1. In India parliament has enacted various lawsand acts to protect our environment. Now we can discuss about various acts.
2. 1.The wildlife protection Act, 1972 2.Water[prevention and control of pollution] Act,1974. 3.Water [prevention and control of prevention] cess Act, 1977. 4.The forest conservation Act, 1980. 5.Air [prevention and control of pollution] Act,1981. 6.The Environment [protection] Act, 1986.
3. In our country no attention was paid for controlling the environmental effects of developmental projects , almost till the year 1968 or so. It was in the 4th five year plan period [1968-1973], the first time ,the environmental aspects were introduced for developmental planning process.
4. In the year 1970, Govt: of India appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Pandit Pitamber Pant [a member of planning commission], which prepared a country report for presenting in the U N Conference on Human Environment , in 1972. Soon thereafter , a national committee on Environmental Protection and Co- ordination was set up in the dept: of science and technology, for advising the Govt: of India on environmental matters. Based on this the first central law was enacted under the name of water[prevention and control of pollution]Act, 1974.
5. This act was to provide protection to wild animals and birds. This act also provides for constitution of a wildlife advisory board. Regulation of hunting of wild animals and birds are also provided by this act. a record of wild animals hunted has to be maintained. A special permit may be granted to hunt a wild animal for education, scientific research and collection of specimen for zoological gardens, museums etc: This act provides for the establishment of national parks, sanctuaries, and closed areas.
6. This act provides for the prevention and control of water pollution and for maintaining the wholesome of water resources in the country. This act defines terms like pollution, sewage, effluent, stream etc; As a result ,a central board called central board for the prevention and control of water pollution was constituted for monitoring and detecting pollutions of water bodies, and initiating remedial measures, including prosecutions in courts. A person in the board has the right to enter and inspect any place and examine any plant ,record, register, document, or any other material, object or for conducting a search for any place where he has reason to believe that no offence of water pollution is committed.
7. This law has proved quite effective in reducing the quantities of industrial wastes, as the act promotes recycling and reuse of the waste waters. This act was made applicable to all the states of the country unlike the water [prevention and control of pollution]act 1974 which was followed by 12 states only, since water was a state subject under the Indian constitution.
8. As per this act no forest land of any portion may be used for any non-forest purposes without the prior permission from central government. The scope of the definition of non-forest purposes was extended to include cultivation of tea, coffee, rubber, palms, oil bearing plants, horticultural crops, and medicinal plants. No state government may issue order directing that any forest land may be assigned by way of lease to organisation etc:.
9. The objective of this act is to provide for prevention and control of air pollution in order to preserve the quality of air. The water pollution control boards were given the additional charge of looking after air pollution control also. The state govt: in consultation with control board may give instruction to the concerned authority under the motor vehicle act 1939 to ensure emission standards from automobiles. This act provides the declaration of heavily polluted area as Air pollution control area and no industrial plant shall be operated in these areas without prior permission from the state pollution control board.
10. This act was promulgated by the parliament after the occurrence of Bhopal gas tragedy. This act extends to whole of India and the central govt: has been empowered for taking any measures which in its opinion are necessary for improving and protecting the environment. This act ensures enforcement of several acts or regulations concerning pollution control and environmental protection.
11. 1.standard quality of air ,water, and soil for various areas and for various purposes. 2.maximum permissible limits for conservation for various environmental pollutants for different areas. 3.procedures and safeguards for handling of hazardous substances. 4. procedures and safeguards for prevention of accidents which may cause environmental pollution. 5. providing for remedial measures in case of accidents. 6.severe fines and penalties including imprisonments up to 5 years have been prescribed for failures and continued failures on the part of industries failing to comply with the act , under section 5 of the act.
12. In order to prevent loopholes in the effective implementation of these environmental laws the govt: is now thinking to constitute special environmental courts for speedy trials of the offenders of anti pollution laws and also to carry out annual environmental audits , to easily detect disobedience of such laws by individual industries.