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Longmen Grottoes 龍門石窟
The Longmen Grottoes or Longmen Caves are one of the finest examples of
Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his
disciples, they are located 12 km (7.5 mi) south of present day Luoyang in Henan
province, Peoples Republic of China.
There are as many as 100,000 statues within the 1,400 caves, ranging from an 1
inch (25 mm) to 57 feet (17 m) in height. 30% date from the Northern Wei Dynasty
and 60% from the Tang, caves from other periods accounting for less than 10% of
the total. Starting with the Northern Wei Dynasty in 493 AD, patrons and donors
included emperors, Wu Zetian of the Second Zhou Dynasty, members of the royal
family, other rich families, generals, and religious groups.
In 2000 the site was inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an
outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity,” for its perfection of an art
form, and for its encapsulation of the cultural sophistication of Tang China.
河南洛陽南方 12 公里（7.5英里）處。
有 1,400 個洞穴，10 萬尊雕像，高度從 1 英寸（25毫米）到 57 英尺 (17米)。洞穴 30％
屬於北魏時期，60％ 屬於從唐，不到10％ 屬於其他期間。
Reached by modern, concrete stairs
up the face of a cliff, Qianxisi, or
Hidden Stream Temple Cave, is a
large cave on the northern edge of the
west hill. Made during Gaozong's reign
(653-80), the cave has statues of a
huge, seated, early Tang Buddha
(Amitabha Buddha), Avalokitesvara
and Mahasthamaprapta flanked by
Bodhisattvas, and are carved with a
sophisticated expression typical of
Northern Wei style.
潛溪寺 (第 20 窟)
Middle Binyang Cave
Middle Binyang Cave, is carved in the
Northern Wei style on the west hill, on the
northern floor. It was built by Emperor
Xuanwun to commemorate his father
Xiaowen, and also his mother.
In the main wall of this cave, five very large
Buddhist statues are carved all in Northern
Wei style. The central statue is of Sakyamuni
Buddha with four images of Bodhisattvas
flanking it. Two side walls also have Buddha
images flanked by Bodhisattvas.
The Buddhas, arranged in three groups in the
cave, are representative of Buddha of the past,
the present, and the future. The canopy in the
roof is designed as a lotus flower.
賓陽中洞 (第 140 窟)
主牆有北魏風格 5 尊大佛雕像，中央是釋迦牟尼佛，兩側是四尊菩薩。南北牆壁菩薩兩
South Binyang Cave
South Binyang Cave, has five very large images which were carved by Li Tai, the
fourth son of Li Shimin, the first Tang Emperor. He made them in 641 AD in memory
of his mother Empress Zhangsun. The central image in a serene appearance is that
of Amitabha Buddha seated on a pedestal surrounded by Bodhisattvas, also serene
looking in blend of the Northern Wei and the Tang Dynasty styles.
Across the Wye River is Xiangshan Temple
萬佛洞 10,000 Buddhas Cave
Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave
Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave was built in 680 by Gaozong and Wu Zetian. It houses 15,000
Buddhas carved in small niches, different from each other, with the smallest Buddha being
2 cm (0.79 in) in height.
萬佛洞於 680 年由唐高宗和武則天建造。在南北兩側牆壁小龕中，整齊排列著完全不
同的 15,000 尊小佛像雕刻而得名，每尊只有四厘米高，最小的佛像高度只有 2 厘米
Laolong Cave 老龍洞 (第 669 窟)
The Laolong or the Old Dragon Cave created during the Tang Dynasty
period, named after the Old Dragon Palace has many niches dated to Gaozong’s
老龍洞是自然山洞開鑿而成的。全窟密布大小不等 54 處龕，其中較大的有 12、
Lotus Cave 蓮花洞
Lotus Cave, dated to 527, belongs to be the Northern Wei period. The
Grotto has a large lotus flower carved in high relief on its ceiling. Several
small Buddhas are carved into the south wall. Also seen are shrines in the
south and north wall in the niches.
蓮花洞 (第 712 窟)
蓮花洞大約開鑿於北魏孝昌年間 (公元 525-527 年)。石窟頂雕有一朵高浮雕的
Fengxian Temple Cave
Fengxian Temple Cave is the Ancestor Worshipping Cave, which is the largest of
all caves carved on the west hill built between 672 and 676 for Empress Wu
Zetian. The carvings are claimed to be the ultimate in architectural perfection of
the Tang dynasty. The shrine inside the cave measures 39m x35m. It has the
largest Buddha statue at the Longmen Grottoes.
Of the nine huge carved statues, the highly impressive image of Locana Buddha
is sculpted on the back wall of the Fengxian. The image is 17.14m high and has
2m long ears. Bodhisattva on the left of the main image of Buddha is decorated
with a crown and pearls. Also shown is a divine person trampling an evil spirit.
The main image of Locana's features are plumpish and of peaceful and natural
expression. Each of the other large statues are carved with expressions matching
their representative roles.
These were carved at the orders of Empress Wu Zetian, and are considered
uniquely representative of the Tang dynasty's "vigorous, elegant and realistic
style." The huge Locana statue is considered as "the quintessence of Buddhist
sculpture in China.”
A divine person trampling an evil spirit
於涉 範 處
北及 圍 兩
魏內 很 側
晚 科 廣牆
期 、 ，壁
， 外 從上
經 科 普刻
東 、 通著
北 科 冒多
齊 、 到種
， 五 精藥
直 官 神方
到 科 錯，
朝 。 亂醫
Medical Prescription Cave
Medical Prescription Cave, has small inscriptions of 150 medical prescriptions for a wide
range medical problems such as common cold to insanity. These are seen carved right at
the entrance on both walls. These carvings are dated from the late Northern Wei period
right through to the early Tang Dynasty.
Guyang Cave is recorded as the oldest
Longmen cave with carvings in the Northern
Wei style. Also found here are 600 inscriptions
in fine calligraphy of the writings of the
Northern Wei style.
The cave has three very large images - the
central image is of Sakyamuni Buddha with
Bodhisattvas on either side. The features of
the images are indicative of the Northern Wei
style, typically of slim and emaciated figures.
There are about 800 inscriptions in the walls
and niches inside the cave, the largest such
numbers in any cave in China.
古陽洞 (第 1443 窟)
格的 600 塊碑刻書法精品。
洞中三尊大佛像 - 中央是釋迦牟尼佛，兩側是
在牆壁上及龕洞內大約有 800 幅題字銘文，在
如有興趣 請觀賞下列 [視頻] 龍門石窟 (中國世界遺產)
Longmen Grottoes, UNESCO World Heritage List 31:31
Music ： Chinese music 只有情永在