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Critical Care


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  • 1. Revised February 17, 2008 RESIDENT CURRICULUM FOR THE CRITICAL CARE MED 2008-2009 Rotation Coordinator: J. F. Turner, M.D. Subspecialty Education Coordinator University of Nevada School of Medicine 2040 W. Charleston Blvd., Suite 300 Las Vegas, Nevada 89102 (702) 671-2345 – Fax: (702) 671-2376 OVERVIEW EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE The purpose of this four-week rotation is to provide education and experience in the care of patients requiring acute critical care. Patients can be admitted through the Emergency Department, accepted in transfer from the floor, or accepted in transfer from another acute care facility. At the conclusion of this rotation, residents will have gained insight into the diagnosis and management of critically ill patients, the role of subspecialty consultation in the management of acutely ill patients, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, the natural history of disease and strategies for cost-effective and evidence- based evaluation and treatment. This curriculum was developed from the “Guidelines for Resident Physician Training in Critical Care Medicine”, Guidelines/Practice Parameters Committee, American College of Critical Care Medicine of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (Crit Care Med, Nov 1995; 23(11): 1920-1923.) The intensive care service consists of two first year interns, two seniors (2nd or 3rd year). Each resident is on call every fourth day. Intensive care residents will provide care to the patients under supervision of intensive care attending. The most senior resident will supervise, lead, manage and teach junior residents and medical students. TEACHING METHODS The rotation will be under the supervision of the attending critical care specialist. The residents will admit all patients to the intensive care unit, write the initial notes, begin therapy, and present the case to the intensivist. After reviewing the case and examining the patient, the intensivist will plan, with the resident, for the further investigation and treatment of the patient. Daily rounds will occur with the attending physician at which time instruction in the unique aspects of critical care will be provided. The resident and attending will review and discuss any required reading.
  • 2. MIX OF DISEASES AND COMMON CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS * Cardiovascular (recognition and acute management of shock (all forms), myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, cardiac tamponade, acute valvular insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, acute cardiomyopathies, hypertensive emergencies, as well as the principles of vasoactive and inotropic therapy, arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery catheterization and monitoring, cardiovascular physiology in the critically ill patient). * Metabolic and endocrine (recognition and acute management of adrenal crisis, pheochromocytoma, thyroid storm, myxedema coma, diabetes insipidus, diabetic ketoacidosis, critical illness in the pregnant patient as well as principles of enteral and pareneteral alimentation). * Gastrointestinal disease (recognition and acute management of gastrointestinal bleeding, mesenteric infarction, hepatic failure, perforation of viscus, pancreatitis, complications of cirrhosis, as well as principles of prophylaxis against stress ulcer bleeding). * Hematologic disorders (recognition and acute management of defects in hemostasis, hemolytic disorders, hematologic dysplasias and their complications, Sickle cell crisis, thrombotic disorders, as well as principles of anticoagulation and fibrinolytic therapy, blood component therapy, plasmapheresis for acute disorders including neurologic and hematologic disorders). * Infectious diseases (recognition and acute management of sepsis, hospital-acquired and opportunistic infections including HIV/AIDS, as well as principles of antibiotic selections and dosage schedules in the critically ill patient, infection risks to healthcare workers). * Neurologic diseases (recognition and acute management of coma, drug overdose, acute hydrocephalus, brain death evaluation, persistent vegetative state, intracranial vascular accidents, status epilepticus, intracranial infection, intracranial hypertension, spinal cord injury). * Respiratory diseases (recognition and acute management of acute and chronic respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, status asthmaticus, smoke inhalation and airway burns, upper airway obstruction including foreign bodies and infection, near drowning, adult respiratory distress syndrome, as well as principles and application of pulmonary function tests including bedside spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, oxygen therapy, invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation including indications, modes, complications, and weaning). * Renal (recognition and acute management of fluid and electrolyte disturbances, renal failure, acid-base disorders, as well as principles of drug dosing in renal failure, fluid and electrolyte therapy in the critically ill patient, dialysis). * Psychiatric (suicide attempt, drug overdose, drug/alcohol withdrawal). 2
  • 3. Patient Characteristics The patient population is diverse, male and female, of all ages from adolescent to geriatric, representing most ethnic and racial backgrounds, from all social and economic strata. The hospital serves primarily the indigent population of the city of Las Vegas. Types of Clinical Encounters All patient encounters are in the inpatient medical intensive care setting as the primary care team. Close interaction with various other healthcare team members including care managers, discharge planners, home health agencies, inpatient nurses, respiratory therapists, physical therapists, and patient care technicians occurs daily. Resident Supervision Residents have readily available on site supervision as well as daily personal supervision in their patient care. Intensivists are available 24 hours daily. Procedures and Services Procedures and services include those typically performed in an intensive care unit, including endotracheal intubation, central line placement, lumbar puncture, paracentesis, thoracentesis, mechanical ventilation, and hemodynamic monitoring and management. Didactic Teaching Attending Rounds - daily Didactic discussions will be held regarding all primary inpatients daily during the month. Teaching rounds by the attending physician will occur every day for 45 - 60 minutes after regular management rounds. Each resident is required to review intensive care topics. CORE READING MATERIALS Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed., McGraw Hill Cardinal Manifestations of Disease, pp. 53 - 360. Disorders of the Respiratory System, pp. 1407 - 1419. Irwin and Rippe's Intensive Care Medicine, 6th ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 29th ed. Housestaff Syllabus, 1999 Reading Syllabus, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 1998 Ancillary Educational Materials Subspecialty Texts of Cardiology, Neurology, Pulmonary Medicine, Nephrology, Endocrinology, Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology, as well as General Medical 3
  • 4. References (Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, Cecil’s Textbook of Medicine) are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the resident lounge. Savitt Medical Library On-Line Residents have access to the on-line services of Savitt Library (the main library of the University of Nevada - Reno) via their computer in the resident room, Suite 300 of the 2040 W. Charleston Building. Access to this room is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Full text is available for many peer-review journals including, but no limited to: ACP Journal Club Annals of Internal Medicine British Medical Journal Cancer Circulation Journal of the American College of Cardiology The Lancet New England Journal of Medicine Stroke Also available on-line: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed. Merck Manual, 17th ed. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd ed. The Cochrane Library Medline and GratefulMed Databases Pathological Material and Other Educational Resources Residents are encouraged to review the pathological reports on patients for whom they have cared and to follow the hospital care of those patients. If a patient for whom the resident has cared should die and have an autopsy, the resident is encouraged to attend the post-mortem session. Training Sites University Medical Center All of the medical intensive care experience occurs at University Medical Center (UMC) under the supervision of one of the full-time critical care attendings. The goals of the intensive care rotation should be achieved through the following learning venues, and will be evaluated as per the following chart: Competency-based Goals and Objectives Intensive Care Unit Rotation Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Specificity 4
  • 5. 1. Direct patient care/consultations A. Attending evaluation R-1 = 1 2. Attending Rounds B. Direct Observation R-2 = 2 3. Residency core lecture series C. Nurse/Ancillary staff evaluations R-3 = 3 4. Self study D. Written Examination 5. Morning Reports E. Resident/Self Evaluation 6. ACLS/Airway Training F. Patient Evaluation Competency Patient Care Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Efficiently elicit a thorough, hypothesis- driven history from the patient or patient's representative. 1 , 2, 4, 5 A, B, C, E 1, 2, 3 Perform a thorough physical and be able to report the physiologic and anatomic bases of normal and abnormal findings. 1, 2 A, B,C 1, 2, 3 Obtain old records including, but not limited to, discharge summaries, blood and fluid analysis, and results of radiographic studies. 1, 2 A, C, E 1, 2, 3 Generate differential diagnosis, define and initiate therapeutic plan, and modify therapy, as needed. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A, B, D, E 1, 2, 3 Write orders for patients requiring admission to the critical care unit with attention to nutrition (enteral and parenteral), IV fluids, sedation, analgesia, neuromuscular blockade, after airway maintenance (not induction) and antibiotics. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 Make informed decisions and recommendations about preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic options and interventions based upon clinical judgment, scientific evidence and patient preference. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 Provide initial consultation and direct the management of patients. 1, 2,5 A, B, C, E 2, 3 Recognize and initiate appropriate treatment and notify attending for specific emergency situations. 1, 2, 3 A, E 2, 3 Demonstrate competency in airway management (maintenance of an open airway in the non-intubated patient, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 5
  • 6. ventilation by bag-mask systems, tracheal intubation, management of pneumothorax). Demonstrate competency in circulatory management (arterial puncture and cannulation, insertion of central venous catheters, pericardiocentesis in acute tamponade, dynamic electrocardiogram interpretation, cardioversion, pulmonary artery catheterization, transcutaneous pacing). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 Monitor patient progress; respond to change in patient condition during medical treatment and interventional procedures. 1, 2 A, B, C, E, F 1, 2, 3 Identify and initiate corrective action for common laboratory abnormalities and procedure complication. 1, 2, 3, 5 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 Focus primarily on learning the skills and techniques that lead to successful procedural outcomes. 1, 2 A, B, C, D, E 1, 2, 3 Be willing and able to assist junior colleagues in skill acquisition. 1, 2 A, B, C, D, E 2, 3 Competencies: Knowledge Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Know presentation and management of common diseases (i.e.GI bleed, sepsis and septic shock, respiratory failure, intracranial hemorrhage, acute renal failure, hepatic failure, cardiac arrhythmia, hypertensive crisis and neurological illness). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A, B, D 1, 2, 3 Know indication and interpretation of EKG, Chest X-Ray, echocardiography, CT scan of brain, chest, and abdomen, and PFT. 1, 2, 3, 4 A, B, D 1, 2, 3 Knowledge of the principles of sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade in critically ill patients. 1, 2, 3, 4 A, B, C, D 1, 2, 3 Know BLS and ACLS protocols. 1, 2, 3, 4 A, B, D 1, 2, 3 Be able to recall the basic differential diagnosis for each item in their problem list with particular attention to those diagnoses that are 1, 2, 3, 4 A, B, D 1, 2, 3 6
  • 7. Recognize common complications of critical care and then initiate the appropriate therapy. 1, 2, 3, 4 A, D 1, 2, 3 Recognize the indications for transfer of patient care to an intensive care unit setting. 1, 2 A, B, C 1, 2, 3 Competency: Interpersonal and Communication Skills Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Interact in an effective way with physicians, residents, nurses and medical support staff. 1, 2 A, B, C 1, 2, 3 Demonstrate understanding of patient preferences in diagnostic evaluation and management of critical situations. 1, 2 A, B, C, E, F 1, 2, 3 Maintain accurate medical records. 1, 2 A, B, C 1, 2, 3 Serve as a patient advocate. 1, 2 A, B, C, E, F 1, 2, 3 Ensure adequate transfer of information when transferring patient to care of another physician. 1, 2 A, B, C, E 1, 2, 3 Communicate efficiently and effectively with referring physician, regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. 1, 2 A, B, C, E 1, 2, 3 Communicate with patients and their families regarding end-of-life issues, categorization, organ donation, and requests for autopsies. 1, 2 A, B, C, D 1, 2, 3 Competency: Professionalism Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Treat team members, primary care- givers, and patients with respect and empathy. 1, 2 A, B, C, E, F 1, 2, 3 Understand, practice and adhere to a code of medical ethics. 1, 2 A, B, C, E 1, 2, 3 Participate actively during rounds. 1, 2 A, B, C 1, 2, 3 Attend and participate in all scheduled 3, 5 Attendance, A 1, 2, 3 7
  • 8. conferences. Competency: Practice-Based Learning Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level Incorporate case studies with relevant research outcomes and report those findings during clinical rounds. 1, 2, 4, 5 A, E 2, 3 Review the outcomes of patient care in order to reflect on the approach taken in the delivery of care. 1, 2, 4, 5 A, E 2, 3 Utilize established practice guidelines for individual diseases to devise care strategies. 1, 2, 4, 5 A, E 2, 3 4. Identify limitations of one’s medical knowledge in evaluation and management of patients and use medical literature (primary and reference) to address these gaps in medical knowledge. 1, 2, 4, 5 A, E 1, 2, 3 Competency: Systems-Based Practice Learning Venues Evaluation Methods Level 1. Understand need for effective communication between multiple caregivers (i.e. emergency room, critical care unit, nurses, physicians, transporters, outpatient clinic, radiology, chest pain center, echo technicians). 1, 2, 3, 4 A, E 1, 2, 3 2. Understand clinical trial design and the statistical methods for evaluating scientific studies, in cooperation with attendings and research nurses/personnel. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 A, B, C, E 2, 3 EVALUATION A. Of Residents At the completion of each rotation, all clinical faculty are required to complete the standard ABIM resident evaluation form. All clinical faculty are encouraged to provide face-to-face feedback with the residents. In addition, residents may receive interim feedback utilizing the ABIM’s Praise and Early Warning cards. B. Of Rotation and Preceptor All residents are encouraged to evaluate the rotation, and the clinical faculty member at the completion of the rotation. This evaluation form is included at the end of this document. These evaluations are then converted to type and shared anonymously with the clinical faculty. 8
  • 9. The program director also discusses the rotation with the residents to ensure rotation quality and satisfaction. 9
  • 10. Critical Care Rotation Resident Check List 1. Evaluation reviewed at mid-month and end of rotation by the supervising faculty member and resident. 2. Completed assigned readings 3. Attended all assigned activities (excluding scheduled time away, required clinics and emergencies). 4. Completed required case report abstracts and/or posters if assigned by the supervising faculty member. 5. Demonstrated understanding of the basic principles of critical care 6. Receive verbal feedback from attending at end of rotation. Intern/Resident Signature_________________________ Date___________________ Supervising attending__________________________ Date___________________ All items must be completed for rotation credit and checklist returned to the Department of Medicine by the rotation’s end. 10