Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

THE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTS

443

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
443
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1 THE VACCINE-AUTISMTHE VACCINE-AUTISM DEBATE:DEBATE: NEW DEVELOPMENTSNEW DEVELOPMENTS FROM SCIENCE AND POLICYFROM SCIENCE AND POLICY PPresentation by David Kirbyresentation by David Kirby Capitol Hill - Washington, DCCapitol Hill - Washington, DC September 24th, 2008September 24th, 2008
  • 2. 2 ““Talking Points”Talking Points” Debate not over – Many unresolved questions.Debate not over – Many unresolved questions. Look at kids who got sick, work backward from there: What might causeLook at kids who got sick, work backward from there: What might cause thesethese physicalphysical symptoms?symptoms? Look at genetic susceptibilities: immune, metabolic, mitochondrial,Look at genetic susceptibilities: immune, metabolic, mitochondrial, metal metabolism. What percentage of the population is born “at risk?”metal metabolism. What percentage of the population is born “at risk?” No singleNo single typetype of autism and no singleof autism and no single causecause – Look at many different– Look at many different combinations of genes and environmental “triggers.”combinations of genes and environmental “triggers.” Possible triggers include mercury & other heavy metals in food, air andPossible triggers include mercury & other heavy metals in food, air and water, thimerosal, multiple vaccines, pesticides, viruses, etc.water, thimerosal, multiple vaccines, pesticides, viruses, etc. Mercury/vaccine research on at CDC, NIH, Universities, Autism SpeaksMercury/vaccine research on at CDC, NIH, Universities, Autism Speaks Vaxed v Unvaxed study needed – Maloney Bill.Vaxed v Unvaxed study needed – Maloney Bill.
  • 3. 3 A NEW AUTISM VOCABULARYA NEW AUTISM VOCABULARY Cause, Effect & Connections of:Cause, Effect & Connections of:  Immune Activation/Suppression/AutoimmunityImmune Activation/Suppression/Autoimmunity  Oxidative StressOxidative Stress  Neuro-inflammation / RapidNeuro-inflammation / Rapid Brain GrowthBrain Growth  Glutathione DepletionGlutathione Depletion  Mitochondrial DysfunctionMitochondrial Dysfunction  Metal Metabolism/Efflux DisorderMetal Metabolism/Efflux Disorder  Activation of Astroglia & Microglia/“Gliosis”Activation of Astroglia & Microglia/“Gliosis”  DemyelinationDemyelination
  • 4. 4 “Autism and the Environment” Institute of Medicine Neuroscience.  “The environment may play a significant role in triggering autism.”  ““Evidence points to a large genetic component,Evidence points to a large genetic component, butbut genes alone cannot accountgenes alone cannot account for its cause.”for its cause.”  Parents played a major role in this report.Parents played a major role in this report.
  • 5. 5 Link between mercury and autism?Link between mercury and autism?  Thimerosal not out of vaccines until 2003; still in fluThimerosal not out of vaccines until 2003; still in flu shot. CA: Too soon to tell? (CDC studies 8 year olds).shot. CA: Too soon to tell? (CDC studies 8 year olds).  Reports of drop in severe autism cases amongReports of drop in severe autism cases among youngest children.youngest children.  Today, autism rates are higher among immigrants –Today, autism rates are higher among immigrants – Thimerosal is still in full use in 3Thimerosal is still in full use in 3rdrd World.World.  Many top university studies show an associationMany top university studies show an association between background mercury/thimerosal and autism.between background mercury/thimerosal and autism.  CDC continues to study mercury and autism today.CDC continues to study mercury and autism today.
  • 6. 6 NIH: “We identified several areas of weakness that were judged to reduce the usefulness of the VSD for addressing the potential association between exposure to thimerosal and risk of ASD.” The weaknesses of primary importance: Case ascertainment; Heterogeneity in business practices; Systematic changes over time; Estimation of total mercury burden. Gerberding General Response: CDC CONCURS
  • 7. 7  Thomas Burbacher at Univ. of Wash. Primate Center comparedThomas Burbacher at Univ. of Wash. Primate Center compared ethylmercury from thimerosal and methylmercury from fish.ethylmercury from thimerosal and methylmercury from fish.  Methyl stayed in blood longer, crossed blood-brain barrier more.Methyl stayed in blood longer, crossed blood-brain barrier more.  BUT - Ethyl in brain converts to inorganic Hg faster than methyl.BUT - Ethyl in brain converts to inorganic Hg faster than methyl.  2-4 times more inorganic Hg found in brains of ethyl vs methyl2-4 times more inorganic Hg found in brains of ethyl vs methyl group.group.
  • 8. 8 ““Changes inChanges in astrocytesastrocytes andand microgliamicroglia in primatein primate brains after long-term methylmercury exposure.”brains after long-term methylmercury exposure.” Burbacher: Inorganic Hg, presumably from methyl Hg,Burbacher: Inorganic Hg, presumably from methyl Hg, continued to increase throughout all exposure durations.continued to increase throughout all exposure durations. BothBoth astrocyteastrocyte andand microglialmicroglial cells had “substantiallycells had “substantially elevated” inorganic mercury deposits.elevated” inorganic mercury deposits. ““Inorganic mercury may be a toxic form responsible forInorganic mercury may be a toxic form responsible for activationactivation ofof astrocyteastrocyte andand microglia.”microglia.” Activation ofActivation of astrocyteastrocyte andand microglialmicroglial cells was not notedcells was not noted for six months or more, in some cases.for six months or more, in some cases. Neurotoxicology. 1996;17:127-138.
  • 9. 9 JOHNS HOPKINS: ‘Neurological Activation &Neuro- Inflammation in Brain of Autism Patients Annals of Neurology - Vol 57 No 1 January 2005 Inflammation found in autopsied autistic brains,Inflammation found in autopsied autistic brains, produced byproduced by ””activation of astroglia andactivation of astroglia and microglia.microglia.”” Inflammation apparently associated withInflammation apparently associated with activation of the brainactivation of the brain’’s immune system.s immune system. Compared with controls, autistic tissue showedCompared with controls, autistic tissue showed ongoing inflammation in various sections of brain.ongoing inflammation in various sections of brain.
  • 10. 10 HARVARD:HARVARD: “Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of“Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of Pervasive Abnormality”Pervasive Abnormality” The NeuroscientistThe Neuroscientist, Volume 11, Number 5, 2000, Volume 11, Number 5, 2000 Neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress &Neuro-inflammation, oxidative stress & microgliamicroglia damage found in autistic brain tissue.damage found in autistic brain tissue. “Chronic disease or external environmental“Chronic disease or external environmental sources” (ie, heavy metals) may be the cause.sources” (ie, heavy metals) may be the cause. ““Oxidative stress, brain inflammation, andOxidative stress, brain inflammation, and microgliosismicrogliosis has been much documented inhas been much documented in association with heavy metal exposures.”association with heavy metal exposures.”
  • 11. 11 Hannah Poling - ConcessionHannah Poling - Concession November 9, 2007November 9, 2007  Hannah met all milestones in first 18 months.Hannah met all milestones in first 18 months. At 9At 9 monthsmonths: Mimicking sounds, crawling, and sitting.: Mimicking sounds, crawling, and sitting.  At 12-monthAt 12-month pediatric visit: Saying “Mom” &pediatric visit: Saying “Mom” & “Dad,” pulling self up, cruising.“Dad,” pulling self up, cruising.  July 19, 2000July 19, 2000 visitvisit - Hannah “spoke well” was “alert- Hannah “spoke well” was “alert and active,” with regular bowel movements andand active,” with regular bowel movements and good sleeping habits.good sleeping habits.  July 19, 2000July 19, 2000 visit – Hannah received 9 vaccines:visit – Hannah received 9 vaccines: D-T-aP, M-M-R, Hib, Varivax, and PolioD-T-aP, M-M-R, Hib, Varivax, and Polio
  • 12. 12 Poling ConcessionPoling Concession  July 21, 2000July 21, 2000 – Two days later: 102.3 degree fever, “lethargic,– Two days later: 102.3 degree fever, “lethargic, irritable, and cried for long periods, with intermittent, high-irritable, and cried for long periods, with intermittent, high- pitched screaming and apitched screaming and a decreased response to stimulidecreased response to stimuli.”.”  July 22–31, 2000July 22–31, 2000 - Behavior continued over next ten days.- Behavior continued over next ten days. Hannah also began to arch back when crying.Hannah also began to arch back when crying.  July 31, 2000July 31, 2000 – Hannah had 102 degree fever, diminished– Hannah had 102 degree fever, diminished appetite, red dots on chest and “extremely irritable andappetite, red dots on chest and “extremely irritable and inconsolable.”inconsolable.”  September 26, 2000September 26, 2000 - Hannah returned with 102 fever, diarrhea,- Hannah returned with 102 fever, diarrhea, nasal discharge, reduced appetite, andnasal discharge, reduced appetite, and pulling at her left earpulling at her left ear..  November 13, 2000November 13, 2000 – Hannah presented with more diarrhea,– Hannah presented with more diarrhea, vomiting, diminished energy, fever, and rash on her cheek.vomiting, diminished energy, fever, and rash on her cheek.
  • 13. 13 Poling ConcessionPoling Concession  December 14, 2000December 14, 2000 - Doctor noted Hannah had possible- Doctor noted Hannah had possible speech delayspeech delay, was, was less responsiveless responsive to verbal direction sinceto verbal direction since July, andJuly, and lost some languagelost some language..  February 8, 2001February 8, 2001 – “Encephalopathy progressed to– “Encephalopathy progressed to persistent loss of previously acquired language,persistent loss of previously acquired language, eye contacteye contact,, andand relatednessrelatedness, following vaccinations of July, 2000., following vaccinations of July, 2000. HannahHannah watched the fluorescent lights repeatedlywatched the fluorescent lights repeatedly duringduring the examination and would not make eye contact.”the examination and would not make eye contact.”  February 8, 2001February 8, 2001 - Hannah diagnosed with “regressive- Hannah diagnosed with “regressive encephalopathy with features consistent with an autisticencephalopathy with features consistent with an autistic spectrum disorder, following normal development.”spectrum disorder, following normal development.”  May 17, 2001May 17, 2001 – Lab results “strongly indicated an– Lab results “strongly indicated an underlying mitochondrial disorder.”underlying mitochondrial disorder.”
  • 14. 14 Poling Concession #2Poling Concession #2 February 21, 2008February 21, 2008 ““The cause for autistic encephalopathy wasThe cause for autistic encephalopathy was underlying mitochondrial dysfunction, exacerbated byunderlying mitochondrial dysfunction, exacerbated by vaccine-induced fever and immune stimulation thatvaccine-induced fever and immune stimulation that exceeded metabolic reserves.”exceeded metabolic reserves.” OR:OR: Hannah’s autism was caused by a vaccine-inducedHannah’s autism was caused by a vaccine-induced trigger of her underlying mitochondrial dysfunction.trigger of her underlying mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • 15. 15 Dr. Gerberding on CNNDr. Gerberding on CNN March 29, 2008March 29, 2008 ““If a child was immunized, got a fever, had otherIf a child was immunized, got a fever, had other complications from the vaccinescomplications from the vaccines, and (is) pre-, and (is) pre- disposed with the mitochondrial disorder, it candisposed with the mitochondrial disorder, it can certainly set off some damage.”certainly set off some damage.” ““Some of these symptoms can be symptoms thatSome of these symptoms can be symptoms that have characteristics ofhave characteristics of autismautism."." ““I think we have to have anI think we have to have an openopen mindmind about this.”about this.”
  • 16. 16 Three Sources of Mito DisordersThree Sources of Mito Disorders SourcesSources: Cleveland Clinic and UMDF: Cleveland Clinic and UMDF  1) Inherited from mother (in Mito DNA)1) Inherited from mother (in Mito DNA)  2) Inherited from both parents (in nuclear DNA)2) Inherited from both parents (in nuclear DNA)  3) “Sporadic” (acquired via medicines and toxins).3) “Sporadic” (acquired via medicines and toxins).  ““Sporadic” type estimated for 75% of all cases.Sporadic” type estimated for 75% of all cases.  Mitochondria can be damaged by mercury, aluminum,Mitochondria can be damaged by mercury, aluminum, pesticides, formaldehyde, alcohol, even HIV meds likepesticides, formaldehyde, alcohol, even HIV meds like AZT (which delete large segments of MtDNA).AZT (which delete large segments of MtDNA).
  • 17. 17 Estimates of Mito DysfunctionEstimates of Mito Dysfunction 11)) Oliveiro et al:Oliveiro et al: Markers for Mito dysfunction found in 20% of ASDMarkers for Mito dysfunction found in 20% of ASD patients, and muscle biopsy confirmed inpatients, and muscle biopsy confirmed in 7.2%.7.2%. 2)2) Kelley, Zimmerman, Natowicz:Kelley, Zimmerman, Natowicz: Mitochondrial dysfunction mayMitochondrial dysfunction may account foraccount for 20%20% of ASD, especially PDD-NOS with language andof ASD, especially PDD-NOS with language and cognitive regression in 2cognitive regression in 2ndnd year. Markers on paternal lines; early testing,year. Markers on paternal lines; early testing, “may rescue some from more severe brain injury and lifelong disability.”“may rescue some from more severe brain injury and lifelong disability.” 3)3) David HoltzmanDavid Holtzman, Massachusetts General Hospital, AS Grant:, Massachusetts General Hospital, AS Grant: “Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cells from Autistic Individuals.” Mito“Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cells from Autistic Individuals.” Mito dysfunction might be found in up todysfunction might be found in up to 30%30% of ASD cases.of ASD cases. 4)4) Petitioners Steering CommitteePetitioners Steering Committee – VICP – Up to– VICP – Up to 50%50% of 5,000 casesof 5,000 cases filed in Vaccine Court show markers for mild dysfunction.filed in Vaccine Court show markers for mild dysfunction. 5)5) UMDFUMDF – Mitochondrial DNA mutations in population: up to 1-in-200– Mitochondrial DNA mutations in population: up to 1-in-200 6)6) Johns HopkinsJohns Hopkins – Nuclear DNA mutations in population: up to 1-in-50– Nuclear DNA mutations in population: up to 1-in-50
  • 18. 18 March 11, 2008March 11, 2008 CDC Conference Call onCDC Conference Call on Mito Dysfunction, Vaccines and AutismMito Dysfunction, Vaccines and Autism  CISACISA - CDC, vaccine experts and insurance- CDC, vaccine experts and insurance companies – discussed 5-year study of 30 ASD kidscompanies – discussed 5-year study of 30 ASD kids w/low cellular energy.w/low cellular energy.  All 30 had theAll 30 had the samesame abnormalities as Hannahabnormalities as Hannah Poling, (who was one of them). All regressed afterPoling, (who was one of them). All regressed after normal development.normal development.  Big surprise: “Inheritance pattern" found – When 2Big surprise: “Inheritance pattern" found – When 2 two cousins had autism, genetic link was alwaystwo cousins had autism, genetic link was always through father – clear nuclear DNA inheritance.through father – clear nuclear DNA inheritance.  DNA mutation from 1-in-400 toDNA mutation from 1-in-400 to 1-in-501-in-50, or 2%., or 2%.
  • 19. 19 April 11, 2008April 11, 2008 – Meeting to Discuss– Meeting to Discuss Top Vaccine Safety Issues in DCTop Vaccine Safety Issues in DC HHS convened first meeting of the nationalHHS convened first meeting of the national Vaccine SafetyVaccine Safety Working GroupWorking Group to review CDC's recommended safety researchto review CDC's recommended safety research agenda. SOME Specific Questions:agenda. SOME Specific Questions:  ““Is thimerosal associated with risk for tics and/or Tourettes?Is thimerosal associated with risk for tics and/or Tourettes?  ““Is pertussis vaccine associated with risk for acuteIs pertussis vaccine associated with risk for acute neurological events?”neurological events?”  ““Is combo MMRV vaccine associated with increased febrileIs combo MMRV vaccine associated with increased febrile seizure risk?”seizure risk?”  ““Are varicella and MMRV vaccines associated with increasedAre varicella and MMRV vaccines associated with increased risk for clinically important events?” (2x risk of seizures)risk for clinically important events?” (2x risk of seizures)
  • 20. 20 April 11, 2008April 11, 2008 CDC:CDC: Clinical Outcomes To StudyClinical Outcomes To Study Can vaccines cause:Can vaccines cause: Neurodevelopmental disorders, includingNeurodevelopmental disorders, including autism?autism? Autoimmune diseases?Autoimmune diseases? Nervous system demyelinating disorders?Nervous system demyelinating disorders? Encephalitis/encephalopathy?Encephalitis/encephalopathy? Outcomes associated with post- immunization fever?Outcomes associated with post- immunization fever?
  • 21. 21 April 11, 2008April 11, 2008 CDC Also ProposesCDC Also Proposes MitoMito Research:Research:  Q: “Is immunization associated withQ: “Is immunization associated with increased risk for neurological deteriorationincreased risk for neurological deterioration in children within children with mitochondrialmitochondrial dysfunction?”dysfunction?”  ““CISA has formed a working group to studyCISA has formed a working group to study methods related to mitochondrial disordersmethods related to mitochondrial disorders and immunization, in collaboration withand immunization, in collaboration with partners.”partners.”
  • 22. 22 “Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism: Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity” Dr. Martha Herbert, Harvard – Am. Journ. Biochem. & Biotech 4 (2): 167-176, 2008 Autism may begin when early environmental, infectious, seizure, or autoimmune insult triggers an immune response that increases oxidative stress in the brain. Oxidative stress leads to DNA damage (nuclear and mitochondrial) and metabolic (glutathione) enzyme blockage. Inflammatory and oxidative stressors persist beyond early development, producing ongoing functional consequences. Continued use of damaged mitochondria and impaired metabolic function generates additional oxidative stress. Mito dysfunction in autism would activate astroglia and microglia.
  • 23. 23 Barack Obama:Barack Obama: April, 2008April, 2008 ““We've seen just a skyrocketing autism rate.We've seen just a skyrocketing autism rate. Some people are suspicious that it's connectedSome people are suspicious that it's connected to the vaccines. The science right now isto the vaccines. The science right now is inconclusive, but we have to research it.”inconclusive, but we have to research it.” John McCain:John McCain: March, 2008March, 2008 ““It's indisputable that autism is on the riseIt's indisputable that autism is on the rise amongst children, the question is what'samongst children, the question is what's causing it. And we go back and forth, andcausing it. And we go back and forth, and there's strong evidence that indicates that it'sthere's strong evidence that indicates that it's got to do with a preservative in vaccines.”got to do with a preservative in vaccines.”
  • 24. 24 Dr. Bernadine Healy on CBS NewsDr. Bernadine Healy on CBS News May, 2008May, 2008 ““Officials have been too quick to dismiss theOfficials have been too quick to dismiss the hypothesis as 'irrational,' without sufficienthypothesis as 'irrational,' without sufficient studies of causation,studies of causation, without studying thewithout studying the population that got sick.”population that got sick.” ““Never turn your back on any scientificNever turn your back on any scientific hypothesis because you are afraid of what ithypothesis because you are afraid of what it might show."might show."
  • 25. 25 Since the beginning of 2008, we have heard from:Since the beginning of 2008, we have heard from: 1) Both Presidential Candidates1) Both Presidential Candidates 2) Director of the CDC (and her "open mind")2) Director of the CDC (and her "open mind") 3) Former head of the NIH and American Red Cross3) Former head of the NIH and American Red Cross 4) Chair of the House Science Subcommittee on Investigations4) Chair of the House Science Subcommittee on Investigations 5) Dr. Jon Poling, respected Pediatric Neurologist5) Dr. Jon Poling, respected Pediatric Neurologist 6) HHS Vaccine Safety Working Group6) HHS Vaccine Safety Working Group 7) CDC Vaccine Safety Research Agenda7) CDC Vaccine Safety Research Agenda 8) Medical personnel at HHS Vaccine Injury Compensation Program8) Medical personnel at HHS Vaccine Injury Compensation Program 9) Strategic Planning Workgroup of the IAC Committee9) Strategic Planning Workgroup of the IAC Committee 10) Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network - CISA10) Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network - CISA 11) Autism researchers at Johns Hopkins University Medical School11) Autism researchers at Johns Hopkins University Medical School 12) America's health insurance companies12) America's health insurance companies 13) Autism Speaks13) Autism Speaks They have all advocated, or at least considered, exploring the possibleThey have all advocated, or at least considered, exploring the possible links between vaccines and autism.links between vaccines and autism.

×