The aim of this session is to develop
your understanding of why you
need to use citations in your
assessment item(s) and how you
keep a record of them in the
Reasons for referencing?
• To acknowledge the work of someone
else. It also provides respect for another's
• To provide evidence or support for your
point of view or statement.
• Provides evidence of wide background
• To give details to the reader so that the
source of your information can be located.
Hierarchy of resources
• Professional journals
• Published textbooks
• Government reports
• Research backed publications
• Popular magazines
• Leaflets/ pamphlets
• Personal communication
• ‘… involves deliberately using the
work of another person and
presenting it as your own’
(The College of Nursing, 2008: 44).
• May be intentional or unintentional.
• Direct quotations are not enclosed in
single inverted commas.
• Paraphrasing is not acknowledged.
• An idea is used without being
acknowledged to its original source.
• Submitting substantially the same
material as another student.
• ‘The College views plagiarism as a breach
of academic standards which will, if
proven, result in withdrawal from the
course with an unsatisfactory grade.’ (The College of
Nursing, 2004: 35).
• See regulation 11 -Plagiarism/cheating,
page 44 & 74 of the Student guide and
general course regulations.
• As many varieties as there are
• College Style -Modified Harvard
(Author, year: page number)
Types of references
• In-text: References (citations)
which are placed within the body of
the text and indicate a level of
support for the discussion.
• Reference list: Alphabetical list of
all references used throughout the
In text referencing
• Must identify all references at the
appropriate point in your writing (at least
one reference per concept)
– Name of author
– Year of publication
– Page number or numbers.
• Two types
– Direct quotes
• <20% of your own work in direct
• Direct quotes never stand alone –
integrate them into your argument
• Two methods:
– Short quote
– Long quote
Short quotation (< 30 words)
• Enclose the quotation in single
inverted commas within your
Arnheim and Prentice (1997: 64) state
that the purpose of the warm-up period
prior to commencing exercise is to
produce ‘an increased blood flow to
working skeletal muscle’.
Long quotation (> 30 words)
• Indent and single space the quote; no
need for inverted commas.
When describing muscle activity and the effect of exercise,
Marieb (1995: 274) states: … vigorously stressed muscle fibres
contain more mitochondria, form more myofilaments, and store
more glycogen. The amount of connective tissue between the
cells also increases. Collectively these changes promote
significant increases in muscle strength and size.
• Putting an idea into your own words
to indicate your understanding and
to support your arguments.
• It does not mean:
– changing one or two words
– re-ordering the sentence.
Author included in sentence
• Author’s family name forms part of
the sentence, year of publication
and page numbers are added.
Jones (1995: 766) notes that the
changes that occur in the alveoli in
emphysema are very significant.
Author not in sentence
• If the author’s name is not part of the
sentence then provide the information
in brackets at the end of the sentence.
The changes to the alveoli that occur in
emphysema are dramatic (Jones, 1995: 766).
Common themes from
• Cite the surnames of the authors and year of
• In text references are listed in chronological
order, but are listed alphabetically in the
Febrile convulsions occur at the onset of an illness
and is thought to be triggered by a rapid rise in
temperature (Shann,1995; Wong, 1999).
Two & three author
• List all surnames throughout your
– Tortora and Grabowski (2000:259)
– Smith, Jones and Jones (1998:136)
Works with four or more
• The in-text citations should show the
surname of the first author followed
by ‘et al.’ (Latin for ‘and others’)
• The full reference listing all authors must be
provided in the reference list
• Peterson et al. (2001:175) go on to explain
the effective use of narcotic agents where
they are working.
• In-text … Reference the author of
the section/chapter, not the editors
of the book.
• Usually no page numbers:
– Author’s name
– Year (or n.d. if ‘no year’)
– n.p. for ‘no page’
• Ensure all identifying information is
provided in the reference list.
• Cannot be used if information can be
accessed from the literature.
• Only appropriate for experts within
• Position usually holds some degree of
• Personal communications referenced
within text only.
• Smith (25 July 2000, pers. com.) suggests
there is an over use of paracetamol,
particularly in treating mild illness in
• To give emphasis:
• Smith (Smith, R. Professor of Paediatrics,
Cambridge University, 25 July 2000, pers.
com.) suggests there is an over use of
paracetamol, particularly in treating mild
illness in children.
• An author’s work may be discussed or
cited in another’s work; you must
acknowledge both sources.
• According to Condon and Nyhus (cited
in Methany, 1996: 47), the average daily
fluid requirements in adults increased …
• How would this be listed in the reference
• List of resources directly used to
support arguments developed within
• The College style is to only use
reference lists as opposed to
Reference list (cont.)
• Alphabetical order.
• Contains all the source material
cited within the text of your work,
whether actual quotes, paraphrasing
• All journals, books and other
resources are referenced differently
in the final list.
• For a typical article in a journal, the
following reference information is
• author of article surname, initial.
• year of issue
• title of article
• name of periodical italics
• volume number italics
• issue number
• pages of article
• Articles downloaded from databases
such as Ovid or Proquest should be
referenced as if you have the hard
copy of the journal in your hand,
that is, do not cut and paste the
• Houde, S.C. and Huff, M.A. 2003
Age-related vision loss in older
adults. Journal of Gerontological
Nursing 29, 4, 25–33.
• Schofield, I. 2002 Caring for older
people who have a heading
disability. Nursing Older People 13,
• The basic reference information
required to describe a book is:
• Author Surname, Initial.
• Year of publication 2000
• Title Italics
• Publisher Company name
• Place of publication Location
Example: book reference
• Pain as a unique experience (Woodruff,
• Woodruff (2002: 32) describes pain as
• Reference list:
– Woodruff, R. 2002. Palliative medicine, 2nd
ed, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Referencing: chapter of a
• For a chapter in a book, the
following reference information is
• author of chapter Surname, Initial.
• year of publication
• title of chapter
• editor of book
• title of book Italics
• edition number
• place of publication.
• Pain assessment is a comprehensive and
encompassing nursing responsibility (Wilson,
1998: 232). OR
• Wilson (1998: 232) describes pain assessment
as a comprehensive and encompassing nursing
• Reference list:
– Wilson, S. 1998 Pain assessment. In Taylor, S. (ed)
Pain. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
• Author/editor Year Book title. (edn x), Available URL:
(e.g. www.) Full address details or Database CD ROM
Supplier <Accessed year, month and day>
• Author Year Title. Journal title ,volume, issue, pagination
or indicator of length if possible. Available URL: (e.g.
www.) Full address details <Accessed year, month and
• Author Year Chapter title. In Editors (eds). Book title.
(edn x), publisher, city. Available URL: (e.g. www.) Full
address details or Database CD ROM Supplier <Accessed
year, month and day>
• Cole, N. 2001 Citing electronic
sources. (version 1.5) Available URL:
refs .html <Accessed 2002, July 24>
Sample reference list
• Cole, N. 2001 Citing electronic sources.(version
crefs.html <Accessed 2002, July 24>
• Farmer, F. 2002 Tumour development and the
impact of radiation therapy. Journal of
Radiation Biology 12, 5, 45-78.
• Wilson, S. 1998 Pain assessment. In Taylor, S.
(ed)Pain. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.
• Woodruff, R. 1998 Palliative Medicine, 3rd
edn,Oxford University Press, Oxford.
• One reference per concept – at least.
• Reference specific knowledge.
• Ask the questions: Where did that come
from? How do they know that?
• Better to over-reference than under-
• 4000 – 5000 words = 15 – 20 references
Reference list guidelines
• Follow the specified rules
• Check commas and full stops
• Dates, volume numbers, page
• Correct information -authors
name(s), book/article title, journal
Reference list guidelines
• Italicise journal title or book title
• Underline titles if hand written
• Include publishers
• Note: The second and following
lines should be indented to
emphasise the author’s name.
• your references are all present and
• all in-text references are in the
• your reference list is included with
html <Accessed 2002, July 24>
_faq.html <Accessed 2005, June 15>
• The College of Nursing, 2007 Student
guide and general course regulations.
12th edn, The College of Nursing,