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Characteristics of theCharacteristics of the
Dyslexic LearnerDyslexic Learner
Southwest BranchSouthwest Branch
Internation...
Karen S. Vickery, Ed.D., CALT, QIKaren S. Vickery, Ed.D., CALT, QI
Director, Learning Therapy CenterDirector, Learning The...
Myths & MisunderstandingsMyths & Misunderstandings
About DyslexiaAbout Dyslexia
 Does not exist – is merely a catch all t...
 More boys than girls are dyslexicMore boys than girls are dyslexic
 Clumsy; trouble tying shoes, etc.Clumsy; trouble ty...
Child with a LanguageChild with a Language
DifferenceDifference
 2-D learners2-D learners
 Have talent for languageHave ...
 3-D learners3-D learners
 Have a talent to make, do, draw, buildHave a talent to make, do, draw, build
 Often intuitiv...
DyslexiaDyslexia
 Important to remember that students withImportant to remember that students with
dyslexia can learndysl...
Not a Single Pattern thatNot a Single Pattern that
Identifies a Student with DyslexiaIdentifies a Student with Dyslexia
 ...
 Some students with dyslexiaSome students with dyslexia
 Have problems with organization—others do notHave problems with...
A Student with Dyslexia has aA Student with Dyslexia has a
Unique Pattern Much Like YourUnique Pattern Much Like Your
Fing...
 Extremely slow readerExtremely slow reader
 Strong speller and the slow readerStrong speller and the slow reader
 Adeq...
DyslexiaDyslexia
 A language based disabilityA language based disability
 Refers to a number of symptoms whichRefers to ...
 May also cause difficulties in spelling,May also cause difficulties in spelling,
writing, and speakingwriting, and speak...
 Referred to as a learning disabilityReferred to as a learning disability
because dyslexia can make it verybecause dyslex...
Definition of DyslexiaDefinition of Dyslexia
 dys—dys—difficultydifficulty,, hardhard
 lex—lex—languagelanguage,, wordsw...
Working Definition of theWorking Definition of the
International DyslexiaInternational Dyslexia AssociationAssociation
 D...
 Secondary consequences may includeSecondary consequences may include
problems in reading comprehension andproblems in re...
What Causes Dyslexia?What Causes Dyslexia?
 Exact causes are not completely clear.Exact causes are not completely clear.
...
Broca’s
area
Wernike’s
area
Occipito-
temporal
 A key factor in reading difficulties is thatA key factor in reading difficulties is that
people with dyslexia have troub...
How Widespread is Dyslexia?How Widespread is Dyslexia?
 Current research shows thatCurrent research shows that
approximat...
 Dyslexia is non-discriminatory; it occurs inDyslexia is non-discriminatory; it occurs in
people of all backgrounds.peopl...
 Individuals with dyslexia can be veryIndividuals with dyslexia can be very
intelligent.intelligent.
 Individuals with d...
Some Famous DyslexicsSome Famous Dyslexics
 Nelson RockefellerNelson Rockefeller
 Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill
 S...
Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in
PreschoolPreschool
 Delayed speech; slow to add new words;Delaye...
Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in
Elementary School K-3Elementary School K-3
 Difficulty understan...
 Difficulty reading single words; relies on contextDifficulty reading single words; relies on context
clues to recognize ...
Warning Signs of Dyslexia in OtherWarning Signs of Dyslexia in Other
GradesGrades 44thth
– High School– High School
 Has ...
 Difficulty finding the right word when speakingDifficulty finding the right word when speaking
 Vocabulary may be inade...
Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in
High SchoolHigh School
 All of the previous symptoms plusAll of ...
Warning Signs of Dyslexia in AdultsWarning Signs of Dyslexia in Adults
 Education history similar to previous warningEduc...
Other Effects of DyslexiaOther Effects of Dyslexia
 Impact is different for each person and dependsImpact is different fo...
 Some people with dyslexia do not have greatSome people with dyslexia do not have great
difficulty with early reading and...
 Some people with dyslexia have problemsSome people with dyslexia have problems
with spoken languagewith spoken language
...
 Effects of dyslexia reach far beyond theEffects of dyslexia reach far beyond the
classroomclassroom
 Self-imageSelf-ima...
Historical PerspectiveHistorical Perspective
 Late 1800’sLate 1800’s
 Beginning reading emphasized teachingBeginning rea...
 Around early 1900’sAround early 1900’s
 Emphasis gradually shifted from directly teachingEmphasis gradually shifted fro...
 In 1920’s Dr. Samuel T. OrtonIn 1920’s Dr. Samuel T. Orton
 Neuropsychiatrist and PathologistNeuropsychiatrist and Path...
 Dr. Samuel T. OrtonDr. Samuel T. Orton
 Saw patients unable to read, spell, or writeSaw patients unable to read, spell,...
 In 1930’sIn 1930’s
 Dr. Orton worked closely with a numberDr. Orton worked closely with a number
of educators including...
 Anna Gillingham had already been usingAnna Gillingham had already been using
multisensory techniques before she worked w...
 1965-19751965-1975
 Under direction of Aylett R. Cox andUnder direction of Aylett R. Cox and
Dr. Lucius Waites, the sta...
 19851985
 Southern Methodist University Learning TherapySouthern Methodist University Learning Therapy
Program was esta...
 TodayToday
 Southern Methodist UniversitySouthern Methodist University
 School of Education and Human DevelopmentSchoo...
SMUSMU
 Learning Therapist Certificate ProgramLearning Therapist Certificate Program
 Two year course of studyTwo year c...
SMUSMU
 Dyslexia Teaching Level Certificate ProgramDyslexia Teaching Level Certificate Program
 9 month course of study9...
Basic Facts of theBasic Facts of the
Orton Gillingham ApproachOrton Gillingham Approach
 The phrase “Orton-Gillingham app...
 Studies from the NICHD indicate that forStudies from the NICHD indicate that for
beginning and struggling readers this m...
What is Taught?What is Taught?
 Phoneme and Phonological AwarenessPhoneme and Phonological Awareness
 Sound-Symbol Assoc...
How is it Taught?How is it Taught?
 SimultaneousSimultaneous
 MultisensoryMultisensory
 Systematic and CumulativeSystem...
Distinguishing Features of theDistinguishing Features of the
Orton-Gillingham ApproachOrton-Gillingham Approach
 Summary ...
 It is an integrated, total language approach.It is an integrated, total language approach.
 Each unit sequence is estab...
 It is a systematic step-by-It is a systematic step-by-
step approach,step approach,
proceeding from theproceeding from t...
 In a 1974 interview with Margaret RawsonIn a 1974 interview with Margaret Rawson
 Stated that while Dr. Orton gave Anna...
 In their manuals, Gillingham and Stillman directIn their manuals, Gillingham and Stillman direct
the teacher to assist c...
 Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman describedAnna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman described
eight possible linkages and n...
Alphabetic PhonicsAlphabetic Phonics
 According toAccording to Aylett CoxAylett Cox
Alphabetic PhonicsAlphabetic Phonics ...
 Alphabetic Phonics began at Texas ScottishAlphabetic Phonics began at Texas Scottish
Rite Hospital for Children in Dalla...
 The program was developed and revised overThe program was developed and revised over
a ten year period during which over...
What Does Multisensory TeachingWhat Does Multisensory Teaching
Look Like?Look Like?
How do people learn?How do people learn?
1% through TASTE1% through TASTE
1.5% through TOUCH1.5% through TOUCH
3.5% throug...
How much is retained?How much is retained?
10% of what is READ10% of what is READ
20% of what is HEARD20% of what is HEARD...
Time Span of RetentionTime Span of Retention
Method of InstructionMethod of Instruction Recall 3Recall 3
hours laterhours ...
 Everything we learn enters throughEverything we learn enters through
our sensory pathways.our sensory pathways.
 How we...
Multisensory Teaching Uses theMultisensory Teaching Uses the
Three Pathways of LearningThree Pathways of Learning
 Audito...
Guided DiscoveryGuided Discovery
 Guided discovery involves the student’s threeGuided discovery involves the student’s th...
Auditory DiscoveryAuditory Discovery
 Use questioning techniques to present auditoryUse questioning techniques to present...
Visual DiscoveryVisual Discovery
 After students are introduced to an auditoryAfter students are introduced to an auditor...
Kinesthetic-Tactile DiscoveryKinesthetic-Tactile Discovery
 Skywriting and ‘feelies’ are techniques usedSkywriting and ‘f...
Elements of Discovery LearningElements of Discovery Learning
Discovery Learning
Brain Power
Develops natural
curiosity to ...
Mastery Model of Teaching andMastery Model of Teaching and
LearningLearning
 Uses the Following:Uses the Following:
 Pri...
Little drops of water on the rockLittle drops of water on the rock
Multisensory InstructionMultisensory Instruction
 Multisensory refers to any learning activityMultisensory refers to any ...
 Multisensory instruction links listening,Multisensory instruction links listening,
reading, spelling, and writing.readin...
 When people with dyslexia use all of theirWhen people with dyslexia use all of their
senses (visual, auditory, kinesthet...
 Everything we learn, enters through ourEverything we learn, enters through our
sensory pathways.sensory pathways.
 The ...
Mastery Model ofMastery Model of
Teaching & LearningTeaching & Learning
Prior
Knowledg
e
feelings ideas
memories
experienc...
IntroduceIntroduce
ReviewReview
PracticePractice
How is it taught?How is it taught?
 Simultaneous Multisensory InstructionSimultaneous Multisensory Instruction
 Using th...
 Intense Instruction/Consistent PracticeIntense Instruction/Consistent Practice
 The instruction provides a greater degr...
 Direct, Explicit InstructionDirect, Explicit Instruction
 A student is taught directly and explicitlyA student is taugh...
 Systematic and CumulativeSystematic and Cumulative
 A firm foundation must be established thatA firm foundation must be...
 Synthetic and AnalyticSynthetic and Analytic
 SyntheticSynthetic: how letters come together to: how letters come togeth...
 Diagnostic TeachingDiagnostic Teaching
 The teacher is always assessing the needs ofThe teacher is always assessing the...
 There is a suggested alignment and rotation ofThere is a suggested alignment and rotation of
activities to be presented ...
 Four schedules of daily plans to guide teacherFour schedules of daily plans to guide teacher
 Planning balanced lessons...
 Precise steps in proceduresPrecise steps in procedures
 Presented to student through major avenues of hisPresented to s...
Rapid rotation of activitiesRapid rotation of activities
 Small increments of new learning readilySmall increments of new...
 Periodic measures of progressPeriodic measures of progress
 Bench Mark Measures determine progress at eachBench Mark Me...
 The teacherThe teacher
 must correlate all properties of eachmust correlate all properties of each
letter in presenting...
EssentialsEssentials
ofof
EffectiveEffective
SScientificcientific
InstructionInstruction
 If instruction is planned to meet theIf instruction is planned to meet the
differing needs of learners, it isdiffering n...
 If instruction is based on the knowledgeIf instruction is based on the knowledge
and skill of experts from many fields,a...
 If instruction simultaneously uses theIf instruction simultaneously uses the
learning pathways of visual (seeing),learni...
 Instruction makes sense when it takes advantageInstruction makes sense when it takes advantage
of theof the alphabetic p...
 If the sounds of the letters can be blendedIf the sounds of the letters can be blended
into words for reading, and the w...
 Material is organized and taught in a wayMaterial is organized and taught in a way
that is logical and fits the nature o...
 The learner moves, step by step, in order,The learner moves, step by step, in order,
from simple, well-learned material ...
 Each step of the way is based on thoseEach step of the way is based on those
already learned. The process isalready lear...
The ultimate goal is for a student to understandThe ultimate goal is for a student to understand
the reasons for what he ...
GOOD NEWS!!!!GOOD NEWS!!!!
 Good news is that students with dyslexia can beGood news is that students with dyslexia can b...
 Perhaps most important of all, with thePerhaps most important of all, with the
understanding, support, and encouragement...
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery
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  • Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. This Definition is also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).
    IDA works in collaboration with the National Center for Learning Disabilities and the National Institute of Child Health and Development
    Neurological – not a disease, not caused by illness or accident
    Fluent word recognition - The difficulty is seen most dramatically at the single word level. It is harder for dyslexics to read a list of words than to read connected text because they cannot depend upon their intelligence to predict and figure out the words from the meaning of the text.
    Phonological component: Phonological Awareness - a student is aware that spoken words are made of a sequence of blended speech sounds (phonemes). Once they understand that spoken words are made of sounds, learning letter/sound correspondences becomes a meaningful task. Students can make the connection between speech and print. Phoneme Awareness comes later
    Unexpected: Student’s performance at oral level does not match written performance. When written language is involved, student’s performance suffers. Child appears to be brighter that is reflected by work and performance.
    NOTE:  This definition implies that the difficulty is not simply with reading but includes spelling and writing, and broader aspects of language such as speaking.
    Both definitions concur that dyslexia is a disorder that makes it difficult to learn the language, learn to read, and to write sentences.
    Dyslexia is the most common cause of reading, writing and spelling difficulties .
  • Page 83 Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz
    The two major pathways are shown on this graphic – the upper pathway (Wernike’s area) and the lower, speedier pathway (the occipito temporal) runs closer to the bottom of the brain just above and slightly behind the ear.
    The job of Wernike’s Area’s is to analyze the letters and link them to sounds (Reading Skill or decoding) This area is for beginning reading.
    The Occipito Temporal region is the expressway to reading – one brief glance and the word and all its relevant information is automatically recognized. This area is primarily used for skilled reading
    A third pathway, Broca’s Area also helps word analysis – but slowly. Broca’s Area governs speech production, or articulation (area was discovered thru autopsy of person’s who lost ability to speak)
    Most of the reading part of the brain is in the back and is called the Posterior Reading System
    Good readers activate interconnected neural pathways in the back and front of the brain.
    Dyslexic readers rely on alternate secondary pathways – a different, less efficient way to read. They underactivate the reading system in the back of the brain and tend to overactivate the frontal areaThink of it as a manual system rather than an automatic system.
  • This is the basic premise of Phonological Awareness:
    Phonological awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the sounds of language, It includes identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language such as words, syllables, onsets and rimes, rhyming, alliteration, intonation – as well as phonemes, or sounds in words
    .
    Dyslexics have to work much harder to analyze sound patterns – this is easy to understand because we now know that the brain is not functioning in the most efficient way for sound analysis.
  • You'll find people with dyslexia in every field. However, many excel and become "super stars" in the following fields:
    Nelson Rockefeller. Looking back over the years, I remember vividly the pain and mortification I felt as a boy of eight, when I was assigned to read a short passage of Scripture at a community vesper service during summer vacation in Maine - and did a thoroughly miserable job of it. I know what a dyslexic child goes through - the frustration of not being able to do what other children do easily, the humiliation of being thought not too bright when such is not the case at all. My personal discoveries as to what is required to cope with dyslexia could be summarised in these admonitions to the individual dyslexic….Accept the fact that you have a problem - don't just try to hide it. Refuse to feel sorry for yourself.Realise that you don't have an excuse - you have a challenge. Face the challenge.Work harder and learn mental discipline - the capacity for total concentration. Never quit.If it helps a dyslexic child to know I went through the same thing… But can conduct press conferences today in three languages And can read a speech on television (Though I may have to rehearse it six times, with my script in large type, my sentences broken into syllables and long words broken into syllables) And learned to read and communicate well enough to be elected Governor of New York- four times And to win congressional confirmation as Vice-President of the United States…
    General George Patton “Old Blood and Guts” - learned to read at a very late age as a child having never seen a printed page until starting school at the age of 12, and suffering from dyslexia. He also never learned basic skills such as proper spelling. Because of the late academic start that he received, it took him 5 years to graduate from West Point, although he did rise to become Adjutant of the Corps of Cadets. While at times tactless and sarcastic, unpredictable and explosive, he was gifted at improvising with what he had and was a master at adapting to the situation. Patton had a special gift for assessing the circumstances and devising a plan to meet the challenge .
    Winston Churchill
    Woodrow Wilson
    JFK and RFK are both dyslexics supporting the familial trait. JFK Jr. also reported to be dyslexic
    Gaston Caperton: 2-time gov. of W. Virginia & current president of The College Board It’s a long way from almost flunking out of high school to the Governor’s Mansion, and Caperton was quick to admit that “school is the hardest part of life” for someone with dyslexia. “I haven’t had to take a spelling test [since school.] I don’t have to read out loud. I can dial a telephone and nobody knows if I miss three out of the ten digits,” he laughed. Noting that he has a much easier time ad-libbing his speeches —“it takes me four times longer than anyone else to read a speech out loud”—Caperton added that the hardest challenge he deals with today are the self-doubting voices in his head “that always show up when I don’t want them to.” But he’s learned to overcome those nagging fears, like the time he went for a job interview and “halfway through the interview, I got a voice in my head saying, ‘Do you think they’re going to check my SAT scores?’ Fortunately, they didn’t, and I got the job!”
    .
  • Sir Richard Branson-
    Paul Orfalea
    Charles Schwab
    Thomas Alva Edison
    Henry Ford
  • Charles “Pete” Conrad, Jr.
    Stephen J. Cannell
    Hans Christian Andersen
    Patricia Pollaco
    John Lennon
    Agatha Christie
  • Nolan Ryan
    Magic Johnson
    Jackie Stewart Reclining in the comfort of an executive limousine and looking every inch the motor-racing legend and multimillionaire businessman that he is, Sir Jackie Stewart shared that his parents were baffled by his poor performance at school. He remembers with horror one occasion when, as a little boy, he was asked to read in front of the class. "All I could see as I looked at the book was a jungle: a whole clutter of words. My teacher, Miss Shaw, was telling me to get on with it, but I was blushing and couldn't swallow. "All around me, the other children were sniggering, or pretending to blow their noses to hide their laughter." Describing school as "the most painful and humiliating period of my life," he recalls his desire to leave school at the age of 15. "When you are being called thick, dumb and stupid, you end up leaning towards others who are like you, who won't humiliate and abuse you. Unfortunately, I ended up in a very bad crowd." Duncan GoodhewWhen Duncan Goodhew won the 100 meter breaststroke gold medal at the Moscow Olympics in 1980, he knew his life would never be the same. He said, "For me, the whole process of swimming was to change the deck of cards, because dyslexia is incredibly corrosive to your spirit. "At the age of seven, I was asked to read out loud in class. I was laughed at because I was struggling. I was fidgeting so much that I was literally tied to a chair and put in a corner with the dunce's hat on."There was a lack of understanding then -- and it's still happening. "Dyslexia is like being in a job you're not qualified for, and you don't speak the language. You're sitting there being told you are stupid all day, every day. "School gave me a fundamental understanding of what I was not good at. It gave me an acute desire to find something, a life preserver, and I found swimming."
    Bruce Jenner
    Joe Montana
  • Robin Williams
    Tom Cruise
    Steven Speilberg
    Jay Leno
    Walt Disney
    Harry Belafonte - Due to problems with dyslexia, Belafonte dropped out of high school and at the age of 17, he joined the US Navy for a couple of years. Belafonte was very politically active working as a cultural adviser to the Peace Corps, chairing the New York State Martin Luther King Jr Commission and founding the Institute for Non-Violence.In 1985, it was Belafonte who came up with the idea for the song 'We Are The world' to help raise funds for the famine affected people of Ethiopia. The record generated more than 70 million dollars.Belafonte became a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in 1987 and chaired the welcoming committee for Nelson Mandela's visit to the USA in 1988.Cher
    Whoopi Goldberg
  • What sound do you hear in these words?
    truck
    pick
    deck
    clock
    mack
  • F 1s bw (k) = ck
  • Multisensory teaching is simultaneously visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile to
    enhance memory and learning. Links are consistently made between the visual (what
    we see), auditory (what we hear), and kinesthetic-tactile (what we feel) pathways in
    learning to read and spell.
  • At end of slide – display wall schedule strip
  • Transcript of "Characteristics of the Dyslexic Learner - Karen Vickery"

    1. 1. Characteristics of theCharacteristics of the Dyslexic LearnerDyslexic Learner Southwest BranchSouthwest Branch International Dyslexia Association ConferenceInternational Dyslexia Association Conference February 9, 2007February 9, 2007 Albuquerque, New MexicoAlbuquerque, New Mexico
    2. 2. Karen S. Vickery, Ed.D., CALT, QIKaren S. Vickery, Ed.D., CALT, QI Director, Learning Therapy CenterDirector, Learning Therapy Center Jana Jones, CALT, QIJana Jones, CALT, QI Coordinator, Learning Therapist Certificate ProgramCoordinator, Learning Therapist Certificate Program School of Education and Human DevelopmentSchool of Education and Human Development Southern Methodist UniversitySouthern Methodist University Dallas, TexasDallas, Texas
    3. 3. Myths & MisunderstandingsMyths & Misunderstandings About DyslexiaAbout Dyslexia  Does not exist – is merely a catch all termDoes not exist – is merely a catch all term for learning problemsfor learning problems  Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until a childDyslexia cannot be diagnosed until a child is 8 to 11 years oldis 8 to 11 years old..  It’s a visual problem – people see andIt’s a visual problem – people see and write letters and words backward.write letters and words backward.  Forcing a student to read every day willForcing a student to read every day will make him or her a better reader.make him or her a better reader.
    4. 4.  More boys than girls are dyslexicMore boys than girls are dyslexic  Clumsy; trouble tying shoes, etc.Clumsy; trouble tying shoes, etc.  Dyslexia affects onlyDyslexia affects only English speakersEnglish speakers
    5. 5. Child with a LanguageChild with a Language DifferenceDifference  2-D learners2-D learners  Have talent for languageHave talent for language  Good at sequence and time and eventsGood at sequence and time and events  Memory for abstract symbols—letters stand forMemory for abstract symbols—letters stand for somethingsomething  Some have photographic memory for words andSome have photographic memory for words and letters—need to see a word 15-50 times toletters—need to see a word 15-50 times to remember itremember it
    6. 6.  3-D learners3-D learners  Have a talent to make, do, draw, buildHave a talent to make, do, draw, build  Often intuitive, creative, and good imaginationOften intuitive, creative, and good imagination  May take up to 1500 repetitions of seeing aMay take up to 1500 repetitions of seeing a word or letter to remember itword or letter to remember it  Usually literal minded, concrete thinkersUsually literal minded, concrete thinkers  Do not do well with idiomsDo not do well with idioms  ““knock it off”knock it off”  Often seen as lazy or immatureOften seen as lazy or immature
    7. 7. DyslexiaDyslexia  Important to remember that students withImportant to remember that students with dyslexia can learndyslexia can learn  They just learn in a different wayThey just learn in a different way  Not a disease or result of an accident or injury butNot a disease or result of an accident or injury but rather it describes a kind of mindrather it describes a kind of mind  Often gifted and productive mind that learnsOften gifted and productive mind that learns differentlydifferently
    8. 8. Not a Single Pattern thatNot a Single Pattern that Identifies a Student with DyslexiaIdentifies a Student with Dyslexia  SomeSome  Reverse letters—others do notReverse letters—others do not  Show related problems with spoken language—Show related problems with spoken language— others do notothers do not  Have problems with attention—others do notHave problems with attention—others do not  Have trouble retrieving words to recall them quicklyHave trouble retrieving words to recall them quickly —others do not—others do not  Have trouble with math—others are talented inHave trouble with math—others are talented in mathmath
    9. 9.  Some students with dyslexiaSome students with dyslexia  Have problems with organization—others do notHave problems with organization—others do not  Appear insensitive to others—others are veryAppear insensitive to others—others are very sensitivesensitive  Have a low self-esteem—others do notHave a low self-esteem—others do not  Have difficulty with handwriting—others do notHave difficulty with handwriting—others do not  Have a slow rate of writing—others do notHave a slow rate of writing—others do not
    10. 10. A Student with Dyslexia has aA Student with Dyslexia has a Unique Pattern Much Like YourUnique Pattern Much Like Your FingerprintFingerprint  Person who reads well with poor comprehensionPerson who reads well with poor comprehension  Inaccurate reader with strong comprehensionInaccurate reader with strong comprehension  lots of errors, substitutions, omissions of wordslots of errors, substitutions, omissions of words but somehow the sense of the message isbut somehow the sense of the message is completecomplete
    11. 11.  Extremely slow readerExtremely slow reader  Strong speller and the slow readerStrong speller and the slow reader  Adequate reader who has enormous difficultyAdequate reader who has enormous difficulty with all written expressionwith all written expression  Including copying and spellingIncluding copying and spelling  One that has trouble with all of the aboveOne that has trouble with all of the above
    12. 12. DyslexiaDyslexia  A language based disabilityA language based disability  Refers to a number of symptoms whichRefers to a number of symptoms which result in people having difficulty withresult in people having difficulty with specific language skills, particularly readingspecific language skills, particularly reading
    13. 13.  May also cause difficulties in spelling,May also cause difficulties in spelling, writing, and speakingwriting, and speaking         A life long statusA life long status  Impact may change at different timesImpact may change at different times in a person’s lifein a person’s life
    14. 14.  Referred to as a learning disabilityReferred to as a learning disability because dyslexia can make it verybecause dyslexia can make it very difficult or impossible for a studentdifficult or impossible for a student to succeed academically in anto succeed academically in an instructional settinginstructional setting
    15. 15. Definition of DyslexiaDefinition of Dyslexia  dys—dys—difficultydifficulty,, hardhard  lex—lex—languagelanguage,, wordswords  dyslexia—difficulty withdyslexia—difficulty with languagelanguage
    16. 16. Working Definition of theWorking Definition of the International DyslexiaInternational Dyslexia AssociationAssociation  Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that isDyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized byneurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent worddifficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decodingrecognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from aabilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of languagedeficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to otherthat is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effectivecognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.classroom instruction.
    17. 17.  Secondary consequences may includeSecondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension andproblems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impedereduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and backgroundgrowth of vocabulary and background knowledge.knowledge.
    18. 18. What Causes Dyslexia?What Causes Dyslexia?  Exact causes are not completely clear.Exact causes are not completely clear.  Brain imagery studies (f MRI) show that thereBrain imagery studies (f MRI) show that there are differences in the way the brain ofare differences in the way the brain of individuals with dyslexia develop and function.individuals with dyslexia develop and function.
    19. 19. Broca’s area Wernike’s area Occipito- temporal
    20. 20.  A key factor in reading difficulties is thatA key factor in reading difficulties is that people with dyslexia have trouble hearing andpeople with dyslexia have trouble hearing and discriminating sounds within words.discriminating sounds within words.  It is not due to a lack of intelligence or a lackIt is not due to a lack of intelligence or a lack of motivation to learn.of motivation to learn.
    21. 21. How Widespread is Dyslexia?How Widespread is Dyslexia?  Current research shows thatCurrent research shows that approximately 15-20% of theapproximately 15-20% of the population has a readingpopulation has a reading disability.disability.  Of that 15-20%, 85% are dyslexicOf that 15-20%, 85% are dyslexic School population % w/ reading disability Likely to be dyslexic
    22. 22.  Dyslexia is non-discriminatory; it occurs inDyslexia is non-discriminatory; it occurs in people of all backgrounds.people of all backgrounds.  Dyslexia runs in families; dyslexic parents areDyslexia runs in families; dyslexic parents are very likely to have children who are dyslexic.very likely to have children who are dyslexic.  Identification is made very early in someIdentification is made very early in some people but for others identification comes verypeople but for others identification comes very late or not at all.late or not at all.  Barbara Foorman, Jack Fletcher, and David FrancisBarbara Foorman, Jack Fletcher, and David Francis Center for Academic and Reading Skills (CARS)Center for Academic and Reading Skills (CARS)
    23. 23.  Individuals with dyslexia can be veryIndividuals with dyslexia can be very intelligent.intelligent.  Individuals with dyslexia are often gifted inIndividuals with dyslexia are often gifted in many areas that do not require strong writtenmany areas that do not require strong written language skills—such as art, computerlanguage skills—such as art, computer science, design, drama, electronics, math,science, design, drama, electronics, math, mechanics, sports, music, physics, sales, andmechanics, sports, music, physics, sales, and business.business.
    24. 24. Some Famous DyslexicsSome Famous Dyslexics  Nelson RockefellerNelson Rockefeller  Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill  Sir Richard BransonSir Richard Branson  Erin BrokovichErin Brokovich  John T. ChambersJohn T. Chambers
    25. 25. Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in PreschoolPreschool  Delayed speech; slow to add new words;Delayed speech; slow to add new words; difficulty finding the right worddifficulty finding the right word  Mixing up sounds or syllables in long wordsMixing up sounds or syllables in long words  Poor memory for nursery rhymesPoor memory for nursery rhymes  Difficulty learning colors, days of week,Difficulty learning colors, days of week, numbers, shapesnumbers, shapes  Difficulty learning how to spell or write nameDifficulty learning how to spell or write name Adapted fromAdapted from Overcoming DyslexiaOvercoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitzby Sally Shaywitz
    26. 26. Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in Elementary School K-3Elementary School K-3  Difficulty understanding that words can beDifficulty understanding that words can be separated into parts (firetruck: fire and truck)separated into parts (firetruck: fire and truck) and that words can be separated into soundsand that words can be separated into sounds (tip = /t/ /(tip = /t/ /ĭĭ/ /p/)/ /p/)  Difficulty learning letter names and soundsDifficulty learning letter names and sounds
    27. 27.  Difficulty reading single words; relies on contextDifficulty reading single words; relies on context clues to recognize words; Can’t remember sightclues to recognize words; Can’t remember sight wordswords  Slow choppy, inaccurate oral readingSlow choppy, inaccurate oral reading  Difficulty with daily spellingDifficulty with daily spelling Adapted fromAdapted from Overcoming DyslexiaOvercoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitzby Sally Shaywitz
    28. 28. Warning Signs of Dyslexia in OtherWarning Signs of Dyslexia in Other GradesGrades 44thth – High School– High School  Has difficulty spelling – may use simplifiedHas difficulty spelling – may use simplified vocabulary when writing.vocabulary when writing.  Continues to have reading difficultyContinues to have reading difficulty  Lacks fluency; reads slowly; avoids oralLacks fluency; reads slowly; avoids oral readingreading  Avoids reading for pleasureAvoids reading for pleasure
    29. 29.  Difficulty finding the right word when speakingDifficulty finding the right word when speaking  Vocabulary may be inadequateVocabulary may be inadequate  Dreads going to schoolDreads going to school  Complains of headaches, stomach achesComplains of headaches, stomach aches Adapted fromAdapted from Overcoming DyslexiaOvercoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitzby Sally Shaywitz
    30. 30. Warning Signs of Dyslexia inWarning Signs of Dyslexia in High SchoolHigh School  All of the previous symptoms plusAll of the previous symptoms plus  Limited vocabularyLimited vocabulary  Poor written expressionPoor written expression  Large discrepancy between verbal skills andLarge discrepancy between verbal skills and written compositionwritten composition  Difficulty in learning foreign languageDifficulty in learning foreign language  Poor grades in many classesPoor grades in many classes  Danger of dropping out due to feelings ofDanger of dropping out due to feelings of failurefailure
    31. 31. Warning Signs of Dyslexia in AdultsWarning Signs of Dyslexia in Adults  Education history similar to previous warningEducation history similar to previous warning signs plussigns plus  Slow readerSlow reader  May have to read a page 2-3 times to understand itMay have to read a page 2-3 times to understand it  Terrible spellerTerrible speller  Difficulty putting thoughts on paper – dreads writingDifficulty putting thoughts on paper – dreads writing  Difficulty following directions – gets lost easilyDifficulty following directions – gets lost easily
    32. 32. Other Effects of DyslexiaOther Effects of Dyslexia  Impact is different for each person and dependsImpact is different for each person and depends on the severity of the learning difference.on the severity of the learning difference.  Depends on the type and approach ofDepends on the type and approach of remediationremediation  Reading, spelling, and writing are the mostReading, spelling, and writing are the most common areas.common areas.
    33. 33.  Some people with dyslexia do not have greatSome people with dyslexia do not have great difficulty with early reading and spelling butdifficulty with early reading and spelling but have difficulty when more complex languagehave difficulty when more complex language skills are required.skills are required.  Grammar, understanding textbook material, andGrammar, understanding textbook material, and writing essays, etc.writing essays, etc.
    34. 34.  Some people with dyslexia have problemsSome people with dyslexia have problems with spoken languagewith spoken language  Difficulty expressing themselves clearlyDifficulty expressing themselves clearly  Difficulty comprehending orDifficulty comprehending or understanding what others mean whenunderstanding what others mean when they speakthey speak  May be hard to detect but can lead to majorMay be hard to detect but can lead to major problems in academic settings, the workplace,problems in academic settings, the workplace, and in relating to and getting along with otherand in relating to and getting along with other peoplepeople
    35. 35.  Effects of dyslexia reach far beyond theEffects of dyslexia reach far beyond the classroomclassroom  Self-imageSelf-image  Feelings of being dumb or “different”Feelings of being dumb or “different”  Feeling of being less capable than theyFeeling of being less capable than they really arereally are  Stress due to academic or social problemsStress due to academic or social problems  Discouraged about continuing in schoolDiscouraged about continuing in school
    36. 36. Historical PerspectiveHistorical Perspective  Late 1800’sLate 1800’s  Beginning reading emphasized teachingBeginning reading emphasized teaching letter/sound relationshipsletter/sound relationships  Reading and spelling were taught as relatedReading and spelling were taught as related skillsskills  Cursive handwriting was taught to all studentsCursive handwriting was taught to all students
    37. 37.  Around early 1900’sAround early 1900’s  Emphasis gradually shifted from directly teachingEmphasis gradually shifted from directly teaching sound/symbol relationships to a whole wordsound/symbol relationships to a whole word approachapproach  A manuscript print form of writing began to beA manuscript print form of writing began to be used as the introductory form of handwritingused as the introductory form of handwriting  In early 1940’s, cursive handwriting was deferredIn early 1940’s, cursive handwriting was deferred for approximately two yearsfor approximately two years
    38. 38.  In 1920’s Dr. Samuel T. OrtonIn 1920’s Dr. Samuel T. Orton  Neuropsychiatrist and PathologistNeuropsychiatrist and Pathologist  Pioneer in focusing attention on reading failurePioneer in focusing attention on reading failure and related language processing difficultiesand related language processing difficulties  Provided the medical psychological researchProvided the medical psychological research  The work that Dr. Samuel T. Orton did stood asThe work that Dr. Samuel T. Orton did stood as the foundation for many of the curriculums usedthe foundation for many of the curriculums used today.today.
    39. 39.  Dr. Samuel T. OrtonDr. Samuel T. Orton  Saw patients unable to read, spell, or writeSaw patients unable to read, spell, or write but could determine no physical causebut could determine no physical cause  Dr. Orton recognized that the treatmentDr. Orton recognized that the treatment was educationalwas educational  Dr. Orton prescribed specializedDr. Orton prescribed specialized multisensory teaching techniquesmultisensory teaching techniques
    40. 40.  In 1930’sIn 1930’s  Dr. Orton worked closely with a numberDr. Orton worked closely with a number of educators including Anna Gillinghamof educators including Anna Gillingham  Anna GillinghamAnna Gillingham Educator and PsychologistEducator and Psychologist Teacher TrainerTeacher Trainer Provided the educational treatmentProvided the educational treatment
    41. 41.  Anna Gillingham had already been usingAnna Gillingham had already been using multisensory techniques before she worked withmultisensory techniques before she worked with Dr. OrtonDr. Orton  She and Bessie Stillman co-authored a teacherShe and Bessie Stillman co-authored a teacher manual for the “alphabetic method” onmanual for the “alphabetic method” on Dr. Orton’s theoriesDr. Orton’s theories  Original manual published in 1935Original manual published in 1935  Believed both students and teachers must beBelieved both students and teachers must be taught one-to-onetaught one-to-one
    42. 42.  1965-19751965-1975  Under direction of Aylett R. Cox andUnder direction of Aylett R. Cox and Dr. Lucius Waites, the staff of the Dyslexia ChildDr. Lucius Waites, the staff of the Dyslexia Child Study Unit at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital inStudy Unit at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas extended and refined Orton-GillinghamDallas extended and refined Orton-Gillingham methodology into a program known asmethodology into a program known as Alphabetic Phonics.Alphabetic Phonics.  Taught in small, homogeneous groups ofTaught in small, homogeneous groups of 6-8 students6-8 students  Trained teachers in groupsTrained teachers in groups
    43. 43.  19851985  Southern Methodist University Learning TherapySouthern Methodist University Learning Therapy Program was establishedProgram was established  Division of Evening, Summer, andDivision of Evening, Summer, and Continuing StudiesContinuing Studies  Four courses were offered to train teachersFour courses were offered to train teachers to work with students with dyslexiato work with students with dyslexia
    44. 44.  TodayToday  Southern Methodist UniversitySouthern Methodist University  School of Education and Human DevelopmentSchool of Education and Human Development  Learning Therapy CenterLearning Therapy Center  Learning Therapist Certificate ProgramLearning Therapist Certificate Program  Dyslexia Teaching Level Certificate ProgramDyslexia Teaching Level Certificate Program  Diagnostic Center for Dyslexia and RelatedDiagnostic Center for Dyslexia and Related DisordersDisorders  Academic Enhancements WorkshopsAcademic Enhancements Workshops for Youth during the summerfor Youth during the summer
    45. 45. SMUSMU  Learning Therapist Certificate ProgramLearning Therapist Certificate Program  Two year course of studyTwo year course of study  22 graduate credit hours certificate program22 graduate credit hours certificate program  16 graduate credit hours for core courses16 graduate credit hours for core courses  4 graduate credit hours for practicum4 graduate credit hours for practicum  700 clinical teaching hours700 clinical teaching hours  10 demonstration lessons10 demonstration lessons  2 graduate credit hours in electives of supporting topics2 graduate credit hours in electives of supporting topics  Masters of Education in Learning TherapyMasters of Education in Learning Therapy
    46. 46. SMUSMU  Dyslexia Teaching Level Certificate ProgramDyslexia Teaching Level Certificate Program  9 month course of study9 month course of study  5 graduate credit hours certificate program5 graduate credit hours certificate program  90 contact hours of instruction in core curriculum90 contact hours of instruction in core curriculum  90 practicum teaching hours90 practicum teaching hours  5 demonstration lessons5 demonstration lessons
    47. 47. Basic Facts of theBasic Facts of the Orton Gillingham ApproachOrton Gillingham Approach  The phrase “Orton-Gillingham approach”The phrase “Orton-Gillingham approach” refers to the structured, sequential,refers to the structured, sequential, multisensory techniques established by Dr.multisensory techniques established by Dr. Orton and Ms. Gillingham and their colleaguesOrton and Ms. Gillingham and their colleagues  Originally designed for one-to-one instructionOriginally designed for one-to-one instruction for remedial tutors but is appropriate forfor remedial tutors but is appropriate for teaching individuals, small groups, andteaching individuals, small groups, and classrooms at all levels.classrooms at all levels.
    48. 48.  Studies from the NICHD indicate that forStudies from the NICHD indicate that for beginning and struggling readers this methodbeginning and struggling readers this method is most effective.is most effective.  The Orton-Gillingham approach has beenThe Orton-Gillingham approach has been well respected for over 50 years.well respected for over 50 years.  This approach is rooted in years ofThis approach is rooted in years of neurological, psychological, and educationalneurological, psychological, and educational research.research.
    49. 49. What is Taught?What is Taught?  Phoneme and Phonological AwarenessPhoneme and Phonological Awareness  Sound-Symbol AssociationSound-Symbol Association  Syllable InstructionSyllable Instruction  MorphologyMorphology  SyntaxSyntax  SemanticsSemantics
    50. 50. How is it Taught?How is it Taught?  SimultaneousSimultaneous  MultisensoryMultisensory  Systematic and CumulativeSystematic and Cumulative  Direct InstructionDirect Instruction  Diagnostic TeachingDiagnostic Teaching  Synthetic and Analytic InstructionSynthetic and Analytic Instruction
    51. 51. Distinguishing Features of theDistinguishing Features of the Orton-Gillingham ApproachOrton-Gillingham Approach  Summary from June Orton, the wife of SamuelSummary from June Orton, the wife of Samuel OrtonOrton  It is a direct approach to the study ofIt is a direct approach to the study of phonics, presenting the sounds of thephonics, presenting the sounds of the phonograms orally as separate units andphonograms orally as separate units and then teaching the process of blendingthen teaching the process of blending them into syllables and words.them into syllables and words.
    52. 52.  It is an integrated, total language approach.It is an integrated, total language approach.  Each unit sequence is established throughEach unit sequence is established through hearing, speaking, seeing, and writing.hearing, speaking, seeing, and writing.  Auditory, visual, and kinesthetic patternsAuditory, visual, and kinesthetic patterns reinforce each other and this also providesreinforce each other and this also provides for individual differences among thefor individual differences among the students.students.  It is a circular, multisensory process.It is a circular, multisensory process.
    53. 53.  It is a systematic step-by-It is a systematic step-by- step approach,step approach, proceeding from theproceeding from the simpler to the moresimpler to the more complex in orderlycomplex in orderly progression in an upwardprogression in an upward spiral of languagespiral of language development.development.
    54. 54.  In a 1974 interview with Margaret RawsonIn a 1974 interview with Margaret Rawson  Stated that while Dr. Orton gave Anna GillinghamStated that while Dr. Orton gave Anna Gillingham the principles of organization, she took the ball andthe principles of organization, she took the ball and ran with it.ran with it.  Anna Gillingham organized the material orAnna Gillingham organized the material or put the language into some sort of rationalput the language into some sort of rational organization for use in teaching.organization for use in teaching. Perspectives, Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia AssociationPerspectives, Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia Association
    55. 55.  In their manuals, Gillingham and Stillman directIn their manuals, Gillingham and Stillman direct the teacher to assist children in making numerousthe teacher to assist children in making numerous visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile linkagesvisual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile linkages  Portrayed by their “language triangle”Portrayed by their “language triangle” Perspectives,Perspectives, Fall 2006,Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia AssociationThe International Dyslexia Association A-K Visual Auditory Kinesthetic A-V V-K
    56. 56.  Anna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman describedAnna Gillingham and Bessie Stillman described eight possible linkages and noted that three ofeight possible linkages and noted that three of these linkages require routine drill during eachthese linkages require routine drill during each lessonlesson  Translation of seen symbol into soundTranslation of seen symbol into sound  Translation of sound into named symbolTranslation of sound into named symbol  Translation of sound into written symbolTranslation of sound into written symbol Perspectives,Perspectives, Fall 2006, The International Dyslexia AssociationFall 2006, The International Dyslexia Association
    57. 57. Alphabetic PhonicsAlphabetic Phonics  According toAccording to Aylett CoxAylett Cox Alphabetic PhonicsAlphabetic Phonics is an organization andis an organization and expansion of the Orton-Gillinghamexpansion of the Orton-Gillingham multisensory approach.multisensory approach.
    58. 58.  Alphabetic Phonics began at Texas ScottishAlphabetic Phonics began at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Dallas in theRite Hospital for Children in Dallas in the mid 1960’s as a collaboration betweenmid 1960’s as a collaboration between Sally ChildsSally Childs andand Lucius WaitesLucius Waites (a pediatric neurologist who established the(a pediatric neurologist who established the Child Development Division at the hospital)Child Development Division at the hospital)
    59. 59.  The program was developed and revised overThe program was developed and revised over a ten year period during which over 1,000a ten year period during which over 1,000 children with dyslexia came daily to Waite’schildren with dyslexia came daily to Waite’s clinic for remedial instruction.clinic for remedial instruction.  Alphabetic Phonics was expanded fromAlphabetic Phonics was expanded from tutorials to small group instruction to meettutorials to small group instruction to meet the needs of the number of children referredthe needs of the number of children referred to the language lab.to the language lab.
    60. 60. What Does Multisensory TeachingWhat Does Multisensory Teaching Look Like?Look Like?
    61. 61. How do people learn?How do people learn? 1% through TASTE1% through TASTE 1.5% through TOUCH1.5% through TOUCH 3.5% through SMELL3.5% through SMELL 11% through HEARING11% through HEARING 83% through SIGHT83% through SIGHT
    62. 62. How much is retained?How much is retained? 10% of what is READ10% of what is READ 20% of what is HEARD20% of what is HEARD 30% of what is SEEN30% of what is SEEN 50% of what is SEEN & HEARD50% of what is SEEN & HEARD simultaneouslysimultaneously 70% of what is SAID as you TALK70% of what is SAID as you TALK 90% of what is SAID as you DO a thing90% of what is SAID as you DO a thing
    63. 63. Time Span of RetentionTime Span of Retention Method of InstructionMethod of Instruction Recall 3Recall 3 hours laterhours later Recall 3 daysRecall 3 days laterlater LectureLecture 70%70% 10%10% Showing used aloneShowing used alone 72%72% 20%20% Blend of Show /Tell/DoBlend of Show /Tell/Do 85%85% 65%65%
    64. 64.  Everything we learn enters throughEverything we learn enters through our sensory pathways.our sensory pathways.  How well we attend to and retain thisHow well we attend to and retain this sensory input determines our learning.sensory input determines our learning.  The simultaneous access to multipleThe simultaneous access to multiple sensory pathways increases oursensory pathways increases our potential to learn.potential to learn.
    65. 65. Multisensory Teaching Uses theMultisensory Teaching Uses the Three Pathways of LearningThree Pathways of Learning  AuditoryAuditory  VisualVisual  Kinesthetic-tactileKinesthetic-tactile
    66. 66. Guided DiscoveryGuided Discovery  Guided discovery involves the student’s threeGuided discovery involves the student’s three pathways of learning.pathways of learning.  SocraticSocratic questioning or “guided questions” isquestioning or “guided questions” is leading students to the answers without tellingleading students to the answers without telling them.them.  Because of the memory systems and the need toBecause of the memory systems and the need to stimulate multiple modalities, the “discovery”stimulate multiple modalities, the “discovery” approach to instruction has proven to be quiteapproach to instruction has proven to be quite effective with dyslexic students.effective with dyslexic students.
    67. 67. Auditory DiscoveryAuditory Discovery  Use questioning techniques to present auditoryUse questioning techniques to present auditory discovery, linking the new to the known, anddiscovery, linking the new to the known, and building on similarities or differences.building on similarities or differences.  What do you hear that is the same?What do you hear that is the same?  Socratic questioning is a form ofSocratic questioning is a form of auditory discovery.auditory discovery. V A K
    68. 68. Visual DiscoveryVisual Discovery  After students are introduced to an auditoryAfter students are introduced to an auditory discovery, the visual symbols representing thediscovery, the visual symbols representing the new concept or phoneme are presented usingnew concept or phoneme are presented using questioning techniques to lead students to self-questioning techniques to lead students to self- discovery.discovery.  What do you see that is the same?What do you see that is the same?  Chalktalk and coding are techniques used inChalktalk and coding are techniques used in visual discovery.visual discovery.
    69. 69. Kinesthetic-Tactile DiscoveryKinesthetic-Tactile Discovery  Skywriting and ‘feelies’ are techniques usedSkywriting and ‘feelies’ are techniques used in kinesthetic-tactile discoveryin kinesthetic-tactile discovery  Making a concept cardMaking a concept card  Coding words on the boardCoding words on the board  Trace & Copy letter shapesTrace & Copy letter shapes  Workbook pageWorkbook page  Spelling NotebookSpelling Notebook
    70. 70. Elements of Discovery LearningElements of Discovery Learning Discovery Learning Brain Power Develops natural curiosity to learn Holds interest Active participate responsibility Strengthens knowledge of relationships between concepts Develops decision- making skills Develops ability to retrieve information Links new with old knowledge
    71. 71. Mastery Model of Teaching andMastery Model of Teaching and LearningLearning  Uses the Following:Uses the Following:  Prior KnowledgePrior Knowledge  New LearningNew Learning  ReviewReview  PracticePractice  MASTERYMASTERY
    72. 72. Little drops of water on the rockLittle drops of water on the rock
    73. 73. Multisensory InstructionMultisensory Instruction  Multisensory refers to any learning activityMultisensory refers to any learning activity that includes the use of two or more sensorythat includes the use of two or more sensory modalities simultaneously to take in ormodalities simultaneously to take in or express information.express information.  Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language SkillsMultisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Louisa C. Moats and Mary L. FarrellLouisa C. Moats and Mary L. Farrell
    74. 74.  Multisensory instruction links listening,Multisensory instruction links listening, reading, spelling, and writing.reading, spelling, and writing.  Multisensory instruction supports andMultisensory instruction supports and strengthens the connection of oral languagestrengthens the connection of oral language and visual language symbols (letters).and visual language symbols (letters).
    75. 75.  When people with dyslexia use all of theirWhen people with dyslexia use all of their senses (visual, auditory, kinesthetic- tactile)senses (visual, auditory, kinesthetic- tactile) as they learn, they are better able to storeas they learn, they are better able to store and retrieve the information.and retrieve the information.  A student with dyslexia sees the letterA student with dyslexia sees the letter aa,, says its name and sound, and writes it insays its name and sound, and writes it in the air simultaneously.the air simultaneously.  This is skywriting.This is skywriting.
    76. 76.  Everything we learn, enters through ourEverything we learn, enters through our sensory pathways.sensory pathways.  The simultaneous access to multipleThe simultaneous access to multiple sensory pathways increases our potentialsensory pathways increases our potential to learn.to learn.  How well we attend to and retain thisHow well we attend to and retain this sensory input determines our learning.sensory input determines our learning.
    77. 77. Mastery Model ofMastery Model of Teaching & LearningTeaching & Learning Prior Knowledg e feelings ideas memories experiences motivations concepts New Learning Review Mastery 95% Practice cumulative automaticity D iscovery Short term memory
    78. 78. IntroduceIntroduce ReviewReview PracticePractice
    79. 79. How is it taught?How is it taught?  Simultaneous Multisensory InstructionSimultaneous Multisensory Instruction  Using the senses (Visual, Auditory,Using the senses (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic-Tactile) to assist with the ability toKinesthetic-Tactile) to assist with the ability to storestore and also recall informationand also recall information  This is emphasized through sky writingThis is emphasized through sky writing during a lessonduring a lesson.. Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLCBright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    80. 80.  Intense Instruction/Consistent PracticeIntense Instruction/Consistent Practice  The instruction provides a greater degree ofThe instruction provides a greater degree of intensity than that of traditional readingintensity than that of traditional reading instruction.instruction. Practice, Practice, PracticePractice, Practice, Practice . . .. . . Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLCBright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    81. 81.  Direct, Explicit InstructionDirect, Explicit Instruction  A student is taught directly and explicitlyA student is taught directly and explicitly the rules that govern written language.the rules that govern written language.
    82. 82.  Systematic and CumulativeSystematic and Cumulative  A firm foundation must be established thatA firm foundation must be established that includes the logical reasoning behind ourincludes the logical reasoning behind our language. Prior-knowledge is used as a frameworklanguage. Prior-knowledge is used as a framework for newly introduced information andfor newly introduced information and follows a logical progression.follows a logical progression. Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLCBright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    83. 83.  Synthetic and AnalyticSynthetic and Analytic  SyntheticSynthetic: how letters come together to: how letters come together to form a wordform a word  AnalyticAnalytic: breaking a word into smaller parts: breaking a word into smaller parts Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLCBright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    84. 84.  Diagnostic TeachingDiagnostic Teaching  The teacher is always assessing the needs ofThe teacher is always assessing the needs of the student. There is an in-depth awarenessthe student. There is an in-depth awareness of an individual student and his or herof an individual student and his or her ability to apply new knowledgeability to apply new knowledge accurately and consistently.accurately and consistently. Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLCBright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC
    85. 85.  There is a suggested alignment and rotation ofThere is a suggested alignment and rotation of activities to be presented in daily one houractivities to be presented in daily one hour sessionssessions  Ordered daily presentation of activities andOrdered daily presentation of activities and materialsmaterials  New concepts based on previous learningNew concepts based on previous learning  Concepts taught gradually, one at a timeConcepts taught gradually, one at a time  Adequate practice provided to insureAdequate practice provided to insure student’s complete absorption of materialsstudent’s complete absorption of materials  FoundationsFoundations For LiteracyFor Literacy by Aylett R. Coxby Aylett R. Cox
    86. 86.  Four schedules of daily plans to guide teacherFour schedules of daily plans to guide teacher  Planning balanced lessonsPlanning balanced lessons  Rotating demands on student’s three learningRotating demands on student’s three learning modalitiesmodalities  Extending student’s secondary language skillsExtending student’s secondary language skills  Provide practice at each levelProvide practice at each level  Adjust pace to individual needsAdjust pace to individual needs  FoundationsFoundations For LiteracyFor Literacy by Aylett R. Coxby Aylett R. Cox
    87. 87.  Precise steps in proceduresPrecise steps in procedures  Presented to student through major avenues of hisPresented to student through major avenues of his perception with same sequential stepsperception with same sequential steps  Patterns for acquisition of new learning establishedPatterns for acquisition of new learning established regardless of which sensory pathways are weakregardless of which sensory pathways are weak  Strong cognitive functions will support the weakerStrong cognitive functions will support the weaker ones until all develop to sufficient level of efficiencyones until all develop to sufficient level of efficiency  FoundationsFoundations For LiteracyFor Literacy by Aylett R. Coxby Aylett R. Cox
    88. 88. Rapid rotation of activitiesRapid rotation of activities  Small increments of new learning readilySmall increments of new learning readily absorbed if activity is not prolonged beyond 5absorbed if activity is not prolonged beyond 5 or 10 minutes of Reading, Handwriting,or 10 minutes of Reading, Handwriting, SpellingSpelling  Activities should be alternated in sameActivities should be alternated in same sequence each daysequence each day  Sequence should be postedSequence should be posted  FoundationsFoundations For LiteracyFor Literacy by Aylett R. Coxby Aylett R. Cox
    89. 89.  Periodic measures of progressPeriodic measures of progress  Bench Mark Measures determine progress at eachBench Mark Measures determine progress at each level of traininglevel of training  Assures teacher that student’s knowledge is secureAssures teacher that student’s knowledge is secure before advancing to next levelbefore advancing to next level  Success on each measure serves as motivationalSuccess on each measure serves as motivational incentive for student while encouraging self-incentive for student while encouraging self- confidenceconfidence  New learning based on well-established concepts toNew learning based on well-established concepts to enable student to integrate skills systematically,enable student to integrate skills systematically, successfully, and permanentlysuccessfully, and permanently  FoundationsFoundations For LiteracyFor Literacy by Aylett R. Coxby Aylett R. Cox
    90. 90.  The teacherThe teacher  must correlate all properties of eachmust correlate all properties of each letter in presentingletter in presenting  readingreading  spellingspelling  handwritinghandwriting  Must train student to developMust train student to develop automatic responses which areautomatic responses which are  auditoryauditory  visualvisual  kinesthetic, tactilekinesthetic, tactile
    91. 91. EssentialsEssentials ofof EffectiveEffective SScientificcientific InstructionInstruction
    92. 92.  If instruction is planned to meet theIf instruction is planned to meet the differing needs of learners, it isdiffering needs of learners, it is individualized.individualized.
    93. 93.  If instruction is based on the knowledgeIf instruction is based on the knowledge and skill of experts from many fields,and skill of experts from many fields, including education, medicine, psychology,including education, medicine, psychology, social work, and language theory we call itsocial work, and language theory we call it multidisciplinary.multidisciplinary.
    94. 94.  If instruction simultaneously uses theIf instruction simultaneously uses the learning pathways of visual (seeing),learning pathways of visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), and kinesthetic-tactileauditory (hearing), and kinesthetic-tactile (feeling), then it is(feeling), then it is multisensory.multisensory.
    95. 95.  Instruction makes sense when it takes advantageInstruction makes sense when it takes advantage of theof the alphabetic principle.alphabetic principle.  The term alphabetic principle refers to anThe term alphabetic principle refers to an understanding that letters represent sounds andunderstanding that letters represent sounds and that letters are ordered in a specific sequence inthat letters are ordered in a specific sequence in speech and that speech maps onto print.speech and that speech maps onto print.
    96. 96.  If the sounds of the letters can be blendedIf the sounds of the letters can be blended into words for reading, and the words can beinto words for reading, and the words can be divided into the sounds they are made of fordivided into the sounds they are made of for spelling and writing then we call the processspelling and writing then we call the process synthetic-analytic.synthetic-analytic.
    97. 97.  Material is organized and taught in a wayMaterial is organized and taught in a way that is logical and fits the nature of ourthat is logical and fits the nature of our language. The procedure islanguage. The procedure is systematicsystematic..
    98. 98.  The learner moves, step by step, in order,The learner moves, step by step, in order, from simple, well-learned material to thatfrom simple, well-learned material to that which is more and more complex, as he orwhich is more and more complex, as he or she masters the necessary body ofshe masters the necessary body of language skills. The teaching islanguage skills. The teaching is sequentialsequential..
    99. 99.  Each step of the way is based on thoseEach step of the way is based on those already learned. The process isalready learned. The process is cumulativecumulative..
    100. 100. The ultimate goal is for a student to understandThe ultimate goal is for a student to understand the reasons for what he is learning so that he canthe reasons for what he is learning so that he can think his way through language problems. Thethink his way through language problems. The purpose of it all, from recognizing a letter topurpose of it all, from recognizing a letter to writing a poem, is getting meaning from onewriting a poem, is getting meaning from one person’s mind to another’s.person’s mind to another’s. CommunicationCommunication isis paramount.paramount.
    101. 101. GOOD NEWS!!!!GOOD NEWS!!!!  Good news is that students with dyslexia can beGood news is that students with dyslexia can be helped.helped.  Most can be helped to cope with their languageMost can be helped to cope with their language difficulties if they are well diagnosed and taughtdifficulties if they are well diagnosed and taught appropriately.appropriately.  Using multisensory educational methods, theyUsing multisensory educational methods, they can learn to read and write.can learn to read and write.
    102. 102.  Perhaps most important of all, with thePerhaps most important of all, with the understanding, support, and encouragementunderstanding, support, and encouragement of parents and teachers they can avoid theof parents and teachers they can avoid the hurt and burden of failure and frustrationhurt and burden of failure and frustration that affects their lives.that affects their lives.
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