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The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene

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    The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene Presentation Transcript

    • The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene
    • Function
      • to supply the blood with oxygen so the blood can deliver oxygen to all the body parts
    • The process of respiration
      • “ Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen then passes through the larynx and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity.
    • Cont.
      • In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The average adult's lungs contain about 300 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries.
    • Cont.
      • The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale.”
    • The Respiratory system includes…
    • Facts
      • The main organs of the respiratory system are the Lungs
      • Yawning brings more air to the lungs
      • We breath 13 pints a minute
      • we breath over 5000 times a day
      • Your right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung only has 2
      • The speed of a sneeze over a 100 mph and a cough is only 60 mph
      • Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world
    • Respiratory system conditions
      • Emphysema
      • Bronchitis
      • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
      • Histoplasmosis
      • Lung cancer
      • Pneumonia
      • Pulmonary fibrosis
      • Tuberculosis
      • RSV
    • Healthy lungs
    • Infected lungs RSV The Flu Tuberculosis
    • Bibliography
      • http://fi.edu/biosci/systems/respiration.html
      • http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/funfacts/factsres.html#top
      • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3210/images/02-cure-rcv.jpg
      • http://lungdiseases.about.com/od/basicinformation/a/LD_list.htm
    • By LaToya Crandall The Lungs
    •  
    • What are they??
      • They’re paired organs in the chest that perform respiration.
      • Each human has two lungs.
      • Each lung is between 10 and 12 inches long
    • What do they do??
      • They transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and excrete carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.
    • Facts
      • 90% of the lung is filled with air and only 10% is hard tissue.
      • The lung is the largest organ in the body.
      • Diseases that can affect the lungs are Emphysema, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Lung Cancer, and many more.
    • More Facts
      • Each day you take about 23,000 breaths.
      • With every breath, your lungs add fresh oxygen to your blood, which then carries into your cells.
      • www.mamashealth.com
      • www.virtialmuseum.ca
      • www.ehwikpedia.org
      • www.nhlbi.nih.gov
      Sources
    • Bronchitis By Zack Miller
    • What is Bronchitis?
      • An obstructive pulmonary disease caused by inflammation of the of the lungs
      • It can be short term or long lasting
    • Symptoms
      • An expectorating cough
      • Dyspnea (shortness of Breath)
      • Fatigue and/or malaise
      • Mild fever
      • Mild chest pains
    • Diagnosis
      • Chest x-ray that reveals hyperinflation and increased bronchovascular markings
      • Pulmonary function test that shows an increase in the lung’s residual volume and a decreased vitals capacity
    • Diagnosis (cont.)
      • Arterial blood gases that show a decreased level of oxygen in the blood and an increased level of carbon dioxide
      • A sputum culture that has pathogenic microorganism and/or neutrophils
    • X-ray
    • Pathophysiology
      • Short term bronchitis often follows a cold or infection. It may be viral or bacterial
      • Long-lasting bronchitis last at least three months and is usually cause by environmental irritation of the bronchial tubes and is often caused by smoking
    • Minor Treatments
      • Rest
      • Lots of liquids
      • Aspirin
      • Tylenol for fever
    • Treatments
      • Oxygen therapy
      • Bronchodilator drugs
      • Antibiotics
      • Lung volume reduction surgery
    • Prognosis
      • Short bronchitis usually last ten to eleven days
      • It is contagious, and starts out with a dry cough, which may be accompanied by a low grade fever, fatigue, and headache
    • Prevention
      • Short term
        • lots of rest
        • Lots of fluids
      • Long-lasting
        • Eliminate exposure to cigarette smoke and other environmentally hazard fumes
    • Pneumonia Mikhael King
      • Inflammation of the lungs
      • Caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection
      • Ranges from mild to severe to even fatal
      • Severity depends on age and health of the person
      What is Pneumonia?
      • Anyone can get pneumonia
      • Hospital patients more prone because of weaker immune systems
      Who Can Get It?
      • Cough with greenish or yellow phlegm
      • Fever with shaking chills
      • Sharp chest pain
      • Rapid, shallow breathing
      • Shortness of breath
      • Headache
      Symptoms
      • Excessive sweating
      • Clammy skin
      • Loss of appetite
      • Excessive fatigue
      • Confusion in elderly people
      Symptoms cont.
      • Chest X-rays
      • CBC to check white blood cell count
      • CAT Scan of the chest
      How to Be Sure (Signs & Tests)
      • Antibiotics if the cause is bacteria
      • In hospital: Intravenous antibiotics & oxygen therapy
      • In home: Drink fluids to loosen secretions and bring up phlegm, get lots of rest, control fevers with aspirin
      Treatment
      • 65 years or older
      • Male
      • Children under 2
      • Having HIV or AIDS
      • People with their spleen removed
      Risk Factors
      • Smoking
      • Alcohol Abuse
      • Being around certain chemicals
      • Living in certain parts of the country
      • Being hospitalized in ICU
      Risk Factors cont.
      • Wash hands frequently
      • Do not smoke
      • Wear a mask when cleaning dusty or moldy areas
      Prevention
      • www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc64.htm
      • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pneumonia/DS00135/DSECTION=4
      • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000145.htm
      Sources
    • Huffing And Puffing with Asthma By: John Hunter
    • Normal bronchiole/ Asthmatic bronchiole
    • What is asthma?
      • Asthma is a chronic (long-term) disease that makes it hard to breathe. Asthma can't be cured, but it can be managed. With proper treatment, people with asthma can lead normal, active lives.
    • How asthma works
      • If you have asthma, your airways (breathing passages) are extra sensitive. When you are around certain things, your extra-sensitive airways can:
      • Become red and swollen - your airways get inflamed inside. They fill up with mucus. The swelling and mucus make your airways narrower, so it's harder for the air to pass through.
    • Cont.
      • Become "twitchy" and go into spasm - the muscles around your airways squeeze together and tighten. This makes your airways narrower, leaving less room for the air to pass through.
      • The more red and swollen your airways are, the more twitchy they become.
    • Symptoms
      • Hard breathing caused by irritants
      • Asthma inducers : If you breathe in something you're allergic to- for example, dust or pollen- or if you have a viral infection- for example, a cold or the flu- your airways can become inflamed (red and swollen).
    • Cont.
      • Asthma triggers : If you breathe in an asthma trigger like cold air or smoke, or if you exercise, the muscles around your airways can go into spasm and squeeze together tightly. This leaves less room for air to pass through.
      • It's important for every person with asthma to know what they triggers and inducers are.
    • Normal Swelled Asthma Tightened Asthma
    • Causes
      • Work-related asthma (occupational exposure) : People who work in certain types of jobs can get asthma from things they work with. For example:
      • Laboratory workers can get asthma from lab animals: rats, mice, guinea-pigs
      • Spray painters can get asthma from isocyanates
      • Grain handlers can get asthma from grain dust
      • Crab processors can get asthma from crab dust
    • Treatments
      • Inhalers
      • These devices (sometimes called 'puffers') contain a gas that will propel the correct dose of medication when the top is pressed down. This is inhaled into your airways. There are two basic categories of inhaler medicines that are used for asthma:
      • relievers - which treat your symptoms
      • preventers - which can prevent your symptoms
    • In case of an attack
      • take your reliever treatment immediately, preferably with a spacer
      • sit down (don't lie down) and try to relax
      • wait 5-10 minutes - if your symptoms disappear you do not need to do anything
      • if your symptoms do not go away, then you should call a doctor or an ambulance
      • continue taking your reliever, preferably with a spacer, every few minutes until helps arrives
      • If you go to hospital, take details of your asthma treatments with you.
    • Bibliography
      • http://www.lung.ca/diseases-maladies/asthma-asthme/what-quoi/index_e.php
      • http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/Mosby_factsheets/asthma.html
    • Tuberculosis Danielle Mullins Summer Institute 2oo6
    • What is it?
      • airborne infection
      • caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      • spreads person to person or through air
      • most are infected but do not develop the disease
      • form small black lesions in the lungs
    • Symptoms
      • ongoing cough
      • constantly tired
      • loss of weight
      • loss of appetite
      • fever
      • night sweats
      • coughing up blood
    •  
    • 2 million deaths each year; 100 thousand are children. 36 million will die worldwide between now and 2020. Most cases found in Africa due to the AIDS epidemic. 10 million Americans are currently infected with TB but only 10% will develop the disease.
    • Persons Most Likely to Contract TB
      • Racial/ethnic minorities
      • Foreigners
      • Hospital, prison, and nursing home workers
      • Homeless people
      • IV drug users
      • Alcoholics
      • Those with Diabetes, AIDS, or others with immunity problems
    • A Person with: Latent TB Active TB
      • has no symptoms
      • does not feel sick
      • cannot spread TB
      • Usually positive for skin test
      • has normal chest X-ray and sputum test
      • continuous bad cough
      • chest pain
      • coughing up blood or sputum
      • weakness or fatigue
      • loss of weight and appetite
      • chills, fever, night sweats
      • positive skin test
      • may have abnormal chest X-ray, or positive sputum smear or culture
    • Random Facts 53% of last year's TB cases were foreign-born people 1/3 of the world population is infected with TB TB can usually be cured but medication must be taken for up to 9 months Someone somewhere in the world is infected with TB every second India has the largest number of TB patients today.
    • Information was/can be found at:
      • http://cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/qa_introduction.htm#Intro1
      • http://lungusa.org/site/ppasp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=35804
      • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000145.htm
    • Emphysema By Nishan Moghal
    • Background
      • chronic (long-lasting or recurrent) lung disease
      • usually caused by exposure to or inhalation of toxic chemicals and tobacco smoke
      • loss of elasticity of lung tissue
    • Background (cont.)
      • destruction of supporting structures of alveoli (sacs in the lungs that allow for gas exchange)
      • destruction of capillaries that allow blood flow to alveoli
      • collapse of smaller airways during expiration
    • Symptoms
      • shortness of breath (on exertion)
      • hyperventilation (arises in order to maintain proper oxygen levels in the body)
      • clubbing of the fingers (which is associated with many lung and heart diseases)
    •  
    • Process
      • toxins (such as smoke) inhaled
      • particles – trapped by hairs and cannot be exhaled
      • inflammatory response results
      • -consists of enzymes such as elastase breaking down the alveolar walls
    • Process (cont.)
      • fewer but larger alveoli with smaller surface areas
      • -leads to decreased ability of alveoli to take up oxygen and lose carbon dioxide
      • end result – irreversible and degenerative condition
    • Healthy Lung
      • elastic
      • clean
      • many alveoli with large surface areas
      • healthy capillaries
      • clear airways
    • Emphysema Lung
      • loss of elasticity
      • filled with toxins from tobacco smoke
      • fewer alveoli with smaller surface areas
      • destroyed capillaries
      • blocked airways
    • Prevention and Treatment
      • no smoking
      • avoiding other lung irritants
      • supplemental oxygen is taken by patient
      • lung transplant (very dangerous operation)
    • Sources
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emphysema
      • http://images.google.com/images?q=lung&hl=en&btnG=Search+Images
      • http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic654.htm
    • Black Lung Disease Sarah Canaday
    • What is Black Lung Disease?
      • Name for disease is Pneumonoconiosis
      • Caused by inhalation of coal dust over many years
    • What is Black Lung Disease? (continued)
      • Typically affects workers over age 50
      • Number of black lung cases have sharply fallen since the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969
    • What are the symptoms?
      • Once coal dust particles are in the lung, they can not be removed, causing build up
      • Primary symptom is shortness of breath
    • What are the symptoms? (continued)
      • An enlargement and strain of the right side of the heart which may cause right-side heart failure
      • Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicov-olcanoconiosis
      • Emphysema
    • How can I prevent it?
      • The only way to prevent Black Lung Disease is to stay out of exposure to coal dust.
      • Since 1969, conditions in coal mines have become much safer, and now run low in the risk of Black Lung.
    • Can I reverse the effects?
      • Chest x-rays can show signs of black lung before any symptoms are present
      • No treatment or cure for this disease exists, although there are treatments for some complications
      • Further exposure to coal dust must be stopped
    • Healthy Lungs
      • Pink in color
      • Light weight
    • Pneumonoconiosis
    • Lung with Pneumonoconiosis
    • Lungs with Pneumonoconiosis (continued)
    • Sources Cited
      • www.healthatoz/Atoz/ency/black_lung_disease.jsp
      • www.wikipedia.com
      • www.google.com /images
      • http://www.courier-journal.com/dust/illo_lung_tissue.html
    • Lung Cancer Sakala Rutherford
    • So What Exactly is Lung Cancer?
      • Lung cancer- carcinoma of the lungs; one of the most common forms of cancer
      • aka an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs
    • Strictly Statistics
      • More than 87% of lung cancer cases are smoking related
      • 13% of lung cancer is caused by things such as asbestos, and radon gas
      • More Americans in 2005 died from lung cancer than any colon/rectal, breast, and prostate cancer
      • Between 1960 and 1990, deaths from lung cancer in women increased more than 400%
    • More Statistics
      • Lung cancer kills more African Americans than any other cancer
      • Both African American men and women have a higher rate of getting lung cancer than any other ethnicity
      • After abstaining from smoking for at least 10 years you decrease your chance of developing lung cancer anywhere from 20 to 50%
    • Fun Facts
      • Today we can detect changes in the cells of the base lining of the lungs from normal to precancerous (dysplasia)
      • The addiction to nicotine can be compared to the addiction to heroine or even stronger
      • There is currently no way to screen and see if a person has lung cancer until late stages
      • There is a lot of discussion about whether or not marijuana causes lung cancer, its still undecided
    • Prevention
      • Not smoking
      • Daily exercise
      • Low fat high fiber diet
      • Moderate if any alcohol consumption
    • Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
      • Accounts for 80% of all cancer cases
      • - Squamos Cell Carcinoma– forms in bronchial tubes *more prevalent in men*
      • -Adenocarcinoma- forms in mucus glands *more prevalent in women and non-smoking individuals
      • Bronchioalveolar- forms near the lungs’ air sacs
    • More non-small cell lung cancer
      • Large-Cell Undifferentiated Carcinomas-near edges of lungs, spreads rapidly, and sometimes spreads by the time diagnosed
    • Small Cell Lung Cancer
      • 20% of all lung cancers, multiply more rapidly than all other cancers and form large tumors that can spread throughout the body, smoking is almost always the cause of small cell cancer
    • Surgical Treatments
      • Segmental Resection (wedge resection)- removes only a small part of the lung that the tumor is isolated in
      • Lobectomy- the surgical removal of an entire lobe of the lung
      • Pneumonectomy- the surgical removal of an entire lung
    • Non-Surgical Treatments
      • Chemotherapy- drugs given through the mouth or injection to kill cancer
      • Radiation Therapy- the use of an x-ray to kill or shrink cancer cells
      • Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)- a special chemical that is injected into the body and absorbed by all cells
      • Clinical Trials- any type of new tests that may treat the disease
    • Graphs
    • Pictures
      • Counter clockwise:
      • cigarette, healthy lung, smokers lung, tumor in trachea, cancerous lung, cancerous lung
    • More Pictures
      • Clock wise: cancer detected in x-ray, non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer diseased lung, small cell site healthy body
    • Bibliography
      • http://www.lungcancer.org/patients/fs_pc_lc_101.htm
      • http://www.dictionary.com
      • www.ricancercouncil.org/ facts/lungfacts.php
      • http://cannabisnews.com/news/10/thread10025.shtml
      • http://www.health-alliance.com/cancer/Lung/risk_factors.html
    • METASTASIS BY NICOLE MADISON
    • WHAT IS METASTASIS????
      • the spreading of a disease to another part of the body
      • the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
      See full-size image. www.molecularimaging.com/.../ pages/lungmets2.jpg 430 x 384 pixels - 14k                           
    • What Are The Signs And Symptoms
    • Signs
      • Cough
      • Weight Loss
      • Confusion
      • Weakness
      • Shortness of breath
      • Jaundice
    • ARE THERE ANY TREATMENTS??????
    • TREATMENTS
      • Surgery
      • Radiation
      • Chemotherapy
    • How Does The Cancer Move in Metastasis????
      • spread to remote sites by being carried through either the lymph system, the bloodstream, or other fluids . 
    • WEB SITES
      • http://www.ask.com/web?q=metastasis+of+the+lungs&qsrc=1&o=0
      http://www.tirgan.com/metastasis.htm http://imags.google.com/images?q=question+mark&svnum=10&hl=een&lr=&safe=active&start=20&sa=N&ndsp=20 http://www.ask.com/web?q=metastasis+of+the+lungs+treatments&qsrc=1&o=0
    • FUN FACTS!!!!!!!
    •                                                                                                                                   Your lungs help you to breath. Take a big breathe and you will make your lungs work really hard. Lungs help you to breathe in nice clean air. And breathe out old air.                                                                                                                                     Blood is a really bright red liquid. It runs around your body, helping it to work properly. It also helps stop some nasty bugs
      • Your brain like a big grey jelly. It’s all spongy.
                                                                                                                                          
      • Your eyes help you to see everything.
      • They make these into something your brain can understand
      • When you eat some food, it goes into your digestive system.
      • This is where your food is turned into something your body can use.
      • Your lungs help you to breath.
      • Lungs help you to breathe in nice clean air and breathe out old air.