Petipa the person part i summer 2011Presentation Transcript
The Age of Petipa Part 1: Marius Petipa
Marius Petipa March 11, 1818 – July 14, 1910• Known as “the father of classical ballet”• Born in Marseilles, France• Moved to St. Petersburg, Russia in 1847• Choreographed more than 60 ballets
Family history• Jean Antoine Petipa (father) was a famous French dancer and teacher.• Lucien Petipa (older brother) was a world famous dancer.• At 7yrs old Jean began teaching Marius ballet.• Marius HATED it! (But he was talented.)
Dance Scene of the 19th Century• French was the international language• Famous dancers of the day: Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Carlotta Grisi, Lucile Grahn, Fanny Cerrito• Famed ballet masters: Jules Perrot, Filippo Taglioni, Arthur Saint Leon• Famed teachers: Carlo Blasis, Enrico Cecchetti, Auguste Vestris
Pas de Quatre
Getting back to Marius…• General education from Grande College in Brussels• Made performance debut in 1831 in father’s production of La Dansomanie• Belgian revolution made family move to Bordeaux then Nantes, where Petipa became a principal.• After touring North America, returned to Bordeaux to continue dancing and begin experimenting with choreography.• Partnered Carlotta Grisi in La Peri.
Travels abroad• Moved to Madrid, Spain• had a love affair with wife of Marquis de Chateaubriand (member of French Embassy)• Challenged to a duel by Chateaubriand…• Promptly left Spain and never returned• 1847 moved to St Petersburg, Russia
Russian Connection• End of 17th century, Peter the Great evolves arts in Russia by inviting artists from other countries.• 1738 Empress Anna begins the Imperial Ballet School.• Most of the great European dancers performed in Russia.• Taglioni’s partner, Christian Johanson, stayed as teacher and choreographer.
Petipa In Russia• Continued dancing, staging works and dabbling in choreography• 1854 marries ballerina Maria Sergeyevna Surovshchikova• 1858 retires form dancing, focuses energy on choreography• Created A Regency Marriage, The Parisian Market, & The Blue Dhalia for wife.
Politics of dance• 1862 La Fille du Pharaon• Appointed company ballet master• 1869 replaces Saint-Leon as director of Maryinsky• Established “ballet a grand spectacle”• 1882 married ballerina Lubova Leonidovna• Retired 1903 after The Magic Mirror failed
Petipa’s impact on ballet• Established Classical over Romantic by focusing on technical virtuosity rather than pantomime or dramatic expression• Emphasized central role of the female ballerina and bravura steps of the male danseur• Used elaborate stage designs and large casts• Created choreographic formula still used today
Petipa ballets• Don Quixote• La Bayadere• Bluebeard• Cinderella• Raymonda• Harliquinade• Le Corsair
Tchaikovsky ballets• Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed: • Swan Lake • Sleeping Beauty • The Nutcracker
Sleeping Beauty 1890
The Nutcracker 1892
The Nutcracker (Sugarplum pas de deux)
Swan Lake 1895
Lev Ivanov• February 1834- July 1901• Incredibly musical• 1852 joined Imperial Ballet under Jules Perrot• 1885 appointed assistant to Petipa at Maryinksy Theater• In shadow of others throughout career
Ivanov’s choreographic contribution• Tendency towards Romantic over Classical• Petipa took full credit despite Ivanov’s contribuions• Believed to have choreographed : – Sleeping Beauty romantic vision scene – Swan Lake Act 2 – The Nutcracker (Petipa was sick, had to give credit)
Changes and endings• Early 1900s fashions and audience interests began shift away from Petipa’s Classical style• 1903 Petipa creates The Magic Mirror under pressure to change… flopped miserably• 1903 retired• 1906 Petipa’s memoirs are published; met with criticism and attacks• 1907 moves to southern Russia because of bad health• 1910 dies