22. wordsworth

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22. wordsworth

  1. 1. William Wordsworth Benjamin Robert Haydon, William Wordsworth , 1842, London, National Portrait Gallery.
  2. 2. 2. Life Wordsworth’s House in Cockermouth, Cumberland <ul><li>Born in Cockermouth in Cumberland in 1770 . </li></ul><ul><li>His father, a lawyer, taught him poetry and allowed him access to his library . </li></ul><ul><li>1791: B. A. Degree at St John’s College , Cambridge . </li></ul>William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  3. 3. 2. Life <ul><li>In 1791 he travelled to Revolutionary France and was fascinated by the Republican movement . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1792 he had a daughter, Caroline , from a French aristocratic woman, Annette Vallon . </li></ul>Wordsworth’s House in Cockermouth, Cumberland William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  4. 4. 2. Life <ul><li>The Reign of Terror led him to become estranged to the Republic, and the war between England and France caused him to return to England . </li></ul>William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions Wordsworth’s House in Cockermouth, Cumberland
  5. 5. <ul><li>In 1795 he developed a close friendship with Samuel Taylor Coleridge , with whom he collaborated in the 1797-1799 period to write Lyrical Ballads . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1843 he became the Poet Laureate . </li></ul><ul><li>He died in 1850 . </li></ul>2. Life William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions Wordsworth’s House in Cockermouth, Cumberland
  6. 6. 3. Main works <ul><li>Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems (1798). </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems (1800). This edition contains the famous Preface , the Manifesto of English Romanticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Poems , in Two Volumes (1807). </li></ul><ul><li>The Excursion (1814). </li></ul><ul><li>The Prelude (1850). </li></ul>William Wordsworth , Shreveport, James Smith Noel Collection William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  7. 7. From the Preface to Lyrical Ballads “ The principal object […] was to choose incidents and situations from common life […] to make these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them […] the primary laws of our nature”. 4. The object of poetry William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  8. 8. “ The language […] of these men is adopted […] because such men hourly communicate with the best objects from which the best part of language is originally derived”. From the Preface to Lyrical Ballads 5. The language of poetry “ […] and because, being less under the influence of social vanity, they convey their feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated expressions”. William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  9. 9. “ What is a poet? […] He is a man speaking to men: a man […] endued with more lively sensibility who has a greater knowledge of human nature, and a more comprehensive soul, than are supposed to be common among mankind”. From the Preface to Lyrical Ballads 6. Who is the poet? William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  10. 10. “ Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origins from emotion recollected in tranquillity: the emotion is contemplated till by a species of reaction the tranquillity gradually disappears, and an emotion, kindred to that which was before the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself actually exist in the mind”. From the Preface to Lyrical Ballads 7. What is poetry? William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  11. 11. “ In this mood successful composition generally begins, and in a mood similar to this it is carried on; but the emotion (…) from various causes is qualified by various pleasures, so that in describing any passions whatsoever, which are voluntarily described, the mind will upon the whole be in a state of enjoyment”. From the Preface to Lyrical Ballads 8. Poetic composition William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  12. 12. Object Poet Sensory experience Emotion Memory = Recollection In Tranquillity Poem Reader Emotion Kindred emotion 9. The poetic process William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  13. 13. <ul><li>Man and nature are inseparable . </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheistic view of nature: it is the seat of the spirit of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature comforts man in sorrow, it is a source of joy and pleasure, it teaches man to love , to act in a moral way . </li></ul>10. Man and nature William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions John Constable, The White Horse, 1819, New York, The Frick Collection.
  14. 14. 11. The senses and memory <ul><li>Wordsworth exploited the sensibility of the eye and ear to perceive the beauty of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that the moral character develops during childhood  influence of David Hartley (1705-1757). </li></ul>William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions William Hawell, Waterfall at Ambleside seen through a window , 1807, Wordsworth Trust.
  15. 15. <ul><li>The sensations caused by physical experience lead to simple thoughts . </li></ul><ul><li>These simple thoughts later combine into complex and organised ideas . </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a major force in the process of growth. </li></ul>11. The senses and memory William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions The Chancel and Crossing of Tintern Abbey, Looking towards the East Window by J. M. V. Turner, 1794.
  16. 16. 12. The poet’s task The poet = a teacher <ul><li>Shows men how to understand their feelings and improve their moral being. </li></ul><ul><li>Draws attention to the ordinary things of life where the deepest emotions are to be found. </li></ul>William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions
  17. 17. 13 . Wordsworth’s style <ul><li>Abandoned 18th-century poetic diction. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always used blank verse . </li></ul><ul><li>Proved skilful at verse forms such as sonnets , odes , ballads and lyrics . </li></ul>William Wordsworth Only Connect ... New Directions View of Buttermere, Crummock Water and the surrounding Fells from Fleetwith Pike in the English Lake District

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