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Longmen grottoes (龍門石窟)
 

Longmen grottoes (龍門石窟)

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The quintessence of Buddhist sculpture in China.

The quintessence of Buddhist sculpture in China.

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    Longmen grottoes (龍門石窟) Longmen grottoes (龍門石窟) Presentation Transcript

    • 編輯配樂:老編西歪 changcy0326 按滑鼠換頁 Click for page continue
    • Longmen Grottoes 龍門石窟 The Longmen Grottoes or Longmen Caves are one of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his disciples, they are located 12 km (7.5 mi) south of present day Luoyang in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. There are as many as 100,000 statues within the 1,400 caves, ranging from an 1 inch (25 mm) to 57 feet (17 m) in height. 30% date from the Northern Wei Dynasty and 60% from the Tang, caves from other periods accounting for less than 10% of the total. Starting with the Northern Wei Dynasty in 493 AD, patrons and donors included emperors, Wu Zetian of the Second Zhou Dynasty, members of the royal family, other rich families, generals, and religious groups. In 2000 the site was inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity,” for its perfection of an art form, and for its encapsulation of the cultural sophistication of Tang China. 龍門石窟有好幾萬尊佛陀和弟子的雕像,是中國佛教藝術的最佳範例之一,位於中國 河南洛陽南方 12 公里(7.5英里)處。 有 1,400 個洞穴,10 萬尊雕像,高度從 1 英寸(25毫米)到 57 英尺 (17米)。洞穴 30% 屬於北魏時期,60% 屬於從唐,不到10% 屬於其他期間。 由於是一種完美藝術形式和唐代複雜中國文化的包裝,2000 年以「人類藝術創造力的 傑出表現」被列入聯合國教科文組織世界遺產名錄。
    • 橫臥於伊水之上的龍門大橋
    • 「 龍 門 」 為 陳 毅 所 題
    • 古老質樸的青石路,沿河欄杆上經典的佛家語 錄,都讓人仿佛置身於超凡脫俗的境界裡。
    • Qianxisi Cave Reached by modern, concrete stairs up the face of a cliff, Qianxisi, or Hidden Stream Temple Cave, is a large cave on the northern edge of the west hill. Made during Gaozong's reign (653-80), the cave has statues of a huge, seated, early Tang Buddha (Amitabha Buddha), Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta flanked by Bodhisattvas, and are carved with a sophisticated expression typical of Northern Wei style. 潛溪寺 (第 20 窟) 從現代混凝土樓梯爬到一個懸崖的正 面,潛溪寺是龍門西山北端第一個大石 窟。大約建於唐代初期,唐高宗(公元 653-80年),山洞裡一個巨大的主佛阿 彌陀佛端坐在須彌台上,兩側的雕像觀 世音菩薩和大勢至菩薩,表情複雜,典 型北魏風格。
    • 賓陽三洞 (The Three Binyang Caves)
    • 由左至右分別為賓陽南洞、中洞、北洞。 From left to right, South Binyang Cave, Middle Binyang Cave and North Binyang Cave.
    • 褚遂良手書的「伊蘭佛龕之 碑」,是中國書法藝術史上魏 碑體的珍品,表面是原拓片。
    • 賓陽北洞 (第 104 窟) Binyang North Cave
    • Middle Binyang Cave Middle Binyang Cave, is carved in the Northern Wei style on the west hill, on the northern floor. It was built by Emperor Xuanwun to commemorate his father Xiaowen, and also his mother. In the main wall of this cave, five very large Buddhist statues are carved all in Northern Wei style. The central statue is of Sakyamuni Buddha with four images of Bodhisattvas flanking it. Two side walls also have Buddha images flanked by Bodhisattvas. The Buddhas, arranged in three groups in the cave, are representative of Buddha of the past, the present, and the future. The canopy in the roof is designed as a lotus flower. 賓陽中洞 (第 140 窟) 在西山北側,是北魏風格雕刻。北魏宣武帝為他父親孝文帝及母親做功德而建。 洞穴 主牆有北魏風格 5 尊大佛雕像,中央是釋迦牟尼佛,兩側是四尊菩薩。南北牆壁菩薩兩 側也有很多佛像。 山洞裡的佛分為三種型態,過去佛,現在佛和未來佛。洞內中央雕刻有蓮花寶蓋。 北魏時期崇尚瘦美,所以主佛釋迦牟尼面頰清瘦,脖頸細長,體態修長,衣紋密集。
    • ( 融端建他的賓賓 為莊。是第陽陽 一,中在四南南 體面央公子洞洞 。態基元李,第 飽座 泰有 滿坐 在五 ,著年北尊窟 體阿為魏很 型彌他廢大 豐陀的棄的 腴佛生的佛 ,左母基像 將右長礎, 北圍孫上是 魏着皇又唐 和菩后續太 唐薩做鑿宗 代,功而李 風形德成世 格象而。民 159 641 ) South Binyang Cave South Binyang Cave, has five very large images which were carved by Li Tai, the fourth son of Li Shimin, the first Tang Emperor. He made them in 641 AD in memory of his mother Empress Zhangsun. The central image in a serene appearance is that of Amitabha Buddha seated on a pedestal surrounded by Bodhisattvas, also serene looking in blend of the Northern Wei and the Tang Dynasty styles.
    • 香山寺與龍門石窟隔伊河相望​​ Across the Wye River is Xiangshan Temple
    • 牡丹花化石
    • 萬佛洞 10,000 Buddhas Cave Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave was built in 680 by Gaozong and Wu Zetian. It houses 15,000 Buddhas carved in small niches, different from each other, with the smallest Buddha being 2 cm (0.79 in) in height. 萬佛洞 萬佛洞於 680 年由唐高宗和武則天建造。在南北兩側牆壁小龕中,整齊排列著完全不 同的 15,000 尊小佛像雕刻而得名,每尊只有四厘米高,最小的佛像高度只有 2 厘米 (0.79英寸)。 洞內主佛為阿彌陀佛,端坐於雙層蓮花座上,面相豐滿圓潤,兩肩寬厚,簡潔流暢的 衣紋運用了唐代渾圓刀的雕刻手法。 主佛背後還有五十二朵蓮花,每朵蓮花上都端坐有一位供養菩薩,她們或坐或側,或 手持蓮花,或竊竊私語,神情各異,像是不同少女的群體像。 在南北兩壁的壁基上各刻有六位伎樂人,舞伎在悠揚的樂曲聲中翩翩起舞,體態輕盈, 婀娜多姿。 洞口南側還有一尊菩薩像,她是龍門石窟唐代眾多菩薩像的精美範例。菩薩通高 85 厘米,頭部向右傾斜,身體成「s」形的曲線,整個姿態顯得非常優美端莊。
    • 萬佛洞 窟頂有一朵精美的大蓮花
    • 萬佛洞 主佛阿彌陀佛與南壁萬佛雕像
    • 萬 佛 洞 北 壁 萬 佛 雕 像
    • 萬 佛 洞 洞 框 小 佛 雕 像
    • 萬 佛 洞 外 側 北 壁 雕 像
    • 萬佛洞外側南壁雕像
    • 萬佛洞外 南壁雕像
    • 觀音菩薩 萬佛洞外 南壁雕像
    • 1930~1935 博間原萬 物被位佛 館盜於洞 和,萬獅 波現佛子 士分洞 頓別洞 藝藏口 術於前 博美室 物國兩 館堪側 。薩, 斯 納 爾 遜 藝 術年
    • 惠簡洞 位於萬佛洞南側。大唐咸亨四年,西京法海寺僧惠簡為唐高宗,武則天 等皇室成員修建的功德窟。洞內主佛及右側弟子阿難,面相酷似龍門盧 舍那大像龕主佛及弟子阿難造像,又俗稱「小盧舍那像龕」。
    • 老龍洞 Laolong Cave
    • Laolong Cave 老龍洞 (第 669 窟) The Laolong or the Old Dragon Cave created during the Tang Dynasty period, named after the Old Dragon Palace has many niches dated to Gaozong’s reign. 老龍洞是自然山洞開鑿而成的。全窟密布大小不等 54 處龕,其中較大的有 12、
    • 蓮花洞 Lotus Cave
    • Lotus Cave 蓮花洞 Lotus Cave Lotus Cave, dated to 527, belongs to be the Northern Wei period. The Grotto has a large lotus flower carved in high relief on its ceiling. Several small Buddhas are carved into the south wall. Also seen are shrines in the south and north wall in the niches. 蓮花洞 (第 712 窟) 蓮花洞大約開鑿於北魏孝昌年間 (公元 525-527 年)。石窟頂雕有一朵高浮雕的 大蓮花而得名。 洞內主像為釋迦牟尼立像,著褒衣博帶式袈裟,衣褶簡潔明快。這是釋迦牟 尼的遊說(外出講經說法)像。 北側是弟子迦葉,深目高鼻,胸部筋骨突兀,手持錫杖,似一西域苦行僧, 可惜其頭部早年被盜,現存法國吉美博物館。
    • 蓮花洞 主佛釋迦摩尼及窟頂的大型蓮花浮雕
    • Fengxian Temple Cave Fengxian Temple Cave is the Ancestor Worshipping Cave, which is the largest of all caves carved on the west hill built between 672 and 676 for Empress Wu Zetian. The carvings are claimed to be the ultimate in architectural perfection of the Tang dynasty. The shrine inside the cave measures 39m x35m. It has the largest Buddha statue at the Longmen Grottoes. Of the nine huge carved statues, the highly impressive image of Locana Buddha is sculpted on the back wall of the Fengxian. The image is 17.14m high and has 2m long ears. Bodhisattva on the left of the main image of Buddha is decorated with a crown and pearls. Also shown is a divine person trampling an evil spirit. The main image of Locana's features are plumpish and of peaceful and natural expression. Each of the other large statues are carved with expressions matching their representative roles. These were carved at the orders of Empress Wu Zetian, and are considered uniquely representative of the Tang dynasty's "vigorous, elegant and realistic style." The huge Locana statue is considered as "the quintessence of Buddhist sculpture in China.”
    • 奉先寺 (第 1280 窟) 奉先寺是龍門石窟規模最大、藝術最為精湛的一組摩崖型群雕,因為隸屬於當時的 皇家寺院奉先寺而俗稱「奉先寺」。 奉先寺是祖先崇拜的洞,這是西山上最大的洞穴,於公元 672 至 676 年間為武則天 所開鑿。這些雕刻被稱為是唐朝最後的完美建築。洞內壁龕長寬 39x35 米。在龍門石 窟中是最大的佛像。 九尊巨大的雕像中,奉先寺後牆的盧舍那雕像令人印象深刻,佛像高 17.14 米,頭 高4米,耳朵長達 1.9 米。在主佛像左側的菩薩像有王冠和珍珠裝飾,還有一位神人力 士腳踩著一個惡魔。 飽經滄桑、老成持重的大弟子迦葉,溫順聰慧的小弟子阿難,表情矜持、雍榮華貴 的菩薩,英武雄健的天王,咄咄逼人的力士與主佛盧舍那一起構成了一組極富情態質 感的美術群體形象。 盧舍那形象的特徵是豐潤,表達平和與自然。這座佛像面部豐滿圓潤,頭頂為波狀 形的發紋,雙眉彎如新月,附著一雙秀目,微微凝視著下方。高直的鼻樑,小小的嘴 巴,露出祥和的笑意。雙耳長且略向下垂,下頦圓而略向前突。圓融和諧,安詳自在, 身著通肩式袈裟,衣紋簡樸無華,一圈圈同心圓式的衣紋,把頭像烘託的異常鮮明而 聖潔。其他大型雕像刻出的表情,都與他們代表的角色相匹配。 這些是武則天下令雕刻的,被認為是獨特唐朝「渾厚,優雅的寫實藝術風格」的唯 一代表。巨大的盧舍那雕像被認為是「中國佛教雕塑的精髓」。
    • 奉先寺全景 Fengxian Temple Cave
    • 盧舍那大佛 Locana Buddha Statue Niche
    • 盧舍那石佛 Locana Buddha Statue 用他那慈祥的目光注視著人間千年的風雨變遷,這座雕像是 一件精美絕倫的藝術傑作,據傳是按照武則天容貌雕刻而成。
    • 龍門石窟主窟佛教雕塑全景 Panorama of the Buddhist sculptures in the main Longmen Grotto.
    • 文殊菩薩
    • 普賢菩薩
    • 神人力士腳踩惡魔 A divine person trampling an evil spirit
    • 95 10 初這都療藥藥 期些有項方方 。雕,目洞洞 刻藥適入 始方用口 於涉 範 處 北及 圍 兩 魏內 很 側 晚 科 廣牆 期 、 ,壁 , 外 從上 經 科 普刻 東 、 通著 魏小 的 、兒 感 北 科 冒多 齊 、 到種 , 五 精藥 直 官 神方 到 科 錯, 唐等 朝 。 亂醫 150 在有療這 《 疑些 醫種難藥 心藥雜方 方方症不 》在,僅 中公如可 ,元:以 足 療治 見 噎療 它世方常 的紀可見 價被以的 值 一治疾 和 位療病 影 日食, 響 本道而 。 學癌且 者。還 收其能 中治 錄 Medical Prescription Cave Medical Prescription Cave, has small inscriptions of 150 medical prescriptions for a wide range medical problems such as common cold to insanity. These are seen carved right at the entrance on both walls. These carvings are dated from the late Northern Wei period right through to the early Tang Dynasty.
    • 藥方洞 Medical Prescription Cave
    • Guyang Cave Guyang Cave is recorded as the oldest Longmen cave with carvings in the Northern Wei style. Also found here are 600 inscriptions in fine calligraphy of the writings of the Northern Wei style. The cave has three very large images - the central image is of Sakyamuni Buddha with Bodhisattvas on either side. The features of the images are indicative of the Northern Wei style, typically of slim and emaciated figures. There are about 800 inscriptions in the walls and niches inside the cave, the largest such numbers in any cave in China. 古陽洞 (第 1443 窟) 古陽洞為最古老的龍門洞窟。這裡發現北魏風 格的 600 塊碑刻書法精品。 洞中三尊大佛像 - 中央是釋迦牟尼佛,兩側是 菩薩。佛像特徵具有北魏風格,典型的以瘦為 美形態。 在牆壁上及龕洞內大約有 800 幅題字銘文,在 中國洞穴中是最多的。書法珍品龍門二十品, 古陽洞中就佔有十九品,另一品在慈香窯中。
    • 書法珍品龍門二十品
    • 北魏 龍門二十品拓片 (照片取材自網路)
    • 龍門石窟西山全景 (由東山攝影) Panoramic Xishan Longmen Grottoes
    • 如有興趣 請觀賞下列 [視頻] 龍門石窟 (中國世界遺產) Longmen Grottoes, UNESCO World Heritage List 31:31 https://www.youtube.com/embed/WkS79FNfPe0?auto play=1&autohide=1&showinfo=0&rel=0 Music : Chinese music 只有情永在 http://www.slideshare.net/changcy0326