George Orwell (1903-1950) George Orwell, 1933.
1.  Biography Born  Eric Blair   in India in  1903 , he was the son of a minor  colonial official . George Orwell Only Con...
Orwell was educated at  Eton , in England where he began to develop an  independent-minded  personality, indifference to a...
On leaving college he started to  work for  the  Indian   Imperial Police   in Burma (1922-1927). George Orwell Only Conne...
He hated working in Burma and  returned to England  on sick-leave. George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Or...
Once back in England he devoted himself to  writing  full time,  publishing his works with the pseudonym of  George Orwell...
<ul><li>Down and Out in Paris and London   (1933)    a non-fiction narrative in which he described his experience among t...
2.  Works <ul><li>Homage to Catalonia   (1938)    based on his experience during the Spanish Civil War . </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Rejection of his English background    he accepted new ideas and impressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between ...
<ul><li>Criticism of totalitarianism, the violation of liberty and tyranny in all its forms. </li></ul>4. Social  themes <...
<ul><li>Animal Farm  is Orwell’s  reaction  to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s Purge Trials  (1930) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
5.  Animal Farm Historical background <ul><li>The book expresses Orwell’s disillusionment with  totalitarianism  in the fo...
<ul><li>Short narrative set on a farm. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of oppressed animals, led by  Napoleon , overcome their c...
5.  Animal Farm The plot <ul><li>Napoleon’s leadership becomes a  dictatorial regime . </li></ul><ul><li>All the  Seven Co...
<ul><li>Parallel with the history of the  USSR   between 1917 and 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>Each  animal symbolises  a preci...
<ul><li>Animal Farm  is not only a satire on the Soviet Union, but a satire on  dictatorship  in general, as the name “Nap...
The  animals Besides being a symbol, each animal possesses the traits of its species. George Orwell Only Connect ... New D...
<ul><li>Orwell’s inspiration </li></ul>Animated cartoons Literary sources The fables of  Aesop   or   La Fontaine  Third a...
<ul><li>Animal Farm  shows how the initial idealism of the revolution gradually decayed into  inequality ,  hierarchy  and...
<ul><li>Animal Farm  does not attack   the original ideals  of the Revolution but the ways in which they were betrayed. </...
<ul><li>   From different points of view through different animals </li></ul>Description  of the working class George Orw...
<ul><li>Orwell remains conventionally socialist in portraying religion. </li></ul><ul><li>   the raven Moses, who is Mr. ...
<ul><li>Life in  a big totalitarian system ,  Oceania  (North America, South Africa, Australia). </li></ul><ul><li>Airstri...
<ul><li>Introduction of the protagonist,  Winston Smith , in this  oppressive world . </li></ul><ul><li>Winston & Julia’s ...
Setting London , in the mythical  country of Oceania,  1984  ( in the future ). London: desolated city governed by  terror...
<ul><li>Oceania is a huge country ruled by  The Party . </li></ul><ul><li>The  Inner Party   ( 1% of population ) controls...
<ul><li>The  Proles  ( 81% of population ) are the  labour  power who live  in poverty . </li></ul><ul><li>The Brotherhood...
The Party controls everything:    Ministry of Truth ,  Ministry of Love    slogan  “freedom is slavery”  (Chapter 1) An ...
TELESCREEN No privacy : “ […] an oblong metal plaque like a dulled mirror. The telescreen received and transmitted simulta...
“ . .some necessary article which the Party shops were unable to supply”  (Chapter 5) A perpetual  state of war : Two minu...
6.  Nineteen Eighty-Four “ I have it in my power to inflict pain on you at any moment and to whatever degree I choose”  (C...
<ul><li>Newspeak is the  official   language  of Oceania. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the Party is to have  Newspeak  re...
<ul><li>Newspeak eliminates   undesirable words   and invents  new words   – all to force  Party conformity . </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Doublethink  is the manipulation of the mind by making people  accept contradictions . </li></ul><ul><li>Doublethi...
<ul><li>The Ministry of Truth  (where Winston works) changes history, facts, and memories to promote  Doublethink     his...
<ul><li>“ Smith ”  is the commonest English surname so the hero is a sort of  Everyman . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Winston ”   e...
6.  Nineteen Eighty-Four <ul><li>alienation from society </li></ul><ul><li>rebellion against the Party </li></ul><ul><li>s...
<ul><li>Big Brother is the  perceived ruler  of Oceania    he looks like a combination of  Hitler  and  Stalin . </li></u...
<ul><li>Julia is Winston’s 25-year-old lover. </li></ul><ul><li>She is a beautiful dark-haired woman who enjoys sex and cl...
<ul><li>Dangerous mysterious  enemy . </li></ul><ul><li>Name inspired by  Trotzkij ’s surname:  Brostein . </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Importance of  memory  and  trust . </li></ul><ul><li>Abolishment of  individuality   and  reality . </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Documentary realism .   </li></ul><ul><li>“ his body was being wrenched out of shape, the joints were being slowly...
<ul><li>Pessimistic tone . </li></ul><ul><li>No consolation, but cruel reality. </li></ul><ul><li>The author sympathizes w...
<ul><li>To inform. </li></ul><ul><li>To reveal facts and draw conclusions from them. </li></ul><ul><li>To give an interpre...
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36. orwell

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  • 36. orwell

    1. 1. George Orwell (1903-1950) George Orwell, 1933.
    2. 2. 1. Biography Born Eric Blair in India in 1903 , he was the son of a minor colonial official . George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell at his typewriter George Orwell with his son Richard.
    3. 3. Orwell was educated at Eton , in England where he began to develop an independent-minded personality, indifference to accepted values, and professed atheism and socialism . George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell at his typewriter George Orwell with his son Richard. 1. Biography
    4. 4. On leaving college he started to work for the Indian Imperial Police in Burma (1922-1927). George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell (third standing from the right) in Spain George Orwell 1. Biography
    5. 5. He hated working in Burma and returned to England on sick-leave. George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell (third standing from the right) in Spain George Orwell 1. Biography
    6. 6. Once back in England he devoted himself to writing full time, publishing his works with the pseudonym of George Orwell . George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell (third standing from the right) in Spain George Orwell 1. Biography
    7. 7. <ul><li>Down and Out in Paris and London (1933)  a non-fiction narrative in which he described his experience among the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Burmese Days (1934)  based on his experiences in the colonial service. </li></ul><ul><li>The Road to Wigan Pier (1937)  a report on the conditions of miners in the industrial North. </li></ul>2. Works George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions
    8. 8. 2. Works <ul><li>Homage to Catalonia (1938)  based on his experience during the Spanish Civil War . </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Farm (1945)  made him internationally known and financially secure. </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)  his most original novel. </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions
    9. 9. <ul><li>Rejection of his English background  he accepted new ideas and impressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between middle-class education and emotional identification with the working class. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the artist  to inform, to reveal facts and draw conclusions from them  social function . </li></ul>3. The artist’s developement George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell.
    10. 10. <ul><li>Criticism of totalitarianism, the violation of liberty and tyranny in all its forms. </li></ul>4. Social themes <ul><li>Influence of Dickens in the choice of: </li></ul><ul><li>social themes </li></ul><ul><li>realistic language </li></ul><ul><li>misery caused by poverty </li></ul><ul><li>depravation of society </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell while working for the BBC
    11. 11. <ul><li>Animal Farm is Orwell’s reaction to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s Purge Trials (1930) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s signature of the non-aggression pact with Hitler (1939) </li></ul></ul>5. Animal Farm Historical background George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions First hardcover edition of Animal Farm by George Orwell.
    12. 12. 5. Animal Farm Historical background <ul><li>The book expresses Orwell’s disillusionment with totalitarianism in the form of an animal fable </li></ul><ul><li>It is an anti-utopia influenced by Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1721-1725) </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions First hardcover edition of Animal Farm by George Orwell.
    13. 13. <ul><li>Short narrative set on a farm. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of oppressed animals, led by Napoleon , overcome their cruel master and set up a revolutionary government . </li></ul>5. Animal Farm The plot George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A scene from Animal Farm , a 1954 animated movie based on Orwell’s book.
    14. 14. 5. Animal Farm The plot <ul><li>Napoleon’s leadership becomes a dictatorial regime . </li></ul><ul><li>All the Seven Commandments are abandoned and only one remains: “ all animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others ” . </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A scene from Animal Farm , a 1954 animated movie based on Orwell’s book.
    15. 15. <ul><li>Parallel with the history of the USSR between 1917 and 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>Each animal symbolises a precise figure or representative type. </li></ul>Stalin 5. Animal Farm The meaning of the book George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions
    16. 16. <ul><li>Animal Farm is not only a satire on the Soviet Union, but a satire on dictatorship in general, as the name “Napoleon” shows. </li></ul>5. Animal Farm The meaning of the book George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Stalin
    17. 17. The animals Besides being a symbol, each animal possesses the traits of its species. George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 5. Animal Farm Old Major a mixture of Marx and Lenin Farmer Jones Czar Nicolas II Snowball Trotsky Napoleon Stalin Boxer the loyal, hard-working man his name derives from the Boxer Rebellion in China The dogs a metaphor for the Terror State
    18. 18. <ul><li>Orwell’s inspiration </li></ul>Animated cartoons Literary sources The fables of Aesop or La Fontaine Third and fourth books of Gulliver’s Travels 5. Animal Farm History as fable George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of Animal Farm.
    19. 19. <ul><li>Animal Farm shows how the initial idealism of the revolution gradually decayed into inequality , hierarchy and finally dictatorship . </li></ul><ul><li>This decay of the revolution is always seen from the community’s point of view , never from the pigs’ one. </li></ul>5. Animal Farm The Revolution George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of Animal Farm.
    20. 20. <ul><li>Animal Farm does not attack the original ideals of the Revolution but the ways in which they were betrayed. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, the privileges and abuses of the old regime are restored in a systematic, tyrannical form: this is what Orwell means by totalitarianism (each step violates some revolutionary principle of the Seven Commandments). </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of Animal Farm. 5. Animal Farm The Revolution
    21. 21. <ul><li> From different points of view through different animals </li></ul>Description of the working class George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 5. Animal Farm The animal… … stands for The sheep blind conformity The high-strung hens the easily agitated mob Boxer the horse hard work, endurance and patriotic loyalty Benjamin the donkey stoic detachment from all utopian ideas
    22. 22. <ul><li>Orwell remains conventionally socialist in portraying religion. </li></ul><ul><li> the raven Moses, who is Mr. Jones’s favourite pet, derives its name from the Hebrew word “lawgiver”. When the revolution turns conservative and nationalistic, Napoleon brings the raven back, as Stalin brought back the Russian Orthodox Church. </li></ul>5. Animal Farm Religion George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A raven
    23. 23. <ul><li>Life in a big totalitarian system , Oceania (North America, South Africa, Australia). </li></ul><ul><li>Airstrip One , a future England , is an outpost of Oceania. </li></ul>Subject George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Poster for Michael Radford’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    24. 24. <ul><li>Introduction of the protagonist, Winston Smith , in this oppressive world . </li></ul><ul><li>Winston & Julia’s love  happiness . </li></ul><ul><li>Winston’s imprisonment and torture . </li></ul>Structure George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Poster for Michael Radford’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    25. 25. Setting London , in the mythical country of Oceania, 1984 ( in the future ). London: desolated city governed by terror and constant control of BIG BROTHER . George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Nobody escapes the gaze of Big Brother. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    26. 26. <ul><li>Oceania is a huge country ruled by The Party . </li></ul><ul><li>The Inner Party ( 1% of population ) controls the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Outer Party ( 18% of population ) is controlled by the Inner Party . </li></ul>Oceania’s ranks George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    27. 27. <ul><li>The Proles ( 81% of population ) are the labour power who live in poverty . </li></ul><ul><li>The Brotherhood is an underground rebel organization lead by Emmanuel Goldstein . </li></ul>Oceania’s ranks George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    28. 28. The Party controls everything:  Ministry of Truth , Ministry of Love  slogan “freedom is slavery” (Chapter 1) An anti-utopian novel A frightening picture of the future : George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of 1984. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    29. 29. TELESCREEN No privacy : “ […] an oblong metal plaque like a dulled mirror. The telescreen received and transmitted simultaneously. Any sound […] would be picked by it” (Chapter 1) George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of 1984. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four An anti-utopian novel
    30. 30. “ . .some necessary article which the Party shops were unable to supply” (Chapter 5) A perpetual state of war : Two minutes Hate The Party provides for everything : George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of 1984. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four An anti-utopian novel
    31. 31. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four “ I have it in my power to inflict pain on you at any moment and to whatever degree I choose” (Chapter 2) Punishment against the rebels George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions A contemporary edition of 1984. An anti-utopian novel
    32. 32. <ul><li>Newspeak is the official language of Oceania. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the Party is to have Newspeak replace Oldspeak (standard English). </li></ul>Newspeak George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions The Party’s motto in 1984 . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    33. 33. <ul><li>Newspeak eliminates undesirable words and invents new words – all to force Party conformity . </li></ul><ul><li>Aim : to eliminate literature , thoughts and consciousness . </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions The Party’s motto in 1984 . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four Newspeak
    34. 34. <ul><li>Doublethink is the manipulation of the mind by making people accept contradictions . </li></ul><ul><li>Doublethink makes people believe that the Party is the only institution that knows right from wrong . </li></ul>Doublethink George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions The Party’s motto in 1984 . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    35. 35. <ul><li>The Ministry of Truth (where Winston works) changes history, facts, and memories to promote Doublethink  historical reference to Stalin ’s will to change history . </li></ul>George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions The Party’s motto in 1984 . 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four Doublethink
    36. 36. <ul><li>“ Smith ” is the commonest English surname so the hero is a sort of Everyman . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Winston ” evokes Churchill ’s patriotic appeals during the Second World War: “ blood, sweat and tears ” . </li></ul>6. Nineteen Eighty-Four The protagonist: Winston Smith The name John Hurt as Winston in Michael Radford’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984). George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions
    37. 37. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four <ul><li>alienation from society </li></ul><ul><li>rebellion against the Party </li></ul><ul><li>search for spiritual and moral integrity </li></ul>His experience In the first two parts of the novel Winston expresses Orwell’s point of view. George Orwell The protagonist: Winston Smith Only Connect ... New Directions John Hurt as Winston in Michael Radford’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984).
    38. 38. <ul><li>Big Brother is the perceived ruler of Oceania  he looks like a combination of Hitler and Stalin . </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brother’s God-like image is stamped on coins and projected on telescreens  his gaze is unavoidable . </li></ul>Characters: Big Brother George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Big Brother looks like a combination of Hitler and Stalin. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    39. 39. <ul><li>Julia is Winston’s 25-year-old lover. </li></ul><ul><li>She is a beautiful dark-haired woman who enjoys sex and claims she had affairs with many Party members. </li></ul><ul><li>She is optimistic and her rebellion is small and personal. </li></ul>Suzanna Hamilton as Julia in Michael Radford’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) Characters: Julia George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    40. 40. <ul><li>Dangerous mysterious enemy . </li></ul><ul><li>Name inspired by Trotzkij ’s surname: Brostein . </li></ul><ul><li>Theme of necessity of an enemy onto which people’s anger is driven. </li></ul>Characters: Goldstein George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    41. 41. <ul><li>Importance of memory and trust . </li></ul><ul><li>Abolishment of individuality and reality . </li></ul><ul><li>Satire against hierarchical societies . </li></ul>Themes George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions Big Brother poster from 1984 , a 1956 film directed by Michael Anderson. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    42. 42. <ul><li>Documentary realism . </li></ul><ul><li>“ his body was being wrenched out of shape, the joints were being slowly torn apart” (Chapter 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Parody and satire . </li></ul>Style and tone George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    43. 43. <ul><li>Pessimistic tone . </li></ul><ul><li>No consolation, but cruel reality. </li></ul><ul><li>The author sympathizes with persecuted people. </li></ul>Style and tone George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
    44. 44. <ul><li>To inform. </li></ul><ul><li>To reveal facts and draw conclusions from them. </li></ul><ul><li>To give an interpretation of reality. </li></ul>Author’s aim George Orwell Only Connect ... New Directions George Orwell. 6. Nineteen Eighty-Four
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