Ka‘anapali Makai Watch “Talk Story” Planning Meeting Luna Kekoa & Darla White - Division of Aquatic Resource Liz Foote - Coral Reef Alliance & Project S.E.A.-Link Tamara Paltin & Robin Knox - Turbidity Task Force
Agenda Pule: Ke‘eaumoku Kapu Part 1: Turbidity Task Force and water quality: Take Action NOW! (Tamara Paltin & Robin Knox) Part 2: NOAA Coral Fellow role & responsibility; Introduction to the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA) and the science behind the KHFMA (Luna Kekoa) Part 3: Ongoing Research in the KHFMA and volunteer opportunities in community-based monitoring (Darla White) Part 4: Ka‘anapali Makai Watch program: Overview, background, and brainstorming (Liz Foote & EVERYONE)
Part 1 The Turbidity Task Force Tamara Paltin Save Honolua Coalition Teri Leonard Maui Dreams Dive Co. Wayno Cochran Killah Wiffah Surf Shop
A community-based water quality monitoring program designed to decrease the amount of sediment and pollutants that flow into Maui’s near shore waters for both new and existing land-based pollution sources by connecting concerned citizens and institutions to relevant information
Contaminants like chemicals, viruses or bacteria can become attached to the suspended solids
Solids act as shields interfering with water disinfection by sunlight or treatment processes
In water bodies high turbidity reduce the amount of sunlight reaching lower depths, decrease photosynthesis and inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and corals,
Settled particles can cover aquatic plants and corals,
Turbid water is heated by the sun more efficiently than clear water, adding heat stress.
All of these factors affect uses such as fisheries, aesthetics and recreation
Maalaea Bay 75% - 4% Coral Cover Up to 77% Invasive Algae Cover Turbid Water occurs with other symptoms of degradation
How does the Turbidity Task Force help improve water quality?
Provides sampling kits and training to community
Raises awareness of water quality and how it is impacted by human activity on land
Generates data that can be compared to water quality goals (standards)
Working with Coral Reef Monitoring Data Portal
(http://monitoring.coral.org) generates reports to EPA and Hawaii Department of Health
Reports assist agencies in pollution control decisions
Hawaii Water Quality Standards (Goals) for Turbidity Waterbody Type geometric mean (NTU) not to exceed 10% (NTU) not to exceed 2% (NTU) a. Streams wet (Nov1 to April 30) 5.00 15.00 25.00 dry (May 1 to Oct 31) 2.00 5.50 10.00 b. estuaries 1.50 3.00 5.00 c. Embayments wet ≥ 1% of bay volume/day 1.50 3.00 5.00 dry < 1% of bay volume/day 0.40 1.00 1.50 d. Open Coastal wet (>3MGD/mile shoreline) 0.50 1.25 2.00 dry (<3MGD/mile shoreline) 0.20 0.50 1.00 e. oceanic 0.03 0.10 0.20 f. R-1 Water 2.00 g. drinking water (varies by treatment and averaging period) 0.5 - <1.0
Public Sample Collection Site Meter Site Data Collector Quality Control Reviewer Reporting observation, sample collection, recordkeeping Sample preservation, recordkeeping Sample preservation, recordkeeping, turbidity analysis, meter care Tabulates and enters data from meter sites Reviews data throughout process Retrieves data from database for reporting back to community and submittal to DOH
Turbidity Task Force - Key Info Contact: Tamara Paltin, Save Honolua Coalition [email_address] TURBIDITY SAMPLE DROP-OFF LOCATIONS: South Maui: Maui Dreams Dive Company 1993 South Kihei Rd; (808) 874-5332 West Maui: Kilah Wiffah Surf Shop Mon-Fri, 9 am - 5 pm; located at the intersection of Honoapiilani Highway and Halawai Drive; (808) 264-2648 Download Forms: http://monitoring.coral.org/resources/download
Part 2 Introduction to the NOAA Coral Fellow and the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA)
Luna Kekoa Education University of Miami, MSC/BIO Experience Kaala Farms : “Opelu Project” Community-based Subsistence Fishing Areas : Miloli’i, Hawaii Ha’ena, Kaua’i
* Friedlander & DeMartini 2002 [Marine Ecology Progress Series 230:253-264] % of MHI REEFS: Statewide Fish Biomass How Does Population and accessibility impact fish stocks? Kahekili Herbivores Kahekili PRIMARY SECONDARY APEX 28% 37% 16% 20%
NWHI* * Friedlander & DeMartini 2002 [Marine Ecology Progress Series 230:253-264] % of MHI REEFS: Statewide Fish Biomass How Does Population and accessibility impact fish stocks? PRIMARY SECONDARY APEX 28% 37% 16% 20%
Hunter et al. Ecological Success Alien and Invasive Algae [ http://www.hawaii.edu/ssri/hcri/rp/hunter/final_report_99-00/01.htm] Herbivores and Invasive Algae Friedlander et al. in review MEPS More Herbivore Fish Biomass means Less Algae Herbivore Fish Prefer to Eat Acanthophora spicifera
The Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area Keka‘a Point (Black Rock) Honokowai Beach Park N
Prohibited Activities Include:
Removing or killing any surgeon fish, parrotfish, or chub
Removing or killing any sea urchins
Allowed Activities Include:
Fishing for or Removing all other legally harvested marine life.
Using bait and/or other fish attractants while legally fishing.
The Reef at Kahekili Why Kahekili? Corals in distress Loss of coral, increase of algae Still has complexity Not too degraded 50% Reef Structure Can Support Fish Reef Needs Immediate Help
ECOLOGICAL SERVICES Simple Concept: Using herbivorous fishes (fish that eat limu) as a means to control algae growth on the reef Photo by Darla White
Herbivorous Fish Species PHOTOS BY KEOKI & YUKO STENDER www. marinelifephotography .com Parrotfishes, Family Scaridae uhu
Herbivorous Fish Species www. marinelifephotography .com Surgeonfishes, Family Acanthuridae PHOTOS BY KEOKI & YUKO STENDER
Photo by Darla White Herbivorous Fish Species Chubs or Rudderfishes, Family Kyphosidae nenue
Part 3 Ongoing Research in the KHFMA and volunteer opportunities in community-based monitoring
Research at Kahekili University of Hawaii (UH) Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) US Geological Survey (USGS) Scripps Institution of Oceanography National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) The Kahekili HFMA is the Priority Site Designation By the Hawaii Coral Program under the US Coral Reef Task Force
Iuri Herzfeld – UH Mānoa Non-point Source Pollution Mapping of Physical & Chemical Parameters Jet Ski Surveys
“ Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples” Hunt & Rosa, 2010 USGS Report http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5253/
Meghan Dailer – Researcher, UH Botany Where are the nutrients coming from out on the reef? Native algae Ulva spp. -> “ The reefs near at Kahekili receive consistent inputs of sewage effluent via groundwater seeps” (Dailer, et al., 2010)
Robin Knox – UH Botany Integrated Ecosystem Management Identify point and nonpoint sources of nutrients; conduits to the ocean; and estimate mass loading (lbs/day). Do areas with high nutrient levels and algal blooms encourage growth of bacteria that cause human diseases? Identify programs to manage and control nutrient releases Investigate the relation of human pathogens to harmful algal blooms Goal: Reduction of Land-based Pollution in watersheds mauka of Kahekili HFMA Where are the nutrients coming from? How much is coming from these sources? How do nutrients get to the ocean? What can we do to reduce pollutants reaching the HFMA?
James Wicklund – DAR Intern Kamehameha School, Maui Mapping ‘Dead Zones’ at Kahekili
Dark brown indicates dead coral with algal overgrowth Notice that the dead areas are flat compared to the live coral
Kahekili Herbivore Grazing Surveys Engaging the Community “ Citizen Science”
Maui’s Citizen Scientists Volunteer contributions are invaluable to managers in the efforts to better understand our coral reef ecosystems. These data fill in knowledge gaps and paint a clearer picture of the complexities of which science still knows remarkably little.
Figure 3. Parrotfish grazing pressure by size class calculated for area (m 2 ) scraped annually, based on bite data and daily grazing behavior for Chlorurus and Scarus spp. by Ong (2008). Pearson’s correlation for positive linear relationship is significant (0.925, P-value = 0.000).
Coral disease in Hawaii Greta Aeby - HIMB 17 disease states widespread low prevalence Montipora multi-focal TLS Montipora dark band Por trematodiasis Poc white-band disease Acrop white syndrome Porites growth anomalies Coral Bleaching
“ It's been a busy last few weeks at Kahekili, it seems like there have been loads of people standing on the reef, feeding the fish, harassing the turtles, and fishing "for anything" - it seemed like things were better for awhile, as far as people standing on the reef and feeding the fish, but recently it's gotten worse again, I don't know why. Lots of people fishing "for anything", too - one day a group of people had their towels draped over the sign, I rearranged their towels so people could read the sign. ”
“ I talked to some spearfishermen while I was out swimming and when I got back, but before I left, as I was packing up to go, I looked around and there were 11-12 separate groups of guys, all with spears!! I thought, oh my gosh, I can't talk to all of these people!! It was too much!! I've talked to at least 2 spearfishermen a day for the last 5 days, all of whom had already been fishing and had dead fish, and none of them knew that herbivores are protected, very frustrating . . .”
“… we must not react negatively just because we see lots of people "with spears" entering the Kahekili waters, if anything, we should learn from this past episode and keep in mind, that perhaps on certain long weekends, when the weather is beautiful, we can expect a lot of fishing to happen in this area. In which case, it would be a good opportunity to educate the fishers…”
“… give out dive flags for free to any fisher you approach, along with a regulations handbook and flyer of the rules of that area...a free gift is always well received.....but on the dive flag you can place a visible marker...so that in the future, when you see this dive flag in the area with that marker, you know that diver has been educated…”
“ I thought of a new approach today when I was at Kahekili and saw a group of local spearfishermen arrive. (3 men, 2 women, 3 spears) I walked over to them and asked them if they would be interested in joining a group of volunteers who are trying to inform and educate people about protecting the reef and the new Kahekili fishing rules. They all said, "what new rules? We're from Kihei, we don't know the new rules." So I told them, and I pointed out the sign. Then I went back to my bag and returned with a pamphlet and a sticker/decal that I got from Darla months ago, one of the "A Living Reef Gives Our Islands Life" decals. They actually fought over who should get the decal!!”
“ Thanks goes to Darrell Tanaka for his dive flag idea. I didn't have a dive flag, but figured the decal would have to do - a gift is a gift, after all!! ”
Outreach station(s?) - Whalers Village (& Westin KOR?)
Hotel trekking & outreach
Engaging & educating fishers
Human use surveys -land/ocean
Developing PSAs, blogging, social media applications
viral video contest with Hawaii EcoTube?
Youth mentorship & career development
Science café, restaurant/bar sponsorships
Help us create a logo, mascot, slogans, stickers, t-shirts, etc.
General community outreach campaigns
Fish around town? Reusable bags with rules & messages?
“ Professor Kika Clearwater,” Guam Coral Reef Initiative
Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA) Permitted: To fish for, injure, kill, possess, or remove any finfish or invertebrate, except prohibited species indicated below.To use bait or other attractants while fishing for permitted marine life. Prohibited: To injure, kill, possess, or remove any of the following: sea urchins Also Prohibited: To feed or deliberately introduce any attractant, directly to or in the vicinity of any marine life, except while fishing for permitted marine life. surgeonfishes parrotfishes (uhu) rudderfishes (nenue) KHFMA Boundaries Handout for Fishers with KHFMA info & Tide chart (on reverse)
MAHALO! Luna Kekoa NOAA Coral Fellow [email_address] Darla White DAR Special Projects Coordinator Darla J White [email_address] (808) 345-2312 Be a fan and get updates! http://www.facebook.com/KHFMA http://www.facebook.com/KaanapaliMakaiWatch Liz Foote Executive Director, Project S.E.A.-Link & Hawaii Field Manager, CORAL [email_address] (808) 669-9062 www.facebook.com/liz.foote