33. joyce (1)


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33. joyce (1)

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ Poetry, even when apparently most fantastic, is always a revolt against artifice, a revolt, in a sense, against actuality” </li></ul>James Joyce (1882-1941) James Joyce.
  2. 2. <ul><li>A rebel among rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast with Yeats and the other literary contemporaries who tried to rediscover the Irish Celtic identity. </li></ul>The Joyces in Paris 1. Life James Joyce Only Connect ... New Directions
  3. 3. 1. Life The Joyces in Paris <ul><li>He had two children, Giorgio and Lucia, with his long-time partner, Nora Barnacle , whom he eventually married. </li></ul><ul><li>He left Dublin at the age of twenty-two and he settled for some time in Paris , then in Rome , Trieste , where he made friends with Italo Svevo , and Zurich . </li></ul>James Joyce Only Connect ... New Directions
  4. 4. <ul><li>The setting of most of his works  Ireland , especially Dublin . </li></ul><ul><li>He rebelled against the Catholic Church . </li></ul><ul><li>All the facts  explored from different points of view simultaneously. </li></ul>James Joyce 2. The most important features of Joyce’s works Only Connect ... New Directions
  5. 5. James Joyce <ul><li>Greater importance given to the inner world of the characters . </li></ul><ul><li>Time  perceived as subjective . </li></ul><ul><li>His task  to render life objectively . </li></ul>2. The most important features of Joyce’s works Isolation and detachment of the artist from society Only Connect ... New Directions
  6. 6. <ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined prose </li></ul><ul><li>Different points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Free-direct speech </li></ul><ul><li>Dubliners </li></ul>James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style 1. Only Connect ... New Directions
  7. 7. James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style Third-person narration Minimal dialogue Language and prose used to portray the protagonist’s state of mind Free-direct speech A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 2. Only Connect ... New Directions
  8. 8. James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style Interior monologue with two levels of narration Extreme interior monologue Ulysses 3. Only Connect ... New Directions
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Dublin represented by Joyce is not fixed and static, it is « the revolutionary montage of “Dublins” through a range of historical juxtapositions and varied styles » . </li></ul><ul><li>The 15 stories of the Dubliners , though set in the same city, are not united by their geography: each story has a singular location . </li></ul>James Joyce 4. Dublin Only Connect ... New Directions Dublin
  10. 10. James Joyce 4. Dublin <ul><li>The evocation of his town in A Portrait is deeply influenced by Joyce’s prolonged temporal and spatial distance; Dublin is filtered through Stephen’s mind . </li></ul><ul><li>In Ulysses , Dublin overwhelms the reader . </li></ul>Dublin Only Connect ... New Directions
  11. 11. <ul><li>Published in 1914 on the newspaper The Irish Homestead by Joyce with the pseudonym Stephen Dedalus . </li></ul>James Joyce 5. Dubliners <ul><li>Dubliners are described as afflicted people . </li></ul><ul><li>All the stories are set in Dublin  “The city seemed to me the centre of paralysis” , Joyce stated. </li></ul>Nassau Street, Dublin, early 20th century Only Connect ... New Directions
  12. 12. <ul><li>The stories present human situations </li></ul><ul><li>They are arranged into 4 groups : </li></ul>The Sisters An Encounter Araby After the Race The Boarding House Eveline Two Gallants A Little Cloud Clay Counterparts A Painful Case Ivy Day in the Committee Room A Mother Grace Mature life Public life Adolescence Childhood DUBLIN Paralysis / Escape James Joyce 6. Dubliners : structure and style Only Connect ... New Directions
  13. 13. <ul><li>Naturalistic, concise, detailed descriptions . </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism combined with symbolism  double meaning of details . </li></ul><ul><li>Each story opens in medias res and is mostly told from the perspective of a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of free-direct speech and free-direct thought  direct presentation of the character’s thoughts. </li></ul>James Joyce 7. Dubliners : narrative technique and themes Only Connect ... New Directions
  14. 14. James Joyce 7. Dubliners : narrative technique and themes <ul><li>Different linguistic registers  the language suits the age, the social class and the role of the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of epiphany  “the sudden spiritual manifestation” of an interior reality . </li></ul><ul><li>Themes  paralysis and escape . </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of a didactic and moral aim because of the impersonality of the artist. </li></ul>Only Connect ... New Directions
  15. 15. <ul><li>Joyce’s aim  to take the reader beyond the usual aspects of life through epiphany . </li></ul>James Joyce 8. Dubliners : epiphany It is the special moment in which a trivial gesture, an external object or a banal situation or an episode lead the character to a sudden self-realisation about himself / herself or about the reality surrounding him / her. Understanding the epiphany in each story is the key to the story itself Only Connect ... New Directions
  16. 16. <ul><li>The main theme of Dubliners  paralysis </li></ul>James Joyce 9. Dubliners : paralysis Moral paralysis linked to religion, politics and culture Physical paralysis caused by external forces Only Connect ... New Directions
  17. 17. James Joyce 9. Dubliners : paralysis <ul><li>The climax of the stories  the coming to awareness by the characters of their own paralysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to paralysis = escape which always leads to failure . </li></ul>Only Connect ... New Directions
  18. 18. <ul><li>Characters : </li></ul><ul><li>A boy . </li></ul><ul><li>The adult world : the boy’s uncle and aunt; Old Cotter; the dead priest, and his sisters, Eliza and Nannie. </li></ul>James Joyce 10. Dubliners : The Sisters Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  19. 19. James Joyce 10. Dubliners : The Sisters Setting  the boy’s house; the priest’s house and a street next to the priest’s house. Atmosphere  suffocating, dark oppressive linked to paralysis/death; bright , airy linked to life. Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  20. 20. <ul><li>Structure  priest’s life described through dialogues and flashbacks . </li></ul><ul><li>Narration  the first person narrator is combined with free direct speech . </li></ul>James Joyce 10. Dubliners : The Sisters Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  21. 21. James Joyce 10. Dubliners : The Sisters Language  simple childish and adult linguistic registers Symbolism  the priest’s physical features = madness  decay  paralysis  death Epiphany  “ it was the chalice he broke” excessive influence and intrusion of the Church Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  22. 22. <ul><li>Characters : </li></ul><ul><li>- Eveline  passive, influenced by her family’s mentality </li></ul><ul><li>- Her father  a violent and strict man </li></ul><ul><li>- Frank  a very kind, open-hearted and brave boy </li></ul><ul><li>Antithesis between Eveline’s house and her new one in Buenos Aires </li></ul>James Joyce 11. Dubliners : Eveline Paralysis/Escape Only Connect ... New Directions
  23. 23. <ul><li>The story opens in medias res  </li></ul><ul><li>“ She sat at the window watching the evening invade the avenue” </li></ul><ul><li>Third-person narrator but Eveline’s point of view . </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective perception of time. </li></ul>James Joyce 11. Dubliners : Eveline Structure and style Only Connect ... New Directions
  24. 24. James Joyce 11. Dubliners : Eveline <ul><li>Epiphany  a street organ which reminds Eveline of the promise she made to her dying mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic words  dust = decay , paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>sea = action , escape </li></ul><ul><li>Themes: paralysis and the failure to find a way out of it . </li></ul>Only Connect ... New Directions Structure and style
  25. 25. <ul><li>The protagonists : Gabriel Conroy, an embodiment of Joyce himself, and Gretta, his wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphany  the song The Lass of Aughrim , reminds Gretta of a young man, Michael Furey, who died for her when he was seventeen years old.  Gabriel understands he is deader than Michael Furey in Gretta’s mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols  the snow, Gabriel’s journey to the west. </li></ul>James Joyce 12. Dubliners : The Dead Angelica Huston in John Huston’s The Dead (1987) Only Connect ... New Directions