Chandrashekhar

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ganga river water quality and its management in varanasi

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Chandrashekhar

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION• River Ganga is the National River of India• The river traverses a course of 2525 km before flowing into Bay of Bengal• More than 400 million people reside in Ganga basin• As soon as the day begins, devout Hindus begin to give their offerings of flowers or food, throwing grain or garlands of marigolds or pink lotuses into the Ganga• The Ganges was ranked among the five most polluted rivers of the world in 2007, with fecal coliform levels in the river near Varanasi more than one hundred times the official Indian government limits.
  2. 2. Ghats near Varanasi
  3. 3. WATER QUALITY OF RIVER GANGAWater quality can be characterize by mainly following parameters:Dissolve oxygen (DO)Biological oxygen demand (BOD)Chemical oxygen demand (COD)Fecal coliform
  4. 4. PARAMETERS *PERMISSIBLE IN VARANASI LIMITDissolve oxygen (DO) 5 mg/l 6-7mg/lBiological oxygen demand 3 mg/l 12-14mg/l(BOD)Chemical oxygen demand 250 mg/l >250 mg/l(COD)Fecal coliform 500-2500 MPN / 88000 MPN 100ml /100ml *Guided by CPCB
  5. 5. SOURCES OF CONTAMINATIONPOINT SOURCES Sewage Domestic waste Industrial effluent Polluted river (Varuna) Overflow and leakage of nalas
  6. 6. POINT SOURCES DISCHARGINGDIRECTLY INTO GANGA
  7. 7. Location Latitude Longitude1. Gyan Prawah Drain 25° 16’ 05.1” 83° 01’ 03.8”2. Samne Ghat Drain 25° 16’ 20.5” 83° 00’ 55.4”3. Mahadev Ghat Drain 25° 16’ 29.8” 83° 00’ 50.0”4. Aghoreshwar Ashram Ghat Drain 25° 16’ 33.4” 83° 00’ 48.6”5. Ram Ghat Drain 25° 16’ 42.0” 83° 00’ 44.0”6. Nagwa Drain (River Asi) 25° 17’ 00.5” 83° 00’ 34.9”7. Drain at north of Ravidas Park 25° 17’ 04.7” 83° 00’ 32.4”8. Ganga Mahal Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 22.4” 83° 00’ 24.9”9. Niranjani Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 44.1” 83° 00’ 27.1”10. Shiwala Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 46.8” 83° 00’ 27.1”11. Dandi Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 50.1” 83° 00’ 28.0”12. Harishchandra Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 53.4” 83° 00’ 27.7”13. Vijayanagram Ghat Drain 25° 17’ 55.9” 83° 00’ 28.1”14. Chauki Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 01.6” 83° 00’ 28.4”15. Kshemeshwar Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 03.1” 83° 00’ 28.7”16. Pandey Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 13.8” 83° 00’ 30.8”17. Ahilyabai Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 20.3” 83° 00’ 37.4”18. Rajendra Prasad Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 24.9” 83° 00’ 40.3”19. Man Mandir Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 27.4” 83° 00’ 41.8”
  8. 8. 20. Meer Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 32.5” 83° 00’ 45.7”21. Lalita Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 35.4” 83° 00’ 48.6”22. Jalasen Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 37.3” 83° 00’ 50.4”23. Manikarnika Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 37.4” 83° 00’ 50.4”24. Sankatha Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 43.6” 83° 00’ 57.9”25. Bhonsle Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 44.4” 83° 00’ 59.0”26. Mehta Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 49.9” 83° 01’ 01.0”27. Panch Ganga Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 51.4” 83° 01’ 03.5”28. Brahma Ghat Drain 25° 18’ 56.7” 83° 01’ 08.7”29. Lal Ghat Drain 25° 19’ 02.3” 83° 01’ 15.5”30. Trilochan Ghat Drain 25° 19’ 08.2” 83° 01’ 25.2”31. Gola Ghat (sewage pumping station) 25° 19’ 09.6” 83° 01’ 27.9”32. Nandeshwar Ghat Drain 25° 19’ 11.4” 83° 01’ 30.7”33. Teliyanala Ghat Drain 25° 19’ 15.2” 83° 01’ 38.4”34. Bhaisasur Ghat Drain 25° 19’ 23.7” 83° 01’ 53.7”35. Raj Ghat Drain I (Beside bridge) 25° 19’ 25.2” 83° 01’ 56.9”36. Raj Ghat Drain II (Below bridge) 25° 19’ 26.0” 83° 01’ 59.7”37. Basanta College outfall (Trunk Sewer) 25° 19’ 34.1” 83° 02’ 18.0”38. Varuna-Ganga Confluence 25° 19’ 45.6” 83° 02’ 40.9”
  9. 9. Nonpoint sources: Runoff from agricultural fields Solid waste Marigold flowers with pesticides Human and Cattle excreta and fecal matter Bathing and washing on ghats Cremation
  10. 10. SOLID WASTE DUMPING1. Solid waste isdumped at the bank ofthe Ganga in Varanasi.2. Many hazardouschemicals flow into theGanga due to leaching.
  11. 11. POLLUTION PATH OF RIVER GANGES 30% of the water flow is from melted glaciers Only about a third of the Ill planned Dams sewage and industrial effluent obstruct the natural being discharged into the river flow and thus is currently treated Due to untreated reducing the oxygen sewage discharge content water of the Ganga id not fit for bathingIndiscriminate mining andstone crushing denude theriver bed at Haridwar Half burnt bodies and Excessive pollution is huge ash are washed Endangering the away in the river ecosystems of Ganges River Dolphin
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF POLLUTION• Health effect like enteric diseases, diarrhoea and many water borne diseases• Water level reduction due to siltation• Threats to biodiversity• Socio-economic problem to livelihood of people near ghats• Effect on tourism• Groundwater contamination
  13. 13. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FORWATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT• Ganga Action Plan for conservation and pollution abatement of river Ganga.• Discharge standards have been notified for industries under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986• Take appropriate action against defaulting industries under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974• The Central Government has constituted the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) in February, 2009 This information was given by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests Shrimati Jayanthi Natarajan in a written reply in Rajya Sabha on August 30, 2011.
  14. 14. Sewage Treatment Plants (STP)in Varanasi• Sewage treatment plant of Diesel Locomotive Work (DLW) Capacity: 12mld.• Dinapur sewage treatment plant Capacity: 80mld.• Bhagwanpur sewage treatment plant Capacity: 8mld.
  15. 15. CURRENT SCENARIO OF RIVER GANGAB.O.D. in the religious bathing area remains dangerously high evens after completion of the GAP-IBOD and the fecal coliform levels are increasingIn working condition the STP is not treated very well hence BOD increasesFecal coliform level remains high as that entering the STP
  16. 16. REMEDIES FOR MISMANAGEMENTIN GANGA RIVER POLLUTION• Appropriate technology and suitable alternatives for waste water interception and treatment of sewage in Varanasi• By awaring people• Reduce obstruction of water flow• By mind setup and reduction in corruption• By proper and forceful implementation of water act and environmental act• River water quality monitoring at regular intervals
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS•Due to excessive sewage discharge, indus-trial and domestic waste at various places,the quality and sacredness of Ganges hasdegraded•Aerobic microbial activity has reduced theDO and increased the BOD•Damming along the river at various placeshas reduced its carrying capacity to dissolveharmful things
  18. 18. Contd…•Dolphin, the national aquatic organism(Platanista gangetica gangetica) has becomeendangered due to excessive pollution•Indicating that the cultural, religious, socialand economical value of Ganga is in danger
  19. 19. ReferencesDivedi,S. 1991. Assessment of water quality of river Ganga at Varanasi. Ph.D. Thesis. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.River Ganga At Varanasi: The Polluted Purifier, Priyadarshini Shukla And B.D. Tripathi Department Of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.).STATUS PAPER ON RIVER GANGA, national river conservation directorate ministry of environment and forest.
  20. 20. Thank You….

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