Political System And Party Coalitions In Germany

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Political System And Party Coalitions In Germany

  1. 1. Malaysian parliamentarians visit Berlin and Munich Study tour on: “Party coalitions in Germany: From Coalition building to Coalition Management” Monday, 27th June – Sunday, 4th July 2009 1
  2. 2. Content • Introduction to Germany • German political system • From Coalition Building to Coalition Management • Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom 2
  3. 3. Introduction to Germany 3
  4. 4. Germany • Population: 82 million • Capital: Berlin • National language: German • President: Horst Koehler • Chancellor: Angela Merkel • Federal Republic: 16 States • Currency Exchange Rate: • 1 Euro = Ringgits (11th June 2009) 4 Source: INTER-NATIONES: “Übersichten: Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Ihre Laender”
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Size and Distances Size of Germany: 357,021 km² (Malaysia 454,000 km²) 1100 km 1.120 km 740 km 950 km Note: 454, 000 km² as the total of 6 East and West Malaysia
  7. 7. Urban Settlements Areas you will visit Largest city: Berlin 3.426.354 FNF Other large cities: Hamburg 1.773.218 Munich 1.315.476 Cologne 996.690 Frankfurt 659.021 Stuttgart 597.176 Dortmund 585.670 Düsseldorf 582.222 Essen 580751 Bremen 548.477 Hanover 518.088 7 Duisburg 496.655
  8. 8. Natural Resources & Industrial Location • Black Coal • Brown Coal • Rock Salt (for industrial use) • Large industrial area • Oil 8
  9. 9. Economy • Germany has the world's most technologically advanced economy after the US and Japan • GDP of 2.49 trillion Euro (2009) makes Germany 4th largest economically powerful country after US, Japan and China • Highly export orientated economy (still worldwide leading country in Export-GDP-relation, China is catching up) • Strong regulation of the labour market and a costly social system reduce the overall competitiveness of Germany’s economy. 9
  10. 10. Economy • The integration and upgrading of the eastern German economy remains a costly long-term problem (annual transfers from the west amount to roughly €100 billion). • Political and economic integration of Europe brings opportunities and challenges to the German economy; i.e. with the adoption of the common European currency, Germany no longer has its own currency, and thereby less control over the economy, as the Bundesbank is no longer able to set interest rates. 10
  11. 11. GDP by Industry 2008 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing Public and private sector Manufactory (without construction) Bill EUR Construction Finance, Rental and Company Service Trade, Tourism, Traffic 11
  12. 12. Impact of the economic crisis on Germany Germany is highly shattered by the economic crisis: • After years of strong growth German economy is facing a recession of 4-6 %, the highest since the foundation of the Federal Republic in 1949 • A lot of companies are facing financial difficulties since consumers and investors are holding back their money • The German parliament has decided on cyclical development programs to stimulate economic growth worth more than 50 billion Euros (246 billion Ringgit) • Measures include government loans to major companies and loan securities for banking institutions, public investments as well as amenities for the people such as tax reductions 12
  13. 13. Impact of the economic crisis on Germany Recent Events: • Other car companies are also troubled, mainly because of a high decrease in exports. • The German government has started a program, paying serious benefits to people who scrap their old car and buy a new one instead to support demand. • So far it is a great success with many people rushing to buy but mainly low price car companies benefit while German car companies are mainly in the upper price sector. • The German Federal Government released two stimulus packages concerning the overcoming of the financial crisis 13
  14. 14. The German Political System 14
  15. 15. The Political System • The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany refers to a federal republic, with 16 Laender (states), which have own constitutions according to the Basic Law. • There are complex checks and balances to safeguard against a repetition of dictatorship. Political rights, democratic institutions and the federal system receive special protection by the German constitution (the Basic Law). • The basic law and the constitutional rights it embodies are protected by the Federal Constitutional Court. Further, these rights are enforceable. 15
  16. 16. The Basic Law (the German Constitution) Chapter 1: Basic rights (equality before the law; right to privacy, private property & education; freedoms of speech, information, expression, movement & association, etc.) Chapter 2: Structure & powers of the federation & states Chapter 3: The federal institutions Chapter 4: Federal legislation & its implementation Chapter 5: Administration of justice Chapter 6: Public finance & taxation 16
  17. 17. Separation of Powers (German Federalism) • Vertical & Horizontal Division of Power: – Horizontal: Executive, Legislative & Judiciary – Vertical: National, State & Communal levels • The vertical separation of power assigns different areas of responsibility to each level; i.e. education is a responsibility of the state governments, while foreign policy is a task of the national government. • Separate elections are held for the 3 vertical divisions of power. 17
  18. 18. Federal Federal President – Federal Chancellor – Structure Horst Koehler Angela Merkel Federal Council (Bundesrat) Federal Cabinett Federal Ministers Federal Assembly (Bundestag) Federal Convention State Governments Baden-Württemburg Hesse Saxony Bavaria Lower Saxony Saxony-Anhalt Berlin Mecklenburg-Western-Pomerania Brandenburg North-Rhine-Westphalia Local Bremen Rhineland-Palatinate Schleswig-Holstein Hamburg Saarland Thuringia Government 18 The people
  19. 19. Executive Branch Head of State Head of Government President (Horst Koehler) Chancellor (Angela Merkel) appoints chooses Bundeskabinett (Cabinet) elects elects 5-year term 4-year term Bundesversammlung Bundestag 19
  20. 20. Legislative Branch Bicameral Parliament Bundestag Bundesrat (Federal Assembly) (Federal Council) “Lower House” “Upper House” Popular vote Delegates from (direct and proportional) State Governments “direct representation” “indirect representation” 20
  21. 21. The Bundestag (Federal Assembly) • The Bundestag is the direct representative body of the people of the Federal Republic of Germany. • The Bundestag has decisive legislative authority and thus is the most important organ of the state. • Some legislation requires permission from the Bundesrat (the representation of the states). • The Members of the Bundestag are from different political parties who are elected according to the mixed member proportional representation system. • Candidates are normally nominated by a party, but independent individuals can also stand. 21
  22. 22. The Bundesrat (Federal Council) • The Bundesrat represents the interests of the Länder (states) at the federal level • Legislative & administrative functions, incl. the right to initiate legislation • Absolute veto powers in – bills amending the constitution – bills affecting state finances or the administrative sovereignty of states • Formed by Representatives from and appointed by the 16 state-level governments. (No elections.) (total seats: 69) • The composition of the Bundesrat is determined by the composition of the state-level governments, and may thus change when one of the 16 states holds an election. • So the Bundesrat is not directly elected (representatives and Ministerpraesidenten of the Laender) 22
  23. 23. Governments in the “Länder” Total seats: 69 Population (in Seats in the State Governing parties million) Bundesrat Baden - Württemberg 10,75 6 CDU/FDP Bayern 12,52 6 CSU/FDP Berlin 3,42 4 SPD/Die Linke Brandenburg 2,53 4 SPD/CDU SPD/Bündnis 90 / Die Bremen 0,66 3 Grünen Hamburg 1,77 3 CDU/GAL Hessen 6,07 5 CDU/FDP Mecklenburg - 1,67 3 SPD/CDU Vorpommern Niedersachsen 7,97 6 CDU/FDP Nordrhein - Westfalen 17,97 6 CDU/FDP Rheinland - Pfalz 4,04 4 SPD Saarland 1,03 3 CDU Sachsen 4,21 4 CDU/SPD Sachsen - Anhalt 2,40 4 CDU/SPD Schleswig - Holstein 2,84 4 CDU/SPD 23 Thüringen 2,28 4 CDU
  24. 24. Type of Electoral System • According to international taxonomy standards: • Mixed-member proportional system (2 votes per person - Direct and indirect candidates) • Definition: • A system in which a proportion of the parliament (usually half) is elected from plurality-majority electoral districts, while the remaining members are chosen from PR lists, the list seats compensate for any disproportional produced by the electoral district results. However, every seat from a electoral district can be kept, which might increase the total number of MP’s in parliament (“additional mandates”) • Historical background: • It was devised to overcome the weaknesses of previous political systems, which have proven unstable in German history: • The absolute majority system of the German Empire was characterised by a lack of political participation, as power was held by a “manufactured” (unrepresentative) majority. • The pure proportional representation system of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933) weakened the state, paving the way for the abrogation of the constitution by Adolf Hitler in 1933 24
  25. 25. Mixed- Member Proportional Representation T German electoral system is generally referred to as the mixed- member he proportional representation system. 2 votes per person Direct Candidate of local candidate Constituency (first- past- the post) Indirect candidate Party L Candidate ist (proportional representation) 25
  26. 26. Electoral districts Provided for local, national and European elections Since the last elections 2005 Germany is divided in 299 electoral districts areas, which are further divided in Wahlbezirke Vote for direct candidate Vote for indirect candidate Candidate of local Party List Candidate Constituency (proportional representation) 26
  27. 27. Election bullet First vote Second vote Candidate Party A Party A Candidate Party B Party B Candidate Party C Party C Candidate of local Constituency Party in the Bundestag 27
  28. 28. From Coalition Building to Coalition Management 28
  29. 29. What is a Coalition? A government coalition is Alliances are formed usually formed after an election before an election and have and by as many parties as are a more needed for at least a simple ambigous character. majority. They include ≠ There are many different „untrue or silent“, coercive typologies, e.g. based on the and opposition coalitions. ideological composition or on the number of parties. There are many different Coalitions are often cricised as typologies, e.g. negative or ineffective (bias). constructive opposition coalitions. 29
  30. 30. Former Coalitions in Germany 1949 – 1953 CDU/CSU, FDP, DP 1953 – 1956 CDU/CSU, FDP, DP 1956 – 1957 CDU/CSU, FVP, DP In total, the FDP 1957 – 1961 CDU/CSU, DP joined 12 of 19 1961 – 1965 CDU/CSU, FDP coalitions since 1949 1965 – 1966 CDU/CSU, FDP 1966 – 1969 CDU/CSU, SPD “Grand coalition” Of 50 possible years 1969 – 1972 SPD, FDP being in a coalition, the FDP missed 19 1972 – 1976 SPD, FDP years 1976 – 1980 SPD, FDP 1980 – 1982 SPD, FDP 1982 – 1983 CDU/CSU, FDP 1983 – 1987 CDU/CSU, FDP 1987 – 1990 CDU/CSU, FDP 1990 – 1994 CDU/CSU, FDP But: 1994 – 1998 CDU/CSU, FDP 1998 – 2002 SPD, Grüne Since 1998 FDP not 2002 – 2005 SPD, Grüne participated in a 30 2005 - 2009 CDU/CSU, SPD “Grand coalition” coalition/government
  31. 31. Former coalitions in detail 31
  32. 32. Ideological differences of Coalition A > Ideological differences of Coalition B Coalition B Coalition A Left Right Left Party The Social The Christian Christian Greens Democrats Liberals Democrats Union CDU CSU The main parties on a right-left ideological spectrum 32
  33. 33. 2005 Federal Elections to The Bundestag as an example to build coalitions 33
  34. 34. CDU/CSU • The CDU and CSU have formed a single parliamentary group since 1949, which targets conservative voters from both the Catholic and Protestant community. • The CSU is only represented in Bavaria, while the CDU is represented in all the states except Bavaria. • The CDU currently has 536,668 members (As of: 31/12/2007) • 25.4 % of members are female and Angela Dorothea Merkel 74.6 % male. The female proportion is (born, 17/07/1954, in Hamburg, higher in the new East Germany states Germany), is the Chancellor of with 29.2 % compared to the former Germany. Merkel, elected to the states in West Germany with 24.8 %. German Parliament from Mecklenburg – Vorpommern, • Before 1966 membership totals in CDU has been the chairwoman of the organization were only estimated. The CDU since 09/04/2000, and numbers after 1966 are based on the Chairwoman of the CDU-CSU parliamentary party group from total from 31. December of the previous 2002 to 2005 year. 34
  35. 35. SPD • The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands — SPD) is Germany's oldest political party and its largest in terms of membership. After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schuhmacher, the SPD reestablished itself as an ideological party, representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. The party's program, which espoused Marxist Franz Müntefering (born principles, called for the nationalisation 16/01/40) had been chairman of of major industries and state planning. the SPD from 2004 to 2007 and Vice-chancellor of Germany • Today the SPD advocates the from 2005 to 2007 before he modernisation of the economy to meet receded from politics due to the demands of globalisation, but it also personal reasons. In September stresses the need to address the social 2008 he returned and became chairman of the SPD again. needs of workers and society's disadvantaged. 35
  36. 36. FDP • Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a right wing political party. The party's ideology combines beliefs in individual liberty, in a state or government "that is as small as possible and as large as necessary" (so viel Staat wie nötig, so wenig Staat wie möglich!). It promotes a market economy, with traditional features of the German social welfare system. The FDP is currently the third- largest party in the Bundestag. In foreign policy the FDP supports Guido Westerwelle (born European integration and transatlantic 27/12/1961 is the leader of partnership. the libertarian party FDP. As such he is also the current • The party has generally distinguished libertarian parliamentary itself from the CDU and the SPD by leader within the German advocating more market-oriented Parliament. policies. 36
  37. 37. Sample Election Manifesto: “18 good reasons to vote FDP” 1) Lower taxes – more jobs 1) Child care 2) Modernisation of labour 2) Improve education for all market 3) Reduce compulsory schooling to 3) Negative income tax 12 years 4) Solid & affordable health 4) Abolish Central Board for system university admission 5) Viable pension system 5) Educational vouchers not fees 6) Lean state = strong state 6) Efficient & affordable transport 7) SME – prime creator of jobs 7) Abolish compulsory military service 8) Investment incentives for the East 8) More democracy – participation 9) Support for families 9) Our candidate for chancellor 37
  38. 38. The Left • The Left (Die Linke) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party/PDS and the former SED, the governing party of former East Germany, and Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative(WASG). Its leaders are Lothar Bisky and Oskar Lafontaine. The party Oskar Lafontaine; born sees itself as 'left' of the other parties 16/09/1943) is a left-wing represented in the Bundestag German politican, former • As of June 2007, the party has 71,800 Primeminister of Saarland and members (60,300 came from The Left current chairman of the Left Party Party/PDS and 11,500 from the WASG, Lafontaine is among the most making it the fourth largest political party prominent critics of neoliberal in Germany. The electoral strongholds of politics in Germany. His views the party are located in the states which and remarks have made him a were previously part of communist East polarizing figure; most Germans are either fond of his politics or Germany, where also the large majority of disdain them. its members come from. 38
  39. 39. Alliance '90/The Greens • The Alliance '90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movement. The party was formally inaugurated on the weekend of January 17-18, 1980, by 1,000 delegates to its first convention in Karlsruhe, West Germany, as "Die Grünen". It is one of the oldest, although not the oldest, and so • Claudia Benedikta far the most politically successful of the Roth (born world's many green parties. In 1989 and 15/05/1955) is a German Green Party 1990 numerous civil rights groups in East politican and one of Germany combined to form Bündnis 90, the two current party which merged with "Die Grünen" in 1993. chairs, together with Bündnis 90/Die Grünen were part of the Reinhard Buetikofer. national coalition government between 1998 and October 2005. 39
  40. 40. Results 2005 Number of persons entitled to vote: 47.287.988 Political Party Valid Percent Number of members second votes of parliament SPD 16.194.665 34.2 222 CDU 13.136.740 27.8 180 FDP 4.648.144 9.8 61 The Left 4.118.194 8.7 54 Party 3.838.326 8.1 51 Alliance 90/ The Greens 3.494.309 7.4 46 CSU 1.857.610 4.0 - Others Total 49,308,512 614 40
  41. 41. The current distribution of seats in the German Bundestag (lower house of parliament). 41
  42. 42. Current distribution of seats in the German Bundesrat 42
  43. 43. Majority of first Vote in the electoral districts 43
  44. 44. Models of coalition formation Agreement form Advantage Disadvantage Loose agreement Highly flexible Not very binding Minimum consensus Binding on essentials Flexible on other (India) issues Common election Binding, improves Not very flexible manifesto (Germany) stability From case to case Highly flexible High costs due to (Indonesia) constant recreation 44
  45. 45. Solutions In the past 45
  46. 46. Coalition building after the Elections Options coalitions Both, CDU/CSU candidate Angela Merkel and SPD candidate Gerhard Schroeder wanted to form the government after the elections Following coalitions where discussed: • SPD/Gruene/Linkspartei • SPD/Gruene minority government, elected with Linkspartei •CDU CSU/ FDP minority government •SPD/Gruene/FDP •CDU CSU/Gruene/FDP ► Result: “Grand coalition“ under the leadership of Angela Merkel 46
  47. 47. Political parties & their leaders In Government: • Christian Democratic Union (CDU) • Social Democratic Party (SPD) [Angela Merkel] [Franz Müntefering] • Christian Social Union (CSU) [Horst Seehofer] In Opposition: • Alliance '90/Greens Free Democratic Party (FDP) [Guido Westerwelle] [Claudia Roth, Reinhard Buetikofer] • The Left Party (PDS) [ Oskar Lafontaine, Lothar Bisky ] *Note: This page only lists parties represented in the Bundestag 47
  48. 48. Actual coalitions in the Laender Bavaria CU S /FDP B rlin e S D inke P /L Baden- CU D /FDP S x ny ao CU P D /S D Werttemberg S x ny- ao CU P D /S D S a nd a rla CU D A lt nha R la hine nd SD P Hesse CU D /FDP P la te a tina Thuringia CU D North Rhine CU D /FDP Westphalia Lower Saxony CU D /FDP B mn re e S D rue P /G ne FDP is a governing party/coalition partner in 5 Laender H m urg a b C U rue D /G ne (in total 16 Laender) S hle w -H ls in C U P c s ig o te D /S D M c nb e kle urg SD D P /C U V rp m e o o m rn B nd nb ra e urg SD D P /C U 48
  49. 49. Coalition management tools In the German practice of coalition management and conflict resolution four tools are usually employed: 1. Regular routine coalition talks 2. Regular routine co-ordination meetings of the parliamentary fractions 3. Meetings of the chairmen of the coalition member parties (elephant rounds) 4. Working groups of the coalition partners 49
  50. 50. Coalition arenas on the state level (simplified) 50
  51. 51. Informal decision-making centres 51
  52. 52. Coalition/alliances challenges Challenge No 1: How to make a coalition work? • Rule No. 1: Discipline • Rule No. 2: Discipline • Rule No. 3: Discipline • Rule No. 4: Test, retest, retest (research, opinion polls, and focus groups etc.) • Rule No. 5: “Go where the people, the voters are” 52
  53. 53. Requirement: message discipline Organise your Who us them thoughts says what? us us us about about us them them them them about about us them 53
  54. 54. Challenge No 2: How to capture the median voter? If parties A and B want to catch the median voters, they should move towards the center. The red and blue areas represent the voters that A and B expect they have already captured. 54
  55. 55. Challenge No. 3: How to deal with factors affecting the party behaviour? 1. Executive-legislature relationship: parliamentary/presidential democracy 2. Electoral system: majoritarian vs. proportional (number of parties = their ideological range and mutual compatibility), party-centred vs. candidate-centred (internal cohesion of parties) 3. Social cleavages: cross-cutting vs. non-cross-cutting (issue-based or cutting across issues), extreme vs. moderate 55
  56. 56. Challenge No. 4: How to deal with the negative perception of coalition governments? “In a coalition government the knives remain out among the partners and they are being perpetually sharpened. In a coalition alliance that is very different. Here the partners have to wait for open criticism after they have unseated the current government. Coalitions in a democratic set-up can therefore only be the second-best-choice because they cannot ensure 100 % concerted action.” However, in political practice of almost all democracies, especially of the parliamentary types, Westminster as well as list- proportional systems, coalition governments have become the rule and not the exception of political decision-making and democratic governance. 56
  57. 57. Challenge No. 5: How to explain and justify the entered coalition? • The entered coalition has to be – explained to the political party members as well as – justified to the political party voters. 57
  58. 58. Challenge No. 6: How to keep the own political identity? During the coalition, the political parties have to avoid to: – loose the own political profile – become swallowed by the bigger coalition partner • Concurrently they have to: – Distinguish them self from the coalition partner to keep their own recognisability 58
  59. 59. Challenge No. 7: How to find exit solutions? In specific situations, the political parties have to find solutions to exit the coalition: - power struggles within the coalition partner/partners - internal party conflicts - specific political themes or issues Exit solutions could be to: - chancel the coalition contract - increase the political pressure on the cooperating party 59
  60. 60. Super election year 2009 May June September Election of the Federal Election of the European Election of the President Parliament German Federal Head of the state with Directly elected institution of the Parliament representative competences European Union (together with German parliament the Council of the European elected by a specially Date 27th September Union the legislative body) convened body called the 736 members where elected to FDP has not been a Federal Assembly represent 500 million people in government party (Bundesversammlung) 27 European states since 1998 Date of election 23 May 2009 Date of election 4-7 June Candidates: Horst Koehler Gesine Schwan, Peter Sodann Frank Rennicke Result: Re-election of Horst Koehler during the 60 Weekly snap-shot of voter first ballot polls May 2009
  61. 61. Freie Demokratische Partei Free Democratic Party The Friedrich Naumann Foundation is an independent, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that is committed to promoting liberal policy and politics. It is one of six such Foundations in Germany. The other ones are: 61
  62. 62. Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom 62
  63. 63. T G rm n P litic l F und tio he e a o a o a ns Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands Christian Democratic Union of Germany Christlich Soziale Union Christian Social Union Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands Social Democratic Party of Germany The Greens Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung Party of Democratic Socialism 63
  64. 64. W w sF d h N um nn? ho a rie ric a a Friedrich Naumann (18 0 19 6 -19 ) • P s r a lib ra p litic n a to nd e l o ia • F und r o the"C e ' S ho l" (19 o e f itiz ns c o 17) • fro 19 0"C lle eo P litic " m 2 o g f o s ("p d c s o o theF d h N um nn re e e s r" f rie ric a a F und tio o a n) • "M nto o T o o H us e r" f he d r e s 64
  65. 65. T H to he is ry 19 8 5 F und db T o o H us o e y he d r e s P o e P litic l E uc tio fo urp s : o a d a n r lib ra ma d m c c in e lis nd e o ra y G rm ny. e a 19 3 6 S rt o inte tio l w rk ta f rna na o S ethe thera eo ta k ha c ns ntly inc n, ng f s s s o ta g w ro n. 1973 S ho rs p g m e c la hip ro ra m 19 4 8 A hiv o L e lis rc e f ib ra m 19 5 9 L e l Ins ib ra titute 65
  66. 66. T F ld o W rk he ie s f o • P litic l E uc tio o a d a n • S ho rs P g m e c la hip ro ra m • A hiv o L e lis rc e f ib ra m • L e l Ins ib ra titute • Inte tio l P litic rna na o s 66
  67. 67. F FInte tio l P s nc N rna na re e e 67
  68. 68. Inte tio l P litic rna na o s P je t a nd nc a ro d ro c tte a e b a : • V theinte tio l o e re o ia rna na ffic s p rtingto re io l o e (M O , M d rra a g na ffic s S E e ite ne n c untrie , A a L tin A e a S uth A ia o s fric , a m ric , o s , S uthe s a E s A ia o a t nd a t s ) • P m tio a a s ta efo partner ro o n nd s is nc r organizations (p rtie , hum n rig a s a hts o a a ns lib ra b ine sa s c tio rg niz tio , e l us s s o ia ns e .) tc a : nd • Inte tio l p g m e , s m rsa rna na ro ra m s e ina nd c nfe nc sin G rm ny o re e e a 68
  69. 69. M in Is ue 2 0 - 2 11 a s s 08 0 • 1. Freedom in a society of [property] owners – P p rty rig a theb s o ind id l ro e hts re a is f iv ua fre d m eo . – P p rty rig a p p rty a theb s o ro e hts nd ro e re a is f e ry c il s c ty. ve iv o ie – P p rty a p p rty rig a them to o ro e nd ro e hts re o r f e o m a s c l d ve p e c no ic nd o ia e lo m nt. 69
  70. 70. • 2. Freedom and Responsibility in a civil society – M refre d ma re p ns ility thro h tho ug o e o nd s o ib ug ro h p tis tio a unle s riva a n nd a hingo c m e n in lo a f o p titio cl c m unitie . o m s – S ng ningo c il s c ty thro h re uc n o tre the f iv o ie ug d tio f b a ra y a d re ula n. ure uc c nd e g tio – It isthea tiv c e tha m t b a thec ntreo afre c e itiz n t us e t e f e c il s c ty. iv o ie – Alib ra initia etoe nc g a r p rtic a n a e l tiv nha e re te a ip tio nd c m itm nt b c e isurg ntly re uire ! o m e y itiz ns e q d 70
  71. 71. • 3. Freedom and Rule of Law - W ut ruleo la the isnofre d m itho f w re eo . - Sc e urity isac ns q nc o fre d m o e ue e f e o . - T p litic ingo a a p c o lifea theg w he o is f ll s e ts f nd ro th o b a ra y d s y theruleo la a fre d m f ure uc c e tro f w nd e o . 71

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