The Gothic Novel James Ward, Gordale Scar , 1814, London, Tate Gallery.
It came to popularity at the end of the 18th century
Only Connect ... New Directions The adjective “Gothic” three connotations Medieval , linked to the architecture of the 12th-14th centuries Irregular , barbarous , opposed to Classicism Wild , supernatural , in the sense of mysterious 1. The origin of the name The Gothic novel
Only Connect ... New Directions The 18th-century society
Destruction of the single human being
Man as a slave to forces he could not control
Gothic symbols as denunciation of social problems
2. Influences The Gothic novel
Only Connect ... New Directions 2. Influences The Gothic novel
As a celebration of terror
As a rejection of constraints and limits
As exploration of forbidden areas
Great importance given to terror , characterised by obscurity and uncertainty, and horror , caused by evil and atrocity .
Darkness necessary ingredient for the mysterious , gloomy atmosphere.
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 3. The setting Jonathan Barry, Udolpho Castle , 1993, private collection.
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 3. The setting
Ancient settings isolated castles and mysterious abbeys with hidden passages , underground cellars , secret rooms .
Catholic countries as the setting for the most terrible crimes , due to Protestant prejudices against Catholicism.
A drawing depicting the Gothic staircase at Strawberry Hill , near London.
Characters dominated by exaggerated reactions in front of mysterious situations or events.
Supernatural beings vampires , monsters and ghosts .
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 4. The characters Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli), The Nightmare , 1781, Goethe Museum, Frankfurt
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 4. The characters
Sensitive heroes they save heroines .
Heroines stricken by unreal terrors and persecuted by the villains.
Satanic, terrifying male characters , victims of their negative impulses .
Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli), The Nightmare , 1781, Goethe Museum, Frankfurt
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 5. The language Semantic areas Words Mystery enchantment, ghost, haunted, infernal, magic, secret, spectre, vision Fear/ Terror/ Sorrow agony, anguish, apprehensions, despair, dread, fearing, frightened, hopeless, horror, melancholy, miserable, panic, sadly, scared, shrieks, sorrow, tears, terror, unhappy, wretched Haste anxious, breathless, frantic, hastily, impatient, running, suddenly Anger anger, enraged, furious, rage, resentment, wrath Largeness enormous, gigantic, large, tremendous, vast
Horace Walpole The Castle of Otranto (1764)
Ann Radcliffe The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794)
Matthew Lewis The Monk (1796)
Mary Shelley Frankenstein (1818)
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 6. First Gothic authors
Great interest during the 18 th century common to all strata of society .
The features of Gothic novels preserved in modern and contemporary descendents of this genre in the works of:
E. A. Poe
R. L. Stevenson
Only Connect ... New Directions The Gothic novel 7. Popularity