INTRODUCTION• River Ganga is the National River of India• The river traverses a course of 2525 km before flowing into Bay of Bengal• More than 400 million people reside in Ganga basin• As soon as the day begins, devout Hindus begin to give their offerings of flowers or food, throwing grain or garlands of marigolds or pink lotuses into the Ganga• The Ganges was ranked among the five most polluted rivers of the world in 2007, with fecal coliform levels in the river near Varanasi more than one hundred times the official Indian government limits.
Nonpoint sources: Runoff from agricultural fields Solid waste Marigold flowers with pesticides Human and Cattle excreta and fecal matter Bathing and washing on ghats Cremation
SOLID WASTE DUMPING1. Solid waste isdumped at the bank ofthe Ganga in Varanasi.2. Many hazardouschemicals flow into theGanga due to leaching.
POLLUTION PATH OF RIVER GANGES 30% of the water flow is from melted glaciers Only about a third of the Ill planned Dams sewage and industrial effluent obstruct the natural being discharged into the river flow and thus is currently treated Due to untreated reducing the oxygen sewage discharge content water of the Ganga id not fit for bathingIndiscriminate mining andstone crushing denude theriver bed at Haridwar Half burnt bodies and Excessive pollution is huge ash are washed Endangering the away in the river ecosystems of Ganges River Dolphin
EFFECTS OF POLLUTION• Health effect like enteric diseases, diarrhoea and many water borne diseases• Water level reduction due to siltation• Threats to biodiversity• Socio-economic problem to livelihood of people near ghats• Effect on tourism• Groundwater contamination
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FORWATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT• Ganga Action Plan for conservation and pollution abatement of river Ganga.• Discharge standards have been notified for industries under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986• Take appropriate action against defaulting industries under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974• The Central Government has constituted the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) in February, 2009 This information was given by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests Shrimati Jayanthi Natarajan in a written reply in Rajya Sabha on August 30, 2011.
CURRENT SCENARIO OF RIVER GANGAB.O.D. in the religious bathing area remains dangerously high evens after completion of the GAP-IBOD and the fecal coliform levels are increasingIn working condition the STP is not treated very well hence BOD increasesFecal coliform level remains high as that entering the STP
REMEDIES FOR MISMANAGEMENTIN GANGA RIVER POLLUTION• Appropriate technology and suitable alternatives for waste water interception and treatment of sewage in Varanasi• By awaring people• Reduce obstruction of water flow• By mind setup and reduction in corruption• By proper and forceful implementation of water act and environmental act• River water quality monitoring at regular intervals
CONCLUSIONS•Due to excessive sewage discharge, indus-trial and domestic waste at various places,the quality and sacredness of Ganges hasdegraded•Aerobic microbial activity has reduced theDO and increased the BOD•Damming along the river at various placeshas reduced its carrying capacity to dissolveharmful things
Contd…•Dolphin, the national aquatic organism(Platanista gangetica gangetica) has becomeendangered due to excessive pollution•Indicating that the cultural, religious, socialand economical value of Ganga is in danger
ReferencesDivedi,S. 1991. Assessment of water quality of river Ganga at Varanasi. Ph.D. Thesis. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.River Ganga At Varanasi: The Polluted Purifier, Priyadarshini Shukla And B.D. Tripathi Department Of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.).STATUS PAPER ON RIVER GANGA, national river conservation directorate ministry of environment and forest.