Theories of moral development
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Theories of moral development

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personality development ppt presentation by chandran kani iihtkannur

personality development ppt presentation by chandran kani iihtkannur

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  • 1. Moral theories are related with the study of psychology of moraldevelopment. these theories are based on reasoning and motivation byindividuals with regards to moral dilemmas.THEORIES OF MORALDEVELOPMENT
  • 2. Kohlberg’s theory Kohlberg’ theory is an adaptation of psychological theory. It is based on the foundation that morality is a form of reasoning that develops in structural stages in life. This theory holds that moral reasoning is the basis for ethical behavior. In other , it is known as theory of cognitive development.
  • 3. The three stages of moraldevelopment . • Pre-conventionalLevel .1 • conventionalLevel.2 • Post- conventionalLevel.3
  • 4. Pre-conventional stage At this level the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad. He interprets right or wrong in terms of either the physical consequences of action. In this stage there is sub-rules as 1.Obedience and punishment orientation • How can I avoid punishment ? 2.Self interest orientation • What is in it for me ?
  • 5. Conventional stage In this level the moral thinking and behavior of the individual are determined by the standards of the family, community, and society. This stage also has two sub-rules, 1.Inter personal accord and conformity • Good boy/ good girl attitude 2.Authority and social order orientation • Law and order morality.
  • 6. Post- conventional stage In this level the individual is not guided by pressures from the society or by selfish needs, but is guided by strong principles and convictions alone. They live by general principles and they have a strong desire to maintain the moral integrity. They set for themselves a moral code of conduct.
  • 7. Post conventional stage Has another two sub-rules as, 1.Social contract orientation 2.Universal ethical principles • That is principled conscience.
  • 8. Criticism on Kohlberg‘stheory 1. kohl berg theory is concerned with moral thinking. But there is big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions. 2.kohlberg seems to be biased to women because his samples was white men in privileged class and he was emphasizing on moral reasoning. factors such as compassion , caring, and other interpersonal feelings was not considered. 3.kohlberg overemphasized on western philosophy. Eastern cultures may have different moral outlooks which he does not account for.
  • 9. Carol Gilligans theory She was a research asst: of Kohlberg. Her criticism was presented in the book” in a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development” in 1982. Her theory is divided into three stages of moral development.
  • 10. Level 1. pre conventional. In the first level moral reasoning is based entirely around what is best for one’s self. [selfish stage] Goal is individual survival.
  • 11. Level 2. conventional A girl or woman in the second stage make decisions based on a sense of goodness as well as self sacrifice. women will not hurt others and will sacrifice their own interests in order to help others.
  • 12. Level 3.post conventional In the third and most sophisticated stage of feminine moral reasoning women valued truth as well as self sacrifice. In this stage women are able to reason through consequences and the impact that one’s action has on others. Thus Gilligan stresses the importance of maintaining personal relationships based on mutual caring.
  • 13. Consensus and controversy Literally consensus means agreement and controversy means disagreement. When an individual exercise moral autonomy there may arise a difference in the practical application of moral autonomy by different individuals . This can cause a controversy. Moral disagreements are natural and common. so in order to allow disagreement, tolerance is required amongst individuals which have the elements of reasonable and responsible thinking.
  • 14. Normative ethics or thetheory of right action. Normative ethics is concerned with how we ought to live and act. A normative theory of right action is an attempt to say what it is for an action to be morally permissible, obligatory or wrong. A normative theory of the good life is an attempt to say what it is for a human to live well. A theory of social justice is a normative theory of how a society should be structured and how goods ,liberties, and power be allocated in a society.
  • 15. Self interest, customs andreligion Self interest is valuating oneself in morally appropriate ways. Valuing oneself is important to find the right meaning in one’s life and work. Self esteem and self respect are closely related. Self esteem is a psychological concept .it refers to the virtue of valuing oneself properly. Just as we have to respect others for their integrity and other good qualities ,so too we must value ourselves and respect self. Just as we respect other’s rights , so to we must be aware of our own rights. Self respect is connected to all other major virtues like integrity, dignity, self control, courage, and good judgment.
  • 16. Customs and ethicalrelativism Customs play a vital role in deciding one’s moral values. Relativism is a position that all points of view are equally valid and the individual determine what is relative and true for him. Relativism theorizes that truth is different for different people, not simply that different people believe different things to be true.
  • 17. Ethical relativism This slogan explains the theory better, what is right for you may not be right for me. no moral principles are true for all people at all times and at all places. what’s right for one’s culture won’t necessarily be right for anothers culture. Ethical relativism represents that there are no moral absolutes , no moral right or wrong. morals evolve and change with social systems over a period. This philosophy allows people to transform ethically as the culture, knowledge and technology change in society.
  • 18. Religion and divine commandethics Moral values have a deep connection and influence of religion and its beliefs. The main social function of religion is to motivate right action and right thoughts. The main personal function of religion is to sustain peoples convictions to promote tolerance and moral concern for others. Religion help people to set a higher moral standard than the normal standard.
  • 19. Uses of ethical theories Ethical theories are very important and useful in many ways to a human being. Ethical theories are helpful in understanding and solving moral dilemmas. Ethical theories are useful in justifying professional obligations and ideals. Ethical theories are useful in expressing everyday moral experience and justifying the professional morality.
  • 20. Resolving moral dilemmas The ethical theories are useful in resolving moral dilemmas in the following ways: 1. helps to identify the various courses of action and to provide a systematic framework for comparing the alternatives. 2.Provides framework for development of moral arguments. 3.Helps to strengthen ones ability to reach a balanced and more appropriate judgment for a given situation. 4.ethical theories are very useful in justifying the general obligations of engineers, in safety related matters, and others in technological developments.
  • 21. Everyday morality Morality requires each individual to reflect regularly on the day to day decisions that confront them and the manner in which people treat one another. Moral behavior is concerned primarily with the interpersonal dimension of our behavior, how we treat one another individually and in a group, and increasingly other species and the environment. How many times have we asked ourselves” is that the way I should treat someone?, is the way that someone should treat me?”. As we have the ability to be critical of our interpersonal behavior, we also have the ability to develop codes and norms to guide that behavior.
  • 22. Exercise for everydaymorality Did I Did I do Did I treat Did Did practice any harm people anything anything any virtue to with happened happened today? anybody respect today in today in today? today? society for society for good ? bad ?In homeIn workIn society
  • 23. Relating professional andordinary morality. To understand the relationship between everyday moralities to the professional moralities let us consider the four views concerning the origin and justification of safety and other obligations of engineers.
  • 24. First view Professionals obtain moral obligations concerning safety through some laws or enforces codes that require them to be obligated. Safety and Environmental ISO 9000 health hazards act STANDARDS act
  • 25. SECOND VIEW Professionals obtain special obligations by becoming members of a professional society and thereby following that society’s code of ethics. Textile association of India [TAI] ENGINEERS INDIA ICWAI,MCI etc:
  • 26. Third view Professionals obtain safety obligations through the contractual agreements by which they are hired by their employers.
  • 27. Fourth view Professionals while entering into their careers implicitly assure the public to protect and safeguard them in the course of performing their roles.
  • 28. Engineering asexperimentation It is understood that an engineer is constantly exposed to risks even though he is not innovating anything. New hazards could be found in products, processes, and materials that were once thought to be safe. Engineering is regarded as a social experimentation because it affects or influences on the cultural and social systems of human society.
  • 29. experimentation During the course of an engineering career, he is constantly involved in research or the testing of new products. Especially during the design phase one needs to apply various experimental procedures . There may many uncertainties at each stage . But engineers cannot afford to delay the project until all information regarding the project is received and studied in detail. So engineering is work, project, or an activity and is considered as an experiment.
  • 30. The general responsibilitiesof engineers to society: Engineers are primarily technical facilitators, rather than social experimenters. the other unique responsibility of an engineers includes monitoring projects, identifying risks and providing to customers and clients the required information to make practical decisions. While exercising engineering duties, the engineers should show the virtue of being morally responsible persons.
  • 31. General features of morallyresponsible engineers There are four characteristics of morally responsible engineers, from the view of engineering as social experimentation. 1.responsibility. 2.conscientiousness. 3.moral autonomy. 4.accountability.
  • 32. responsibility An engineers responsibility is shared with management , public and others. The primary responsibility of an engineer is to protect the safety of human beings. Constant awareness of the experimental nature of any project , imaginative forecasting of its side effects and a reasonable ability to monitor it. Personal involvement in all projects. Accepting accountability for the progress and the results of the project.
  • 33. conscientiousness Conscientiousness implies scientific consciousness. To be aware and to recognize a situation , its consequences and determine all those who are involved and will be affected. Being sensitive to moral values and responsibilities , which are relevant in a given situation. Act as guardians in public interest. Engineers have to guard the welfare and safety of those affected by engineered projects. Show moral concern that involves a commitment to obtain and properly assess all information related to meeting one’s obligations.
  • 34. Moral autonomy Moral autonomy is the ability to think independently and critically about moral issues and apply this moral thinking to situations that arise during professional practice. As an experimenter an engineer has to undergo constant training to maintain his identity as an engineer. When there is a threat to an engineers moral autonomy he can look for moral support from the professional bodies and outside organizations.
  • 35. accountability Accountability means being responsible, liable, and answerable. Involves accepting moral responsibility for actions and presenting morally convincing reasons for one’s actions. Being willing to submit one’s actions to moral scrutiny and be responsive to others actions.
  • 36. Code of ethics Codes of ethics are propagated by various professional societies to provide codes of conduct and guidelines that are specific for a group of professionals. These guidelines help the professionals to perform their roles in a professional manner. It helps them to resolve ethical issues. These codes also convey the duties, rights and responsibilities of the members of the profession.
  • 37. What are code of ethics? Code of ethics provide the basic framework for judgment for a professional. It is an agreed upon standards for professional conduct. It also defines the roles and responsibilities of professionals. Code of ethics creates an environment within a profession where ethical behavior is the norm.
  • 38. Principles of ethics These are based on five canons: 1. INTEGRITY 2. COMPETENCE 3. INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY 4. PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY 5. HUMAN CONCERNS.
  • 39. Positive role of codes ofethics The codes of ethics as propagated by the professional bodies play a variety of roles: 1. Inspiration. 2. Guidance. 3. support for responsible conduct. 4. discouraging and disciplining professional unethical conduct. 5. contributing to positive public image. 6. education and promotion of mutual understanding.
  • 40. Promotion of ethics The specific ways in which engineering societies can promote ethics are as follows: 1. engineering societies could promote ethics by establishing awards for engineers who show commendable ethical conduct. 2.engineering societies could educate people about new technologies. 3. engineering societies could protect engineers who discharge their duties honestly and upholding high ethical principles. 4.they could investigate charges of wrong doing by members because of malice or false information.