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Swm report4

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  • 1. WATER POLLUTION
  • 2. Water is Precious and scarce Resource
    • Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water
    • India is wettest country in the world, but rainfall is highly uneven with time and space (with extremely low in Rajasthan and high in North-East)
    • On an avergae there are only 40 rainy days
    • Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, about 600 BCM is put to use so far
    • Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major WQ problems
  • 3. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
    • Preamble: Maintaining and restoring of wholesomeness of water – level of WQ
    • Provision for consent
    • Every polluter (industry or municipality) has to obtain consent from SPCBs/PCCs
    • Consent is conditional
    • Standards prescribed for effluents
    • Monitoring the compliance
  • 4. Major Water Quality Issues
    • Common issues of Surface and Ground water
    • Pathogenic (Bacteriological) Pollution
    • Salinity
    • Toxicity (micro-pollutants and other industrial pollutants)
    • Surface Water
    • Eutrophication
    • Oxygen depletion
    • Ecological health
    • Ground Water
    • Fluoride
    • Nitrate
    • Arsenic
    • Iron
    • Sea water intrusion
  • 5. Major Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation
    • Domestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboring population of 20 Crore generate about 26254 mld of wastewater of which only 6955 mld is treated.
    • Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generate about 13,468 mld of wastewater out of which nearly 60% (generated from large & medium industries) is treated.
    • Non-point sources also contribute significant pollution loads mainly in rainy season. Pesticides consumption is about 1,00,000 tonnes/year of which AP, Haryana, Punjab, TN, WB, Gujarat, UP and Maharashtra are principal consumers.
    • Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India in surface water which contribute pathogens, the main source of water borne diseases along with depletion of oxygen in water bodies.
    • Sewage alongwith agricultural run-off and industrial effluents also contributes large amount of nutrients in surface water causing eutrophication
    • A large part of the domestic sewage is not even collected. This results in stagnation of sewage within city, a good breeding ground for mosquitoes and contaminate the groundwater, the only source of drinking water in many cities.
  • 6.
    • NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME
    • Network Comprising of 784 stations.
    • Extended to 26 states & 5 Union Territories
    • Monitoring done or Quarterly/Monthly/Half Yearly.
    • Covers 168 Rivers, 53 Lakes, 5 Tanks, 2 Ponds, 3 Creeks, 3 Canals, 12 Drains and 181 wells.
  • 7. Identification of Polluted Water Bodies
    • CPCB identified 10 polluted stretches for prioritising pollution control efforts in 1988-89.
    • The Number of Stretches increased to 37 during 1992-93.
    • The list is now revised to include 86 stretches.
    • The concerned State Pollution Control Boards were asked to take adequate measures to restore the desired level.
  • 8. RIVER ACTION PLAN
    • CPCB identified polluted water bodies, which leads to formulation of action plan for restoration of the water body.
    • Based on CPCB’s Recommendations, Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1986 to restore the WQ of the Ganga by interception, diversion and treatment of wastewater from 27 cities/towns located along the river.
    • Based on the experience gained during implementation of the Ganga Action Plan, Govt of India extends river cleaning programme to other rivers and lakes.
  • 9. NATIONAL RIVER ACTION PLAN River No. of Towns River No. of Towns Ganga 74 Brahmini 3 Yamuna 21 Chambal 3 Damodar 12 Gomti 3 Godavari 6 Krishna 2 Cauvery 9 Sabarmati 1 Tungabhadra 4 Khan 1 Satluj 4 Kshipra 1 Subarnrekha 3 Tapi 1 Betwa 3 Narmada 1` Wainganga 3 Mahanadi 1 Grand Total 156
  • 10. WATER POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
    • Urban sources – National River Action Plan
    • Industrial Sources – through consent ( SPCB)
    • Special Drives: 17 categories of industries
    • Industries discharging into rivers and lakes
    • 24 Problem areas action plan
    • Environmental auditing
    • Common effluent treatment plants for cluster of SSI units (124)
    • Promotion of low-waste and no-waste technology
  • 11. Experience from industries
    • High organic load - distilleries
    • High TDS - pharmaceuticals, pesticides, rayon, dye and dye intermediates
    • Small scale industries - location (residential areas), inadequate resources, skill etc.
    • Problem with CETPs
  • 12.
    • ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY IN METRO CITIES
    • The groundwater is the main source of drinking in our country.
    • The groundwater quality is being degraded gradually in large urban centers/critically polluted areas.
    • Although Ministry of Water Resources is monitoring groundwater quality all over the country. The monitoring does not include main water quality issues ( heavy metals, pesticides, coliform, BOD, COD etc.
    • Thus, it is important to monitor the groundwater quality in the country.
    • In the current financial year CPCB included in its monitoring network a large number of groundwater stations (200 stations).
    • Apart from this CPCB is taking help of some research institutes to study the groundwater quality.
  • 13.
    • CONCLUSION
    • In order to meet water quality criteria in rivers, dilution water is required besides stringent pollution control.
    • Interlinking of rivers is one of the solution to meet water quality criteria in rivers as more dilution of water would be available in rivers.
  • 14. Thank You