Longmen Scenic Area consists of the following three
spots, which are located 12 km (7.5 miles) south of
Luoyang, Henan, China.
城南12公里 (7.5英里) 處。
1. Longmen Grottoes 龍門石窟
2. Xiangshan Temple 香山寺
3. Bai Garden白園
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1. Longmen Grottoes 龍門石窟
The Longmen Grottoes or Longmen Caves are one of the finest examples of
Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his
There are as many as 100,000 statues within the 1,400 caves, ranging from an 1
inch (25 mm) to 57 feet (17 m) in height. 30% date from the Northern Wei Dynasty
and 60% from the Tang, caves from other periods accounting for less than 10% of
the total. Starting with the Northern Wei Dynasty in 493 AD, patrons and donors
included emperors, Wu Zetian of the Second Zhou Dynasty, members of the royal
family, other rich families, generals, and religious groups.
In 2000 the site was inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an
outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity,” for its perfection of an art
form, and for its encapsulation of the cultural sophistication of Tang China.
有 1,400 個洞穴，10 萬尊雕像，高度從 1 英寸（25毫米）到 57 英尺 (17米)。洞穴 30％
屬於北魏時期，60％ 屬於從唐，不到10％ 屬於其他期間。
賓陽三洞 (The Three Binyang Caves)
From left to right, South Binyang Cave, Middle
Binyang Cave and North Binyang Cave.
Middle Binyang Cave
Middle Binyang Cave, is carved in the
Northern Wei style on the west hill, on the
northern floor. It was built by Emperor
Xuanwun to commemorate his father
Xiaowen, and also his mother.
In the main wall of this cave, five very large
Buddhist statues are carved all in Northern
Wei style. The central statue is of Sakyamuni
Buddha with four images of Bodhisattvas
flanking it. Two side walls also have Buddha
images flanked by Bodhisattvas.
The Buddhas, arranged in three groups in the
cave, are representative of Buddha of the
past, the present, and the future. The canopy
in the roof is designed as a lotus flower.
賓陽中洞 (第 140 窟)
主牆有北魏風格 5 尊大佛雕像，中央是釋迦牟尼佛，兩側是四尊菩薩。南北牆壁菩薩兩
South Binyang Cave
South Binyang Cave, has five very large images which were carved by Li Tai, the
fourth son of Li Shimin, the first Tang Emperor. He made them in 641 AD in memory
of his mother Empress Zhangsun. The central image in a serene appearance is that
of Amitabha Buddha seated on a pedestal surrounded by Bodhisattvas, also serene
looking in blend of the Northern Wei and the Tang Dynasty styles.
萬佛洞 10,000 Buddhas Cave
Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave
Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave was built in 680 by Gaozong and Wu Zetian. It houses 15,000
Buddhas carved in small niches, different from each other, with the smallest Buddha being
2 cm (0.79 in) in height.
萬佛洞於 680 年由唐高宗和武則天建造。在南北兩側牆壁小龕中，整齊排列著完全不
同的 15,000 尊小佛像雕刻而得名，每尊只有四厘米高，最小的佛像高度只有 2 厘米
Lotus Cave 蓮花洞
Lotus Cave, dated to 527, belongs to be the Northern Wei period. The
Grotto has a large lotus flower carved in high relief on its ceiling. Several
small Buddhas are carved into the south wall. Also seen are shrines in the
south and north wall in the niches.
蓮花洞 (第 712 窟)
蓮花洞大約開鑿於北魏孝昌年間 (公元 525-527 年)。石窟頂雕有一朵高浮雕的
Fengxian Temple Cave
Fengxian Temple Cave is the Ancestor Worshipping Cave, which is the largest of
all caves carved on the west hill built between 672 and 676 for Empress Wu
Zetian. The carvings are claimed to be the ultimate in architectural perfection of
the Tang dynasty. The shrine inside the cave measures 39m x35m. It has the
largest Buddha statue at the Longmen Grottoes.
Of the nine huge carved statues, the highly impressive image of Locana Buddha
is sculpted on the back wall of the Fengxian. The image is 17.14m high and has
2m long ears. Bodhisattva on the left of the main image of Buddha is decorated
with a crown and pearls. Also shown is a divine person trampling an evil spirit.
The main image of Locana's features are plumpish and of peaceful and natural
expression. Each of the other large statues are carved with expressions matching
their representative roles.
These were carved at the orders of Empress Wu Zetian, and are considered
uniquely representative of the Tang dynasty's "vigorous, elegant and realistic
style." The huge Locana statue is considered as "the quintessence of Buddhist
sculpture in China.”
2. Xiangshan Temple 香山寺
Xiangshan Temple is one of the earliest temples at Longmen. It is located in
the midsection of the east hill. The name 'Xiangshan' is derived from the
name of the spices "Xiangge" found extensively on these hill slopes.
It was reconstructed some time in 1707, during the Qing Dynasty patterned
on an old temple that existed there.
Temple was expanded in 2002, by adding the "Belfry, the Drum Tower, the
Wing Room, the Hall of Mahavira and Hall of Nine Persons, Eighteen
Arhats, the Villa of Jiang Jieshi and Song Meiling".
香山寺坐落在香山 (東山) 中段。因山坡上盛產香料「香葛」而得名。
清朝 1707 年康熙時期，依據舊廟型式予以重建。寺廟在 2002 年更擴大加入
3. Bai Garden 白園
Bai Garden is situated on the Pipa peak of east hill (Xiangshan Hill). It was rebuilt in 1709 the Qing Dynasty. The temple is surrounded by thick vegetation of
pine and cypress trees.
Tomb of Bai Juyi
The Tomb of Bai Juyi on the east bank is of the well-known poet during the
Tang Dynasty rule who lived in Luoyang during his later years. The tomb is
located on the hill top. It is approached from west bank after crossing a bridge
across the Yi River. The tomb is a circular mound of earth of 4 meters height
with a circumference of 52 meters. The tomb is 2.80 meters high and has the
poets name inscribed on it as Bai Juyi.
白園坐落在東山（香山）琵琶峰上。它在 1709 年清代康熙時期重新修建。白園
墓碑高 2.80 米，上面刻有詩人白居易的名字。