INEQUALITY ALLIED WITH THE CHURCH
  • THE PHILOSOPHES  18TH CENTURY FRENCH INTELLECTUALS  INTEREST IN ADDRESSING A BROAD AUDIENCE  COMMITTED TO REFORM  CELEBRATED THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION  SCIENCE APPLIED TO SOCIETY
  • THE PROBLEM OF CENSORSHIP  THE ATTEMPT OF THE OLD REGIME TO CONTROL NEW THINKING  PUBLISHERS AND WRITERS HOUNDED BY CENSORS  OVER 1000 BOOKSELLERS AND AUTHORS IMPRISONED IN THE BASTILLE IN THE EARLY 1700’S
  • THE ROLE OF THE SALON (GATHERING)A READING IN THE SALON OF MADAME GEOFFRIN, 1755
  • FAMOUS ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS
  • JOHN LOCKE(1632 –1704)  KNOWN AS THE “FATHER OF LIBERALISM”  AN ENGLISH PHILOSOPHER AND PHYSICIAN  “TABULA RASA”  OPPOSED THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS  NATURAL RIGHTS (LIFE AND FREEDOM)  “THE GOVERNMENT WAS BOUND TO ITS CONSTITUENTS TO PROTECT THEIR RIGHTS, AND ON THE OCCASION THAT IT FAILED, THE CITIZENS COULD REPLACE IT WITH A NEW ONE”
  • DENIS DIDEROT (1713 –1784)  A FRENCH PHILOSOPHER , ART CRITIC, AND WRITER  BEST KNOWN FOR SERVING AS CO- FOUNDER AND CHIEF EDITOR OF AND CONTRIBUTOR TO THE ENCYCLOPÉDIE.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA  ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF THE PHILOSOPHES LAY IN THEIR NUMBERS, DEDICATION AND ORGANIZATION  WRITTEN BETWEEN 1751-1772  ATTEMPTED TO ILLUSTRATE ALL HUMAN KNOWLEDGE  EMPHASIS ON PRACTICAL SCIENCE
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA  DESIRE TO CHANGE THE “GENERAL WAY OF THINKING”  GREATER KNOWLEDGE LEADS TO HUMAN PROGRESS  INALIENABLE RIGHTS AND THE SOCIAL CONTRACT  KNOWLEDGE IMPROVES GOODNESS"FIGURATIVE SYSTEM OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE",
  • BARON DE MONTESQUIEU (1689-1755)  A FRENCH SOCIAL COMMENTATOR AND POLITICAL THINKER  HE IS FAMOUS FOR HIS ARTICULATION OF THE THEORY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS  POWER MUST CHECK POWER  THE SPIRIT OF THE LAWS (1748)
  • FRANÇOIS-MARIE AROUET [VOLTAIRE] (1694 –1778)  A FRENCH ENLIGHTENMENT WRITER, HISTORIAN AND PHILOSOPHER  FAMOUS FOR HIS ADVOCACY OF CIVIL LIBERTIES, INCLUDING FREEDOM OF RELIGION, FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION, FREE TRADE AND SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE.
  • JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)  A GENEVAN PHILOSOPHE R, WRITER, AND COMPOSER OF 18TH- CENTURY ROMANTICISM OF FRENCH EXPRESSION.  “THE SOCIAL CONTRACT” (1762) AND THE “GENERAL WILL”
  • “THE NOBLEST WORK IN EDUCATION IS TO MAKE AREASONING MAN, AND WE EXPECT TO TRAIN A YOUNGCHILD BY MAKING HIM REASON! THIS IS BEGINNING ATTHE END; THIS IS MAKING AN INSTRUMENT OF A RESULT.IF CHILDREN UNDERSTOOD HOW TO REASON THEYWOULD NOT NEED TO BE EDUCATED.” –ROUSSEAU, EMILE.