Rob Toonen Ocean Awareness Training

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This is the presentation by Dr. Rob Toonen of Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, "What is Connectivity and Why Should you Care?" given during the Spring 2011 session of Ocean Awareness Training on …

This is the presentation by Dr. Rob Toonen of Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, "What is Connectivity and Why Should you Care?" given during the Spring 2011 session of Ocean Awareness Training on Maui.

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  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • For example, based on the finding that, in general, propagules either dispersed <1 km or >20 km, a group of researchers suggested that reserves be between 4-6 km in diameter and spaced 20 km apart. In theory, this would allow short dispersers to settle within the reserve and allow for longer range ones to be transported to adjacent reserves. So, once again, the effective design of MPAs relies in part on our understanding of larval dispersal and population exchange.
  • Grouper= distinct
  • Grouper= distinct

Transcript

  • 1. What is connectivity and why should you care? Rob Toonen, Brian Bowen & ToBo Lab members Associate Research Professor Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa Maui OAT 2011
  • 2.
    • Con·nec·tiv·i·ty (noun) pl. con·nec·tiv·i·ties
      • The quality or condition of being connected
      • The ability to make and maintain a connection between two or more points in a data network
    What is "connectivity" anyway?
  • 3.
    • Communication between nerves or genes in your body
    • Exchange of migrants or the ability of individuals to move among locations
    Biological connectivity
  • 4.
    • Applies equally to people – likelihood of travel is directly proportional to ease
    Connectivity
  • 5. An example from O‘ahu
  • 6. An example from O‘ahu
  • 7. An example from O‘ahu
  • 8. So what? Entire suite of biological processes such as resilience to disturbance, spread of invasive species or disease, sustainability of fisheries, conservation strategies, and local biodiversity all depend on connectivity
  • 9. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests Tropical island chains Forests & animals that live in them Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
  • 10. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests
    • Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea
    Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
  • 11. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests
    • Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea
    • Difficulty of crossing barriers depends on species
      • Bird versus tree snail
    Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
  • 12. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests
    • Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea
    • Difficulty of crossing barriers depends on species
      • Bird versus tree snail
    • The size & spacing of patches as well as the amount of exchange among them determines much of the basic biology of the system
    Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
  • 13. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase
  • 14. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
  • 15. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
  • 16. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal Roughly 80% of all marine organisms (> 90,000 currently described species of vertebrates, invertebrates & algae) have a biphasic life cycle and produce planktonic propagules. Thorson (1964)
  • 17.
    • Meta·mor·pho·sis – an abrupt developmental change in the form or structure of an animal from juvenile to adult
    Comparing land and sea
  • 18. Comparing land and sea Terrestrial & Freshwater Marine Dispersive Stage Growth & Feeding Stage
  • 19. Despite importance of connectivity, planktonic dispersal remains a "black box" Coral Triton snail Feather duster worm Sea Star Crab Sea Urchin Sea Bream Flounder Kelp Zoospore
  • 20. Tracking Movements of Big Things
    • Satellite tags record and transmit data
    Tag
  • 21. Tagging a Tiger Shark Tag
  • 22. Tracking Movements of Small Things 5 inches 1/100 of an inch 4/100 of an inch Crab 0.1 inches Feather duster worm Sea Star
  • 23. DNA
  • 24. Non-lethal tissue biopsy for DNA
  • 25. Patterns of Connectivity Closed
  • 26. Patterns of Connectivity Source-sink Closed
  • 27. Patterns of Connectivity Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
  • 28. Patterns of Connectivity Common larval pool Open/well-mixed Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
  • 29. Population connectivity
  • 30. Population connectivity
  • 31. Population connectivity
  • 32. Population connectivity
  • 33.
    • Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites
    Using genetics to inform conservation and management
  • 34.
    • Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites
    • Space & time scales of exchange among populations
    Using genetics to inform conservation and management
  • 35.
    • Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites
    • Space & time scales of exchange among populations
      • What are ecologically appropriate scales for management units?
    Using genetics to inform conservation and management
  • 36. Fisheries Legacy:
    • History of US commercial fishing
  • 37. Fisheries Legacy:
    • History of US commercial fishing
  • 38. Fisheries Legacy:
    • History of US commercial fishing
  • 39. Fisheries Legacy:
    • History of US commercial fishing
  • 40. Fisheries Legacy:
    • Serial depletion of local fisheries
  • 41. Fisheries Legacy:
    • Serial depletion of local fisheries
    • Collapse of many major stocks worldwide
      • Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod)
  • 42. Fisheries Legacy:
    • Serial depletion of local fisheries
    • Collapse of many major stocks worldwide
      • Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod)
    • MSY management has failed repeatedly
  • 43. Fisheries Legacy:
    • Serial depletion of local fisheries
    • Collapse of many major stocks worldwide
      • Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod)
    • MSY management has failed repeatedly
    • New interest in Marine Reserves as an alternative strategy
  • 44. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)
    • Change focus to system instead of single species
  • 45. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)
    • Change focus to system instead of single species
    • Everything is connected and needs to be managed as an integrated whole
  • 46. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM)
    • Change focus to system instead of single species
    • Everything is connected and needs to be managed as an integrated whole
    • Considerable debate on how to accomplish EBM
      • Maybe protect places instead of "ecosystems"
  • 47. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
  • 48. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
  • 49. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
  • 50. Disproportionate value of BIG fish
  • 51. Disproportionate value of BIG fish A single 28lb fish = 212 2.4lb fish (513lbs total)
  • 52. Exponential reproduction of BIG fish Age/size of breeding fish Number of offspring
  • 53. Disproportionate value of BIG fish Larvae of big fish grow nearly 3 times faster and can survive starvation for more than twice as long! Same number of babies, BUT...
  • 54. ?
    • How many reserves?
    • How big?
    • How far apart?
    • Do they actually work?
    ?
  • 55. Connectivity and Management Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Are these islands and atolls isolated? Do they spillover to MHI? ?
  • 56. Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is still one of the largest MPAs in the world
  • 57. NWHI Reef Images Home to ~7000 endemic species, with ~25% of fish and 40% of corals found nowhere else on the planet
  • 58. O‘ahu Reef Images Alien ta‘ape & snowflake coral
  • 59. Are reef fishes isolated by location? Lau‘i Pala Zebrasoma flavescens (Eble et al. 2009; in review) Some are: Hapu'upu'u Epinephelus quernus (Rivera et al. 2004; 2011)
  • 60. Are reef fishes isolated by location? U'u Myripristis berndti (Craig et al. 2007) Kikakapu Chaetodon fremblii (Craig et al. in prep, Eble et al. 2009) Most are not: Lau‘i Pala Zebrasoma flavescens (Eble et al. 2009; in review) Some are: Hapu'upu'u Epinephelus quernus (Rivera et al. 2004; 2011)
  • 61. Restricted dispersal in endemics? Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
  • 62. Restricted dispersal in endemics Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Zebrasoma flavescens (Lau‘i Pala ) Range : North Pacific 5 significant pair-wise differences Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
  • 63. Restricted dispersal in endemics Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Ctenochaetus strigosus (Kole) Range : Hawaiian endemic 17 significant pair-wise differences Zebrasoma flavescens (Lau‘i Pala ) Range : North Pacific 5 significant pair-wise differences Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
  • 64. Population structure in invertebrates A. Faucci, et al., in prep. Vermetid gastropods Kure (Kānemiloha‘i) Midway (Pihemanu) Pearl & Hermes (Holoikauaua) Laysan (Kauō) Lisianski (Papa‘āpoho) Maro (Nalukākala) Gardner (Pūhāhonu) French Frigate Shoals (Mokupāpapa) Necker (Mokumanamana) Nihoa (Moku Manu) Kaua‘i O‘ahu Maui Nui Hawai‘i Johnston Atoll
  • 65. Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.)
  • 66. Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
  • 67. Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers (H. whitmaei & H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between the two species (Skillings, Bird, et al. 2010, in prep.) Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
  • 68. Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers (H. whitmaei & H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between the two species (Skillings, Bird, et al. 2010, in prep.) Hermit crabs ( Calcinus spp.) Structure varies widely among species (Baums, Godwin, et al. in prep.) Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
  • 69.
    • Pick one species and study it in detail so we can apply that information to others
    Exemplar species
  • 70.
    • ‘ opihi
      • 3 species:
        • Black-foot, yellow-foot & ko‘ele
      • State managed as a single stock
    How well do exemplar species work?
  • 71.
    • Life history
      • Free spawners –> 4d larval stage
      • Same larval biology in lab cultures
    Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
  • 72.
    • Life history
      • Free spawners –> 4d larval stage
      • Same larval biology in lab cultures
    • Ecological attributes
      • Grazers, wave swept coastal areas
        • Live within meters, often on same rock
    Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
  • 73.
    • Life history
      • Free spawners –> 4d larval stage
      • Same larval biology in lab cultures
    • Ecological attributes
      • Grazers, wave swept coastal areas
        • Live within meters, often on same rock
    • Closely-related Hawaiian endemics
      • All predict that these animals should have similar connectivity
    Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
  • 74. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
  • 75. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
  • 76. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
  • 77. C. Bird et al. 2007 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
  • 78. Every species is different Faucci, et al. in prep. Skillings et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
  • 79. P. Simion, C. Bird et al. in prep. Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
  • 80. K. Andrews et al. 2006, 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
  • 81. J. Schultz et al. 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
  • 82. Every species is different M. Timmers, et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
  • 83. Great – now what?? Stacked single species patterns of connectivity from 27 species across the Hawaiian Archipelago (Toonen et al. 2011) Johnston Atoll N
  • 84. 14 / 20 12 / 21 16 / 24 10 / 18 At Least 4 Major Barriers to Dispersal (preliminary results from 27 species; ~ 30 species to go) 8 / 19 Toonen et al. 2011
  • 85. Dispersal models based on ocean currents Predicted breaks from ocean current models Treml et al. (2008)
  • 86. 14 / 20 12 / 21 16 / 24 10 / 18 8 / 19 Toonen et al. 2011 Ocean current predictions do not really match the connectivity data
  • 87. Most recruitment is local Bird et al. 2007; Polato et al. 2010; Rivera et al. 2011; Faucci et al. in review; Concepcion et al. in review.
  • 88. Direction of Exchange appears primarily to the NW rather than SE Bird et al. 2007; Toonen et al. 2010; Skillings et al. 2011; Eble et al. in review 3 – 30X
  • 89. Central NWHI O‘ahu Hawai‘i Far NWHI Maui Nui Kaua‘i Ni‘ihau Management Implications: primary population boundaries
  • 90. Take home message
    • EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system
  • 91. Take home message
    • EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system
    • MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future
  • 92. Take home message
    • EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system
    • MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future
    • Management is about people and compliance, not the critters we are trying to "manage"
  • 93. Take home message
    • EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system
    • MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future
    • Management is about people and compliance, not the critters we are trying to "manage"
    • We have to look after our own back yards - conserve our local reefs today or they will all look like Waikīkī tomorrow
    PMNM Waikīkī
  • 94. Our Sincere Thanks to:
    • Funding provided by: NSF DEB#99-75287, OCE#04-54873, OCE#06-23678, OCE#09-29031, National Marine Sanctuaries NWHICRER-HIMB partnership (MOA-2005-008/6882), Sea Grant, National Parks, USFWS, NOS, NMFS, PIFSC, CRED, PSD, West-Pac, HCRI.
    • We thank all the members of the ToBo Lab, the UH Dive Safety Program, J. Leong, S. Karl, S. Godwin, R. Kosaki, A. Wilhelm, H. Johnson, M. Pai, D. Carter, C. Kane, C. Meyer, D. Smith, C. Kelley, D. Minton, P. Reath, J. Zardus, D. Croswell, B. Holland, M. Stat, X. Pochon, M. Rivera, E. Brown, M. Ramsay, J. Maragos, S. White, L. Eldredge, H. Bollick, S. Coles, W. Walsh, B. Carmen, I. Williams, A. Friedlander, J. Randall, S. Cotton, A. Montgomery, S. Pooley, M. Seki, J. Zamzow, E. DeMartini, J. Polovina, R. Humphreys, D. Kobayashi, F. Parrish, R. Moffitt, G. DiNardo, J. O’Malley, R. Brainard, J. Kenyon, K. Schultz, M. Duarte, H. Kawelo, E. Fielding, L. Basch, A. Alexander, C. Musberger, D. White, K. Tenggardjaja, Y. Papastamatiou, K. Gorospe, B. Wainwright, S. Daley, M. Crepeau, A. Eggers, & the HIMB EPSCoR Genetics Facility for their invaluable assistance.
    OP-05-03