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Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery

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Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery Presentation Transcript

  • Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner Southwest Branch International Dyslexia Association Conference February 9, 2007 Albuquerque, New Mexico
    • Karen S. Vickery, Ed.D., CALT, QI
    • Director, Learning Therapy Center
    • Jana Jones, CALT, QI
    • Coordinator, Learning Therapist Certificate Program
    • School of Education and Human Development
    • Southern Methodist University
    • Dallas, Texas
  • Myths & Misunderstandings About Dyslexia
    • Does not exist – is merely a catch all term for learning problems
    • Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until a child is 8 to 11 years old .
    • It’s a visual problem – people see and write letters and words backward.
    • Forcing a student to read every day will make him or her a better reader.
    View slide
    • More boys than girls are dyslexic
    • Clumsy; trouble tying shoes, etc.
    • Dyslexia affects only
    • English speakers
    View slide
  • Child with a Language Difference
    • 2-D learners
      • Have talent for language
      • Good at sequence and time and events
      • Memory for abstract symbols—letters stand for something
      • Some have photographic memory for words and letters—need to see a word 15-50 times to remember it
    • 3-D learners
      • Have a talent to make, do, draw, build
        • Often intuitive, creative, and good imagination
        • May take up to 1500 repetitions of seeing a word or letter to remember it
        • Usually literal minded, concrete thinkers
        • Do not do well with idioms
          • “ knock it off”
        • Often seen as lazy or immature
  • Dyslexia
    • Important to remember that students with dyslexia can learn
      • They just learn in a different way
      • Not a disease or result of an accident or injury but rather it describes a kind of mind
        • Often gifted and productive mind that learns differently
  • Not a Single Pattern that Identifies a Student with Dyslexia
    • Some
      • Reverse letters—others do not
      • Show related problems with spoken language—others do not
      • Have problems with attention—others do not
      • Have trouble retrieving words to recall them quickly—others do not
      • Have trouble with math—others are talented in math
    • Some students with dyslexia
      • Have problems with organization—others do not
      • Appear insensitive to others—others are very sensitive
      • Have a low self-esteem—others do not
      • Have difficulty with handwriting—others do not
      • Have a slow rate of writing—others do not
  • A Student with Dyslexia has a Unique Pattern Much Like Your Fingerprint
    • Person who reads well with poor comprehension
    • Inaccurate reader with strong comprehension
      • lots of errors, substitutions, omissions of words but somehow the sense of the message is complete
    • Extremely slow reader
    • Strong speller and the slow reader
    • Adequate reader who has enormous difficulty with all written expression
      • Including copying and spelling
    • One that has trouble with all of the above
  • Dyslexia
    • A language based disability
    • Refers to a number of symptoms which result in people having difficulty with specific language skills, particularly reading
    • May also cause difficulties in spelling, writing, and speaking
    •    
    • A life long status
      • Impact may change at different times in a person’s life
    • Referred to as a learning disability because dyslexia can make it very difficult or impossible for a student to succeed academically in an instructional setting
  • Definition of Dyslexia
    • dys— difficulty , hard
    • lex— language , words
    • dyslexia—difficulty with language
  • Working Definition of the International Dyslexia Association
    • Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.
    • Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
  • What Causes Dyslexia?
    • Exact causes are not completely clear.
    • Brain imagery studies (f MRI) show that there are differences in the way the brain of individuals with dyslexia develop and function.
  • Broca’s area Wernike’s area Occipito-temporal Overcoming Dyslexia P. 83
    • A key factor in reading difficulties is that people with dyslexia have trouble hearing and discriminating sounds within words.
    • It is not due to a lack of intelligence or a lack of motivation to learn.
  • How Widespread is Dyslexia?
    • Current research shows that approximately 15-20% of the population has a reading disability.
    • Of that 15-20%, 85% are dyslexic
    School population % w/ reading disability Likely to be dyslexic
    • Dyslexia is non-discriminatory; it occurs in people of all backgrounds.
    • Dyslexia runs in families; dyslexic parents are very likely to have children who are dyslexic.
    • Identification is made very early in some people but for others identification comes very late or not at all.
      • Barbara Foorman, Jack Fletcher, and David Francis Center for Academic and Reading Skills (CARS)
    • Individuals with dyslexia can be very intelligent.
    • Individuals with dyslexia are often gifted in many areas that do not require strong written language skills—such as art, computer science, design, drama, electronics, math, mechanics, sports, music, physics, sales, and business.
  • Some Famous Dyslexics
    • Nelson Rockefeller
    • Winston Churchill
    • Sir Richard Branson
    • Erin Brokovich
    • John T. Chambers
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  • Warning Signs of Dyslexia in Preschool
    • Delayed speech; slow to add new words; difficulty finding the right word
    • Mixing up sounds or syllables in long words
    • Poor memory for nursery rhymes
    • Difficulty learning colors, days of week, numbers, shapes
    • Difficulty learning how to spell or write name
    • Adapted from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
  • Warning Signs of Dyslexia in Elementary School K-3
    • Difficulty understanding that words can be separated into parts (firetruck: fire and truck) and that words can be separated into sounds (tip = /t/ / ĭ / /p/)
    • Difficulty learning letter names and sounds
    • Difficulty reading single words; relies on context clues to recognize words; Can’t remember sight words
    • Slow choppy, inaccurate oral reading
    • Difficulty with daily spelling
    • Adapted from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
  • Warning Signs of Dyslexia in Other Grades 4 th – High School
    • Has difficulty spelling – may use simplified vocabulary when writing.
    • Continues to have reading difficulty
    • Lacks fluency; reads slowly; avoids oral reading
    • Avoids reading for pleasure
    • Difficulty finding the right word when speaking
      • Vocabulary may be inadequate
    • Dreads going to school
      • Complains of headaches, stomach aches
    • Adapted from Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
  • Warning Signs of Dyslexia in High School
    • All of the previous symptoms plus
      • Limited vocabulary
      • Poor written expression
        • Large discrepancy between verbal skills and written composition
      • Difficulty in learning foreign language
      • Poor grades in many classes
      • Danger of dropping out due to feelings of failure
  • Warning Signs of Dyslexia in Adults
    • Education history similar to previous warning signs plus
      • Slow reader
      • May have to read a page 2-3 times to understand it
      • Terrible speller
      • Difficulty putting thoughts on paper – dreads writing
      • Difficulty following directions – gets lost easily
  • Other Effects of Dyslexia
    • Impact is different for each person and depends on the severity of the learning difference.
    • Depends on the type and approach of remediation
    • Reading, spelling, and writing are the most common areas.
    • Some people with dyslexia do not have great difficulty with early reading and spelling but have difficulty when more complex language skills are required.
      • Grammar, understanding textbook material, and writing essays, etc.
    • Some people with dyslexia have problems with spoken language
      • Difficulty expressing themselves clearly
      • Difficulty comprehending or understanding what others mean when they speak
        • May be hard to detect but can lead to major problems in academic settings, the workplace, and in relating to and getting along with other people
    • Effects of dyslexia reach far beyond the classroom
      • Self-image
      • Feelings of being dumb or “different”
      • Feeling of being less capable than they really are
      • Stress due to academic or social problems
      • Discouraged about continuing in school
  • Historical Perspective
    • Late 1800’s
      • Beginning reading emphasized teaching letter/sound relationships
      • Reading and spelling were taught as related skills
      • Cursive handwriting was taught to all students
    • Around early 1900’s
      • Emphasis gradually shifted from directly teaching sound/symbol relationships to a whole word approach
      • A manuscript print form of writing began to be used as the introductory form of handwriting
      • In early 1940’s, cursive handwriting was deferred for approximately two years
    • In 1920’s Dr. Samuel T. Orton
      • Neuropsychiatrist and Pathologist
      • Pioneer in focusing attention on reading failure and related language processing difficulties
      • Provided the medical psychological research
      • The work that Dr. Samuel T. Orton did stood as the foundation for many of the curriculums used today.
    • Dr. Samuel T. Orton
      • Saw patients unable to read, spell, or write but could determine no physical cause
      • Dr. Orton recognized that the treatment was educational
      • Dr. Orton prescribed specialized multisensory teaching techniques
    • In 1930’s
      • Dr. Orton worked closely with a number of educators including Anna Gillingham
      • Anna Gillingham
        • Educator and Psychologist
        • Teacher Trainer
        • Provided the educational treatment
      • Anna Gillingham had already been using multisensory techniques before she worked with Dr. Orton
      • She and Bessie Stillman co-authored a teacher manual for the “alphabetic method” on Dr. Orton’s theories
        • Original manual published in 1935
        • Believed both students and teachers must be taught one-to-one
    • 1965-1975
      • Under direction of Aylett R. Cox and Dr. Lucius Waites, the staff of the Dyslexia Child Study Unit at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas extended and refined Orton-Gillingham methodology into a program known as Alphabetic Phonics.
        • Taught in small, homogeneous groups of 6-8 students
        • Trained teachers in groups
    • 1985
      • Southern Methodist University Learning Therapy Program was established
        • Division of Evening, Summer, and Continuing Studies
        • Four courses were offered to train teachers to work with students with dyslexia
    • Today
      • Southern Methodist University
        • School of Education and Human Development
          • Learning Therapy Center
            • Learning Therapist Certificate Program
            • Dyslexia Teaching Level Certificate Program
            • Diagnostic Center for Dyslexia and Related Disorders
            • Academic Enhancements Workshops for Youth during the summer
  • SMU
    • Learning Therapist Certificate Program
      • Two year course of study
      • 22 graduate credit hours certificate program
        • 16 graduate credit hours for core courses
        • 4 graduate credit hours for practicum
          • 700 clinical teaching hours
          • 10 demonstration lessons
        • 2 graduate credit hours in electives of supporting topics
        • Masters of Education in Learning Therapy
  • SMU
    • Dyslexia Teaching Level Certificate Program
      • 9 month course of study
      • 5 graduate credit hours certificate program
        • 90 contact hours of instruction in core curriculum
        • 90 practicum teaching hours
        • 5 demonstration lessons
  • Basic Facts of the Orton Gillingham Approach
    • The phrase “Orton-Gillingham approach” refers to the structured, sequential, multisensory techniques established by Dr. Orton and Ms. Gillingham and their colleagues
    • Originally designed for one-to-one instruction for remedial tutors but is appropriate for teaching individuals, small groups, and classrooms at all levels.
    • Studies from the NICHD indicate that for beginning and struggling readers this method is most effective.
    • The Orton-Gillingham approach has been well respected for over 50 years.
    • This approach is rooted in years of neurological, psychological, and educational research.
  • What is Taught?
    • Phoneme and Phonological Awareness
    • Sound-Symbol Association
    • Syllable Instruction
    • Morphology
    • Syntax
    • Semantics
  • How is it Taught?
    • Simultaneous
    • Multisensory
    • Systematic and Cumulative
    • Direct Instruction
    • Diagnostic Teaching
    • Synthetic and Analytic Instruction
  • Distinguishing Features of the Orton-Gillingham Approach
    • Summary from June Orton, the wife of Samuel Orton
      • It is a direct approach to the study of phonics, presenting the sounds of the phonograms orally as separate units and then teaching the process of blending them into syllables and words.
      • It is an integrated, total language approach.
      • Each unit sequence is established through hearing, speaking, seeing, and writing.
      • Auditory, visual, and kinesthetic patterns reinforce each other and this also provides for individual differences among the students.
      • It is a circular, multisensory process.
    • It is a systematic step-by-step approach, proceeding from the simpler to the more complex in orderly progression in an upward spiral of language development.
    • In a 1974 interview with Margaret Rawson
      • Stated that while Dr. Orton gave Anna Gillingham the principles of organization, she took the ball and ran with it.
        • Anna Gillingham organized the material or put the language into some sort of rational organization for use in teaching.
        • Perspectives, Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia Association
    • In their manuals, Gillingham and Stillman direct
    • the teacher to assist children in making numerous visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile linkages
        • Portrayed by their “language triangle”
    • Perspectives, Fall 2006,
    • The International Dyslexia Association
    A-K Visual Auditory Kinesthetic A-V V-K
    • Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman described eight possible linkages and noted that three of these linkages require routine drill during each lesson
      • Translation of seen symbol into sound
      • Translation of sound into named symbol
      • Translation of sound into written symbol
      • Perspectives, Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia Association
  • Alphabetic Phonics
    • According to Aylett Cox
    • Alphabetic Phonics is an organization and expansion of the Orton-Gillingham multisensory approach.
    • Alphabetic Phonics began at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Dallas in the mid 1960’s as a collaboration between Sally Childs and Lucius Waites (a pediatric neurologist who established the Child Development Division at the hospital)
    • The program was developed and revised over a ten year period during which over 1,000 children with dyslexia came daily to Waite’s clinic for remedial instruction.
    • Alphabetic Phonics was expanded from tutorials to small group instruction to meet the needs of the number of children referred to the language lab.
  • What Does Multisensory Teaching Look Like?
  • How do people learn?
    • 1% through TASTE
    • 1.5% through TOUCH
    • 3.5% through SMELL
    • 11% through HEARING
    • 83% through SIGHT
  • How much is retained?
    • 10% of what is READ
    • 20% of what is HEARD
    • 30% of what is SEEN
    • 50% of what is SEEN & HEARD simultaneously
    • 70% of what is SAID as you TALK
    • 90% of what is SAID as you DO a thing
  • Time Span of Retention 65% 85% Blend of Show /Tell/Do 20% 72% Showing used alone 10% 70% Lecture Recall 3 days later Recall 3 hours later Method of Instruction
    • Everything we learn enters through our sensory pathways.
    • How well we attend to and retain this sensory input determines our learning.
    • The simultaneous access to multiple sensory pathways increases our potential to learn.
  • Multisensory Teaching Uses the Three Pathways of Learning
    • Auditory
    • Visual
    • Kinesthetic-tactile
  • Guided Discovery
    • Guided discovery involves the student’s three pathways of learning.
    • Socratic questioning or “guided questions” is leading students to the answers without telling them.
    • Because of the memory systems and the need to stimulate multiple modalities, the “discovery” approach to instruction has proven to be quite effective with dyslexic students.
  • Auditory Discovery
    • Use questioning techniques to present auditory discovery, linking the new to the known, and building on similarities or differences.
        • What do you hear that is the same?
    • Socratic questioning is a form of auditory discovery.
    V A K
  • Visual Discovery
    • After students are introduced to an auditory discovery, the visual symbols representing the new concept or phoneme are presented using questioning techniques to lead students to self-discovery.
        • What do you see that is the same?
    • Chalktalk and coding are techniques used in visual discovery.
  • Kinesthetic-Tactile Discovery
    • Skywriting and ‘feelies’ are techniques used in kinesthetic-tactile discovery
    • Making a concept card
    • Coding words on the board
    • Trace & Copy letter shapes
    • Workbook page
    • Spelling Notebook
  • Elements of Discovery Learning Discovery Learning Brain Power Develops natural curiosity to learn Holds interest Active participate responsibility Strengthens knowledge of relationships between concepts Develops decision-making skills Develops ability to retrieve information Links new with old knowledge
  • Mastery Model of Teaching and Learning
    • Uses the Following:
      • Prior Knowledge
      • New Learning
      • Review
      • Practice
      • MASTERY
  • Little drops of water on the rock
  • Multisensory Instruction
    • Multisensory refers to any learning activity that includes the use of two or more sensory modalities simultaneously to take in or express information.
      • Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Louisa C. Moats and Mary L. Farrell
    • Multisensory instruction links listening, reading, spelling, and writing.
    • Multisensory instruction supports and strengthens the connection of oral language and visual language symbols (letters).
    • When people with dyslexia use all of their senses (visual, auditory, kinesthetic- tactile) as they learn, they are better able to store and retrieve the information.
      • A student with dyslexia sees the letter a , says its name and sound, and writes it in the air simultaneously.
      • This is skywriting.
    • Everything we learn, enters through our sensory pathways.
    • The simultaneous access to multiple sensory pathways increases our potential to learn.
    • How well we attend to and retain this sensory input determines our learning.
  •  
  • Mastery Model of Teaching & Learning Prior Knowledge feelings ideas memories experiences motivations concepts New Learning Review Mastery 95% Practice cumulative automaticity Discovery Short term memory
  • Introduce Review Practice
  • How is it taught?
    • Simultaneous Multisensory Instruction
      • Using the senses (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic-Tactile) to assist with the ability to store and also recall information
      • This is emphasized through sky writing during a lesson .
    • Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    • Intense Instruction/Consistent Practice
      • The instruction provides a greater degree of intensity than that of traditional reading instruction.
    • Practice, Practice, Practice . . .
    • Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    • Direct, Explicit Instruction
      • A student is taught directly and explicitly the rules that govern written language.
    • Systematic and Cumulative
      • A firm foundation must be established that includes the logical reasoning behind our language. Prior-knowledge is used as a framework for newly introduced information and follows a logical progression.
    • Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    • Synthetic and Analytic
      • Synthetic : how letters come together to
    • form a word
      • Analytic : breaking a word into smaller parts
    • Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    • Diagnostic Teaching
      • The teacher is always assessing the needs of the student. There is an in-depth awareness of an individual student and his or her ability to apply new knowledge accurately and consistently.
    • Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    • There is a suggested alignment and rotation of activities to be presented in daily one hour sessions
    • Ordered daily presentation of activities and materials
      • New concepts based on previous learning
      • Concepts taught gradually, one at a time
      • Adequate practice provided to insure student’s complete absorption of materials
          • Foundations For Literacy by Aylett R. Cox
    • Four schedules of daily plans to guide teacher
      • Planning balanced lessons
      • Rotating demands on student’s three learning modalities
      • Extending student’s secondary language skills
      • Provide practice at each level
      • Adjust pace to individual needs
          • Foundations For Literacy by Aylett R. Cox
    • Precise steps in procedures
      • Presented to student through major avenues of his perception with same sequential steps
      • Patterns for acquisition of new learning established regardless of which sensory pathways are weak
      • Strong cognitive functions will support the weaker ones until all develop to sufficient level of efficiency
          • Foundations For Literacy by Aylett R. Cox
      • Rapid rotation of activities
        • Small increments of new learning readily absorbed if activity is not prolonged beyond 5 or 10 minutes of Reading, Handwriting, Spelling
        • Activities should be alternated in same sequence each day
        • Sequence should be posted
          • Foundations For Literacy by Aylett R. Cox
    • Periodic measures of progress
      • Bench Mark Measures determine progress at each level of training
      • Assures teacher that student’s knowledge is secure before advancing to next level
      • Success on each measure serves as motivational incentive for student while encouraging self-confidence
      • New learning based on well-established concepts to enable student to integrate skills systematically, successfully, and permanently
          • Foundations For Literacy by Aylett R. Cox
      • The teacher
        • must correlate all properties of each letter in presenting
          • reading
          • spelling
          • handwriting
        • Must train student to develop automatic responses which are
          • auditory
          • visual
          • kinesthetic, tactile
    • Essentials
    • of
    • Effective
    • S cientific
    • Instruction
    • If instruction is planned to meet the
    • differing needs of learners, it is
    • individualized.
    • If instruction is based on the knowledge
    • and skill of experts from many fields,
    • including education, medicine, psychology,
    • social work, and language theory we call it
    • multidisciplinary.
    • If instruction simultaneously uses the
    • learning pathways of visual (seeing),
    • auditory (hearing), and kinesthetic-tactile
    • (feeling), then it is multisensory.
    • Instruction makes sense when it takes advantage of the alphabetic principle.
    • The term alphabetic principle refers to an understanding that letters represent sounds and that letters are ordered in a specific sequence in speech and that speech maps onto print.
    • If the sounds of the letters can be blended
    • into words for reading, and the words can be
    • divided into the sounds they are made of for
    • spelling and writing then we call the process
    • synthetic-analytic.
    • Material is organized and taught in a way
    • that is logical and fits the nature of our
    • language. The procedure is systematic .
    • The learner moves, step by step, in order,
    • from simple, well-learned material to that
    • which is more and more complex, as he or
    • she masters the necessary body of
    • language skills. The teaching is sequential .
    • Each step of the way is based on those
    • already learned. The process is cumulative .
    • The ultimate goal is for a student to understand
    • the reasons for what he is learning so that he can
    • think his way through language problems. The
    • purpose of it all, from recognizing a letter to
    • writing a poem, is getting meaning from one
    • person’s mind to another’s. Communication is
    • paramount.
  • GOOD NEWS!!!!
    • Good news is that students with dyslexia can be helped.
    • Most can be helped to cope with their language difficulties if they are well diagnosed and taught appropriately.
    • Using multisensory educational methods, they can learn to read and write.
    • Perhaps most important of all, with the understanding, support, and encouragement of parents and teachers they can avoid the hurt and burden of failure and frustration that affects their lives.