What is connectivity and why should you care? Rob Toonen, Brian Bowen & ToBo Lab members Associate Research Professor Hawa...
<ul><li>Con·nec·tiv·i·ty (noun)  pl.   con·nec·tiv·i·ties   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality or condition of being connec...
<ul><li>Communication between nerves or genes in your body </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of migrants or the ability of indivi...
<ul><li>Applies equally to people – likelihood of travel is directly proportional to ease  </li></ul>Connectivity
An example from O‘ahu
An example from O‘ahu
An example from O‘ahu
So what? Entire suite of biological processes such as resilience to disturbance, spread of invasive species or disease, su...
All organisms are  patchily distributed  Giant Kelp forests Tropical island chains Forests & animals that live in them Roc...
All organisms are  patchily distributed  Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in ...
All organisms are  patchily distributed  Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in ...
All organisms are  patchily distributed  Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in ...
Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase
Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal Roughl...
<ul><li>Meta·mor·pho·sis – an abrupt developmental change in the form or structure of an animal from juvenile to adult </l...
Comparing land and sea Terrestrial & Freshwater Marine Dispersive  Stage Growth &  Feeding Stage
Despite importance of connectivity, planktonic dispersal remains a &quot;black box&quot; Coral Triton snail Feather duster...
Tracking Movements of Big Things <ul><li>Satellite tags record and transmit data </li></ul>Tag
Tagging a Tiger Shark Tag
Tracking Movements of Small Things 5 inches 1/100 of an inch 4/100 of an inch Crab 0.1 inches Feather duster worm Sea Star
DNA
Non-lethal tissue biopsy for DNA
Patterns of Connectivity Closed
Patterns of Connectivity Source-sink Closed
Patterns of Connectivity Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
Patterns of Connectivity Common larval pool Open/well-mixed Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
Population connectivity
Population connectivity
Population connectivity
Population connectivity
<ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul>Using genetics to inform  conservation and management
<ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul><ul><li>Space & time scales of exchange among populatio...
<ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul><ul><li>Space & time scales of exchange among populatio...
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul>
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </...
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </...
Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </...
Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul>
Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is ...
Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is ...
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
Disproportionate value of BIG fish
Disproportionate value of BIG fish A single 28lb fish =  212  2.4lb fish (513lbs total)
Exponential reproduction of BIG fish Age/size of breeding fish Number of offspring
Disproportionate value of BIG fish Larvae of big fish grow nearly 3 times faster and can survive starvation for more than ...
? <ul><li>How many reserves? </li></ul><ul><li>How big? </li></ul><ul><li>How far apart? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they actuall...
Connectivity and Management Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument   Are these islands and atolls isolated?  Do they s...
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is still one of the largest MPAs in the world
NWHI Reef Images Home to ~7000 endemic species, with ~25% of fish and 40% of corals found nowhere else on the planet
O‘ahu Reef Images Alien ta‘ape & snowflake coral
Are reef fishes isolated by location? Lau‘i Pala Zebrasoma flavescens  (Eble  et al.  2009; in review) Some are: Hapu'upu'...
Are reef fishes isolated by location? U'u Myripristis berndti  (Craig et al. 2007) Kikakapu Chaetodon fremblii  (Craig et ...
Restricted dispersal in endemics? Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Acanthurus nigrofuscus  ...
Restricted dispersal in endemics Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Zebrasoma flavescens  (La...
Restricted dispersal in endemics Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Ctenochaetus strigosus  (...
Population structure in invertebrates A. Faucci, et al., in prep. Vermetid gastropods Kure (Kānemiloha‘i) Midway (Pihemanu...
Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al...
Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al...
Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers  (H. whitmaei  &  H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between ...
Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers  (H. whitmaei  &  H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between ...
<ul><li>Pick one species and study it in detail so we can apply that information to others </li></ul>Exemplar species
<ul><li>‘ opihi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 species:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black-foot, yellow-foot & ko‘ele </li></u...
<ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology...
<ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology...
<ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology...
W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences amo...
W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences amo...
W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences amo...
C. Bird et al. 2007 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
Every species is different Faucci, et al. in prep. Skillings et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
P. Simion, C. Bird et al. in prep. Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
K. Andrews et al. 2006, 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
J. Schultz et al. 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
Every species is different M. Timmers, et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
Great – now what?? Stacked single species patterns of connectivity from 27 species across the Hawaiian Archipelago  (Toone...
14 / 20  12 / 21 16 / 24  10 / 18  At Least 4 Major Barriers to Dispersal (preliminary results from 27 species; ~ 30 speci...
Dispersal models based on ocean currents Predicted breaks from ocean current models Treml et al. (2008)
14 / 20  12 / 21 16 / 24  10 / 18  8 / 19 Toonen et al. 2011 Ocean current predictions do not really match the connectivit...
Most recruitment is local Bird et al. 2007; Polato et al. 2010; Rivera et al. 2011; Faucci et al. in review; Concepcion et...
Direction of Exchange appears primarily to the NW rather than SE Bird et al. 2007; Toonen et al. 2010; Skillings et al. 20...
Central NWHI O‘ahu Hawai‘i Far NWHI Maui Nui Kaua‘i Ni‘ihau Management Implications:  primary population boundaries
Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul>
Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopp...
Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopp...
Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopp...
Our Sincere Thanks to: <ul><li>Funding provided by: NSF DEB#99-75287, OCE#04-54873, OCE#06-23678, OCE#09-29031, National M...
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Rob Toonen Maui Ocean Awareness Training

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This is the presentation from Dr. Rob Toonen's lecture, "What is Connectivity and Why Should you Care?" from Maui's Ocean Awareness Training Spring 2011 session.

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  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • The exchange of individuals between populations of a species is also known as population connectivity, and it plays important roles on different time scales. To visualize the effects of population connectivity over time, let’s imagine that Pacific cleaner wrasses, that are abundant in the South Pacific, once migrated here from New Guinea soon after the emergence of the Hawaiian Islands. If this migration continued, then recruits from the South Pacific would contribute to the population size and genetic structure of the Hawaii population. For some reason, migration between the populations ceased, and eventually the two populations diverged enough to become separate species. Therefore, on ecological time scales population connectivity shapes population dynamics, while on evolutionary timescales, it’s central to processes such as speciation.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • One application of larval dispersal is towards marine conservation. There has been growing interest in the establishment of marine protected areas to: preserve critical habitat encourage recovery of depleted fisheries and to even augment stocks outside the boundary of the reserve through the export of juveniles and/or adults from the MPA to outer areas. The potential for these objectives to be met can be improved by resolving the pattern and degree of exchange between populations prior to reserve establishment.
  • For example, based on the finding that, in general, propagules either dispersed &lt;1 km or &gt;20 km, a group of researchers suggested that reserves be between 4-6 km in diameter and spaced 20 km apart. In theory, this would allow short dispersers to settle within the reserve and allow for longer range ones to be transported to adjacent reserves. So, once again, the effective design of MPAs relies in part on our understanding of larval dispersal and population exchange.
  • Grouper= distinct
  • Grouper= distinct
  • Rob Toonen Maui Ocean Awareness Training

    1. 1. What is connectivity and why should you care? Rob Toonen, Brian Bowen & ToBo Lab members Associate Research Professor Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa Maui OAT 2011
    2. 2. <ul><li>Con·nec·tiv·i·ty (noun) pl. con·nec·tiv·i·ties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality or condition of being connected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to make and maintain a connection between two or more points in a data network </li></ul></ul>What is &quot;connectivity&quot; anyway?
    3. 3. <ul><li>Communication between nerves or genes in your body </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of migrants or the ability of individuals to move among locations </li></ul>Biological connectivity
    4. 4. <ul><li>Applies equally to people – likelihood of travel is directly proportional to ease </li></ul>Connectivity
    5. 5. An example from O‘ahu
    6. 6. An example from O‘ahu
    7. 7. An example from O‘ahu
    8. 8. So what? Entire suite of biological processes such as resilience to disturbance, spread of invasive species or disease, sustainability of fisheries, conservation strategies, and local biodiversity all depend on connectivity
    9. 9. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests Tropical island chains Forests & animals that live in them Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
    10. 10. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea </li></ul>Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
    11. 11. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of crossing barriers depends on species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird versus tree snail </li></ul></ul>Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
    12. 12. All organisms are patchily distributed Giant Kelp forests <ul><li>Terrestrial systems more obvious, but just as true in the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of crossing barriers depends on species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird versus tree snail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The size & spacing of patches as well as the amount of exchange among them determines much of the basic biology of the system </li></ul>Rocky intertidal Coral Reefs
    13. 13. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase
    14. 14. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
    15. 15. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal
    16. 16. Basic Life History in the Sea Oceanic larvae Site selection & metamorphosis Adult phase Planktonic larval dispersal Roughly 80% of all marine organisms (> 90,000 currently described species of vertebrates, invertebrates & algae) have a biphasic life cycle and produce planktonic propagules. Thorson (1964)
    17. 17. <ul><li>Meta·mor·pho·sis – an abrupt developmental change in the form or structure of an animal from juvenile to adult </li></ul>Comparing land and sea
    18. 18. Comparing land and sea Terrestrial & Freshwater Marine Dispersive Stage Growth & Feeding Stage
    19. 19. Despite importance of connectivity, planktonic dispersal remains a &quot;black box&quot; Coral Triton snail Feather duster worm Sea Star Crab Sea Urchin Sea Bream Flounder Kelp Zoospore
    20. 20. Tracking Movements of Big Things <ul><li>Satellite tags record and transmit data </li></ul>Tag
    21. 21. Tagging a Tiger Shark Tag
    22. 22. Tracking Movements of Small Things 5 inches 1/100 of an inch 4/100 of an inch Crab 0.1 inches Feather duster worm Sea Star
    23. 23. DNA
    24. 24. Non-lethal tissue biopsy for DNA
    25. 25. Patterns of Connectivity Closed
    26. 26. Patterns of Connectivity Source-sink Closed
    27. 27. Patterns of Connectivity Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
    28. 28. Patterns of Connectivity Common larval pool Open/well-mixed Stepping stone/isolation by distance Source-sink Closed
    29. 29. Population connectivity
    30. 30. Population connectivity
    31. 31. Population connectivity
    32. 32. Population connectivity
    33. 33. <ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul>Using genetics to inform conservation and management
    34. 34. <ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul><ul><li>Space & time scales of exchange among populations </li></ul>Using genetics to inform conservation and management
    35. 35. <ul><li>Presence & magnitude of connectivity among sites </li></ul><ul><li>Space & time scales of exchange among populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are ecologically appropriate scales for management units? </li></ul></ul>Using genetics to inform conservation and management
    36. 36. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
    37. 37. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
    38. 38. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
    39. 39. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>History of US commercial fishing </li></ul>
    40. 40. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul>
    41. 41. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MSY management has failed repeatedly </li></ul>
    43. 43. Fisheries Legacy: <ul><li>Serial depletion of local fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of many major stocks worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising lack of recovery of depleted stocks (e.g., cod) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MSY management has failed repeatedly </li></ul><ul><li>New interest in Marine Reserves as an alternative strategy </li></ul>
    44. 44. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul>
    45. 45. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is connected and needs to be managed as an integrated whole </li></ul>
    46. 46. Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) <ul><li>Change focus to system instead of single species </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is connected and needs to be managed as an integrated whole </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable debate on how to accomplish EBM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe protect places instead of &quot;ecosystems&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
    48. 48. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
    49. 49. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
    50. 50. Disproportionate value of BIG fish
    51. 51. Disproportionate value of BIG fish A single 28lb fish = 212 2.4lb fish (513lbs total)
    52. 52. Exponential reproduction of BIG fish Age/size of breeding fish Number of offspring
    53. 53. Disproportionate value of BIG fish Larvae of big fish grow nearly 3 times faster and can survive starvation for more than twice as long! Same number of babies, BUT...
    54. 54. ? <ul><li>How many reserves? </li></ul><ul><li>How big? </li></ul><ul><li>How far apart? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they actually work? </li></ul>?
    55. 55. Connectivity and Management Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Are these islands and atolls isolated? Do they spillover to MHI? ?
    56. 56. Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is still one of the largest MPAs in the world
    57. 57. NWHI Reef Images Home to ~7000 endemic species, with ~25% of fish and 40% of corals found nowhere else on the planet
    58. 58. O‘ahu Reef Images Alien ta‘ape & snowflake coral
    59. 59. Are reef fishes isolated by location? Lau‘i Pala Zebrasoma flavescens (Eble et al. 2009; in review) Some are: Hapu'upu'u Epinephelus quernus (Rivera et al. 2004; 2011)
    60. 60. Are reef fishes isolated by location? U'u Myripristis berndti (Craig et al. 2007) Kikakapu Chaetodon fremblii (Craig et al. in prep, Eble et al. 2009) Most are not: Lau‘i Pala Zebrasoma flavescens (Eble et al. 2009; in review) Some are: Hapu'upu'u Epinephelus quernus (Rivera et al. 2004; 2011)
    61. 61. Restricted dispersal in endemics? Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
    62. 62. Restricted dispersal in endemics Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Zebrasoma flavescens (Lau‘i Pala ) Range : North Pacific 5 significant pair-wise differences Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
    63. 63. Restricted dispersal in endemics Jeff Eble et al., 2009 Comparisons across Hawaiian Archipelago: Ctenochaetus strigosus (Kole) Range : Hawaiian endemic 17 significant pair-wise differences Zebrasoma flavescens (Lau‘i Pala ) Range : North Pacific 5 significant pair-wise differences Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Mai‘i‘i) Range : Entire Indo-Pacific & Hawai‘i 0 significant pair-wise differences
    64. 64. Population structure in invertebrates A. Faucci, et al., in prep. Vermetid gastropods Kure (Kānemiloha‘i) Midway (Pihemanu) Pearl & Hermes (Holoikauaua) Laysan (Kauō) Lisianski (Papa‘āpoho) Maro (Nalukākala) Gardner (Pūhāhonu) French Frigate Shoals (Mokupāpapa) Necker (Mokumanamana) Nihoa (Moku Manu) Kaua‘i O‘ahu Maui Nui Hawai‘i Johnston Atoll
    65. 65. Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.)
    66. 66. Variability is the rule Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
    67. 67. Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers (H. whitmaei & H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between the two species (Skillings, Bird, et al. 2010, in prep.) Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
    68. 68. Variability is the rule Sea cucumbers (H. whitmaei & H. atra) Connection to Johnston, structure differs widely between the two species (Skillings, Bird, et al. 2010, in prep.) Hermit crabs ( Calcinus spp.) Structure varies widely among species (Baums, Godwin, et al. in prep.) Spiny lobster ( P. marginatus ) No significant genetic structure thus far (Iacchei, O'Malley et al. in prep.) Hawaiian spinner dolphin Big Island different than rest of MHI (Andrews, et al. 2006, 2010)
    69. 69. <ul><li>Pick one species and study it in detail so we can apply that information to others </li></ul>Exemplar species
    70. 70. <ul><li>‘ opihi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 species: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black-foot, yellow-foot & ko‘ele </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State managed as a single stock </li></ul></ul>How well do exemplar species work?
    71. 71. <ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology in lab cultures </li></ul></ul>Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
    72. 72. <ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology in lab cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazers, wave swept coastal areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live within meters, often on same rock </li></ul></ul></ul>Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
    73. 73. <ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free spawners –> 4d larval stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same larval biology in lab cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazers, wave swept coastal areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live within meters, often on same rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely-related Hawaiian endemics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All predict that these animals should have similar connectivity </li></ul></ul>Similarities among ‘opihi species Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187
    74. 74. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
    75. 75. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
    76. 76. W 160° W 155 ° N 19° N 25° Puha’honu Hawaii W 165° N Kauai Molokai Oahu Maui Nihoa Mokupapapa Mokumanamana Differences among ‘opihi - genetic breaks Bird et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3187 250 km
    77. 77. C. Bird et al. 2007 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
    78. 78. Every species is different Faucci, et al. in prep. Skillings et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
    79. 79. P. Simion, C. Bird et al. in prep. Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
    80. 80. K. Andrews et al. 2006, 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
    81. 81. J. Schultz et al. 2010 Every species is different Johnston Atoll N
    82. 82. Every species is different M. Timmers, et al. 2010 Johnston Atoll N
    83. 83. Great – now what?? Stacked single species patterns of connectivity from 27 species across the Hawaiian Archipelago (Toonen et al. 2011) Johnston Atoll N
    84. 84. 14 / 20 12 / 21 16 / 24 10 / 18 At Least 4 Major Barriers to Dispersal (preliminary results from 27 species; ~ 30 species to go) 8 / 19 Toonen et al. 2011
    85. 85. Dispersal models based on ocean currents Predicted breaks from ocean current models Treml et al. (2008)
    86. 86. 14 / 20 12 / 21 16 / 24 10 / 18 8 / 19 Toonen et al. 2011 Ocean current predictions do not really match the connectivity data
    87. 87. Most recruitment is local Bird et al. 2007; Polato et al. 2010; Rivera et al. 2011; Faucci et al. in review; Concepcion et al. in review.
    88. 88. Direction of Exchange appears primarily to the NW rather than SE Bird et al. 2007; Toonen et al. 2010; Skillings et al. 2011; Eble et al. in review 3 – 30X
    89. 89. Central NWHI O‘ahu Hawai‘i Far NWHI Maui Nui Kaua‘i Ni‘ihau Management Implications: primary population boundaries
    90. 90. Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul>
    91. 91. Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future </li></ul>
    92. 92. Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Management is about people and compliance, not the critters we are trying to &quot;manage&quot; </li></ul>
    93. 93. Take home message <ul><li>EBM is similar in concept to Hawaiian Ahupua'a system </li></ul><ul><li>MPAs are not about stopping fishing – save the big fish that are left so we can all have more in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Management is about people and compliance, not the critters we are trying to &quot;manage&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>We have to look after our own back yards - conserve our local reefs today or they will all look like Waikīkī tomorrow </li></ul>PMNM Waikīkī
    94. 94. Our Sincere Thanks to: <ul><li>Funding provided by: NSF DEB#99-75287, OCE#04-54873, OCE#06-23678, OCE#09-29031, National Marine Sanctuaries NWHICRER-HIMB partnership (MOA-2005-008/6882), Sea Grant, National Parks, USFWS, NOS, NMFS, PIFSC, CRED, PSD, West-Pac, HCRI. </li></ul><ul><li>We thank all the members of the ToBo Lab, the UH Dive Safety Program, J. Leong, S. Karl, S. Godwin, R. Kosaki, A. Wilhelm, H. Johnson, M. Pai, D. Carter, C. Kane, C. Meyer, D. Smith, C. Kelley, D. Minton, P. Reath, J. Zardus, D. Croswell, B. Holland, M. Stat, X. Pochon, M. Rivera, E. Brown, M. Ramsay, J. Maragos, S. White, L. Eldredge, H. Bollick, S. Coles, W. Walsh, B. Carmen, I. Williams, A. Friedlander, J. Randall, S. Cotton, A. Montgomery, S. Pooley, M. Seki, J. Zamzow, E. DeMartini, J. Polovina, R. Humphreys, D. Kobayashi, F. Parrish, R. Moffitt, G. DiNardo, J. O’Malley, R. Brainard, J. Kenyon, K. Schultz, M. Duarte, H. Kawelo, E. Fielding, L. Basch, A. Alexander, C. Musberger, D. White, K. Tenggardjaja, Y. Papastamatiou, K. Gorospe, B. Wainwright, S. Daley, M. Crepeau, A. Eggers, & the HIMB EPSCoR Genetics Facility for their invaluable assistance. </li></ul>OP-05-03
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