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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PLANNING
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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PLANNING

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  • 1. Functional Plan of Early Childhood Education Minnie
  • 2. Overview
    • “ Each baby is born into a unique family that has its own culture and history, its own strengths, and its own way of coping with stress and adversity”.
    • “ Families have the most continuous and emotionally” charged relationship with the child. Infants and toddlers learn what people expect of them and what they can expect of other people through early experiences with parents and other caregivers.
            • (Day & Parlakian, 2004)
  • 3. Analysis of existing situation . - Situation Analysis Determine the goals to be achieved - Gap Analysis Delivery of services and monitoring of Plan of Action Evaluation of services, output and input in terms of indicators that are achieved . Plan Before We Act
  • 4. Action Plan Model
  • 5. Goals
    • Special Needs Appropriate Practices
      • provide care to children who have disabilities, developmental delays, or intellectual.
    • Early Literacy for Infants & Toddlers
      • Introduction to Early Literacy, Language Development in Infants and Toddlers, Relationships and Environments Supporting Language Development, and Literacy Resources
    • Basic Guidance and Discipline
      • setting up an early childhood environment to support the positive guidance and discipline of children, rather than punishment of children,
    • Provide Healthy, Safe Environment
    • Monitor
      • Child Growth and Development
      • Behavioral Observation and Screening
    • Infant and Toddler Appropriate Practices
      • stages of development, appropriate interactions, learning environments and experiences, health and safety practices, positive guidance strategies, observation and assessment, relationships with families, and quality caregivers.
    • Preschool Appropriate Practices
  • 6. What Does a Young Child Need?
  • 7. What Does a Young Child Need?
    • EVERYTHING …
    • Assistance to meet-
      • Physical Needs:
        • Food
        • Clothing
        • Cleanliness
        • Shelter
        • Safety / protection
        • Play
      • Emotional Needs:
        • Security
        • Care
        • Nurturance
        • Love
        • Hope
      • Social Needs:
        • Interact with caregiver and others, including children the same age
        • Opportunity to play with others
  • 8. What Does a Young Child Need? continued
      • Psychological Needs :
        • Know he/she is important to the caregiver
        • Learn who he/she is
        • Develop a positive self esteem
      • Cognitive Needs:
        • Read to the child
        • Build language skills. Talk with the child, even when they are too young to know all you are saying.
        • Play with the child
  • 9. What is our role as an ECE Teacher?
  • 10. Role of the ECE Teacher
    • The ECE teacher is the significant person who meets the child’s needs on an ongoing basis.
      • Provides love, care, and nurturance for the child.
      • Makes sure the child is safe
      • and healthy .
      • Engages the child in play, conversation, singing, and activities that expand learning.
  • 11. Lessons that Last a Lifetime
  • 12. Lessons that Last a Lifetime
    • Young children learn from infancy about the world.
    • Many of the lessons are taught by the ECE teachers.
    • Some of these lessons relate to...
  • 13. TRUST The Infant Knows His/Her Needs will be Met
    • It is vital for babies under one year to develop a sense of trust; knowing the caregiver will meet their needs.
    • Trust is born from having the baby’s needs met by a consistent caregiver.
  • 14. INDEPENDENCE The Young Child Explores and Learns What He/She Can Do
    • The caregiver provides a safe environment with supervision and encouragement for the child to explore.
    • Exercise their will and learn self-control.
    • Desires to test independence.
    • Walking is step towards independence...
  • 15. INITIATIVE Young Child Takes Action When He/She Feels Capable and Confident to Do New Things
    • Preschoolers begin to imagine
    • Learn skills through play
    • Increase in ability to follow directions
    • Gain new skills
    • Feel capable to learn
  • 16. ECE teacher Tasks
  • 17. ECE teacher Tasks
    • Things to do together:
      • Talk (even to a baby)
      • Read books daily
      • Play with blocks, balls, trikes, puppets, and more
      • Draw (big crayons)
      • Teach a song
      • HAVE FUN ...
  • 18. Social & Emotional Developmental Indicators
  • 19. Developmental Indicators
    • The term social emotional development refers to the developing capacity of the child from birth through four years of age to form close and secure adult and peer relationships; experience, regulate, and express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways; and explore the environment and learn - all in the context of family, community, and culture.
    • Refers to behavioral indicators that show that a child is not developing at a normal range. These behaviors are areas of concern when they are seen consistently over a period of time.
    Some children are “early bloomers” and others may be delayed in some areas but still within the normal range of development.
  • 20. Temperament Traits
    • Activity level – always active or generally still
    • Biological rhythms – predictability of hunger, sleep, elimination
    • Approach/withdrawal – response to new situations
    • Mood – tendency to react with positive or negative mood, serious, fussy
    • Intensity of reaction – energy or strength of emotional reaction
    • Sensitivity – comfort with levels of sensory information; sound, brightness of light, feel of clothing, new tastes
    • Adaptability – ease of managing transitions or changes
    • Distractibility – how easily a child’s attention is pulled from an activity
    • Persistence – how long child continues with an activity he/she finds difficult
    • Adapted with permission from Wittmer and Petersen, 2006
  • 21. Temperament Types Flexible Fearful Feisty Regular rhythms Adapts slowly Active Positive mood Withdraws Intense Adaptability Distractible Low intensity Sensitive Low sensitivity Irregular Moody
  • 22. Temperament Types Flexible, Fearful, and Feisty istockphoto.com/LisaSvara http://office.microsoft.com/en-au/default.aspx http://office.microsoft.com/enau/default.aspx
  • 23. The Developmental Continuum from Birth to 15 months: Social and Emotional Indicators* Age Range Attachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Infant (Birth to 15 months)
    • Newborns recognize human language and prefer their own mother's voice
    • Prefer human faces
    • Early social interaction is a
    • smile and mutual gazing
    • Crawls away but checks back visually; calls, and gestures to ensure adult contact
    • Stretches arms to be taken
    • Prefers familiar adults
    • Acts anxious around strangers
    • Uses a blanket or stuffed toy for security and reassurance
    • Goes from accidentally sucking own hands to carefully watching them
    • Tries to make things happen
    • Hits or kicks things to make a pleasing sight or sound continue
    • Talks to self when alone
    • Prefers to be held by familiar people
    • Imitates adult behaviors
    • Knows own name
    • Understands simple directions
    • Brings thumb or hand to mouth
    • Tracks mother’s voice
    • Observes own hands
    • Babbles using all types of sounds
    • Uses a few words mixed with babbling to form sentences
    • Tries to keep a knee ride going by bouncing to get the adult started again
    • Shows strong feelings (anger, anxiety, affection)
    * This list is a sampling of developmental indicators and is not intended to include all behaviors associated with early development. For infant, there is considerable overlap among areas of growth. The term “mother” is used to represent the primary attachment figure.
  • 24. The Developmental Continuum from 12 months to 2 ½ years: Social and Emotional Indicators (cont’d) Age Range Attachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Toddler (12 mos. to 2 1/2 years)
    • Relates to others by exploring things with them
    • Pulls up, stands holding furniture, then walks alone
    • Goes through a phase of clinging to primary caregiver
    • Experiences periods of intense feelings when separating or reuniting with a parent
    • Sees others as a barrier to immediate gratification
    • Knows can make things happen but is not sure of responsibility for actions
    • Becomes bossy
    • Uses the words me, you,
    • and I
    • Says "No" to adults
    • Explores everything
    • Is sensitive to others' judging behavior
    • Keeps looking for a toy that is hidden from view
    • Understands many more words than can say
    • Has wide mood swings (for example, from stubborn to cooperative)
    • Wants to do things by self
    Adapted with permission from J. Ronald Lally, Abbey Griffin, et al., Caring for Infants and Toddlers in Groups: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE/The National Center, 1995), pp. 78-79.
  • 25. The Developmental Continuum from Age 2 ½ - 3 ½ : Social and Emotional Indicators (cont’d) Age Range Attachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Preschool (2½ to 3½ years)
    • Is capable of dramatic play
    • Has better control over all aspects of self
    • Needs to practice
    • Needs adult coaching to get
    • along well with others
    • Shows feelings with words
    • and in symbolic play
    • Is more aware that others
    • have feelings
    • Can plan ahead
    • Is capable of self-evaluation (for example, good, bad, pretty, ugly)
    • Tries to control self (for example, emotions and toileting)
    • Is learning to take turns in conversations
    • Knows a lot about communicating in the style of own culture
    • Can play well with others if the setting is right
    • Uses names of self and others
    • Can tell others about what happened that day
    • Has much larger vocabulary to express ideas
    • Shows concern for others
    • Classifies, labels, and sorts objects and experiences into groups
    Adapted with permission from J. Ronald Lally, Abbey Griffin, et al., Caring for Infants and Toddlers in Groups: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE/The National Center, 1995), pp. 78-79.
  • 26. Early Childhood Education Programs
  • 27. Basic Components of Childcare Programs
    • Care provider is caring and focused on the needs of every child
    • Number and ages of children allow for good childcare practice
    • Area is clean and SAFE
    • Foods are nutritious
    • Equipment is appropriate to care for the child’s age
    • Toys and activities are appropriate for the child’s development
    • A routine is established for rest and play
  • 28. SWOT Analysis to our Project
  • 29. Strengths* observed in infant/toddler activities
    • Greeting/departing
      • Caregiver greets each child and parent warmly
      • Caregiver provides pleasant, organized departure
      • Parents bring child into caregiving area as part of daily routine
      • Separation problems handled sensitively
      • Written record of infant’s daily feeding, diapering, and naps available for parents to see
    • Discipline
      • Few discipline problems because program is set up to avoid conflict and promote age-appropriate interaction
      • Alternate methods of discipline used effectively
      • Expectations are realistic and based on age and ability of each child
      • Caregiver reacts consistently to children’s behavior
  • 30. Strengths* observed in infant/toddler activities
    • Safety policy
      • All staff trained in safety/emergency procedures
      • Facility has passed official fire safety inspection
      • Substitute available for emergencies; familiar with caregiving activities, specific children, emergency plans
      • Emergency exit plans posted; practiced at least monthly
      • At least one person in facility with first aid training, including CPR, present at all times
    • Peer Interaction
      • Children allowed to move freely so natural groupings/interactions can occur much of the day
      • Non-mobile infants taken out of cribs, playpens, swings for some supervised play time near others
      • Peer interaction usually positive
      • Caregiver models positive social interaction
  • 31. Strengths* observed in infant/toddler activities
    • Staff cooperation
      • Child-related information communicated daily among staff
      • Time for staff communication provided
      • Staff interactions are positive and add a feeling of warmth and support
      • Responsibilities are divided so that both care and play activities are handled smoothly
  • 32. Strengths* observed in preschool activities
    • Basic furnishings
      • Sufficient child-sized furniture for
        • routine care,
        • play,
        • learning
      • Furniture sturdy and in good repair
    • Staff-child interactions
      • Staff show warmth through appropriate physical contact
      • Staff show respect for children
      • Staff respond sympathetically to help children who are upset, hurt, angry.
  • 33. Strengths* observed in preschool activities
    • Interactions among children
      • Staff model good social skills
      • Peer interaction encouraged
      • Staff help children develop appropriate social behavior with peers
      • Positive peer interactions
    • Discipline
      • Staff use non-punitive discipline methods effectively
      • Program is set up to avoid conflict and promote age-appropriate interaction
      • Staff react consistently to children’s behavior
  • 34. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Cultural awareness
      • No evidence of ethnic and racial variety in
        • toys
        • books
        • pictures
  • 35. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Active physical play
      • No uncluttered space provided for infants/toddlers to crawl and walk around much of the day
      • Outdoor physical play provided for infants/toddlers fewer than 3 times/week
      • No age-appropriate gross motor toys and equipment (Ex. age-appropriate climbing equipment) used daily and in good repair
  • 36. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Diapering/toileting
      • Basic sanitary conditions not met to avoid spread of germs
      • Caregiver does not wash hands adequately after each diapering/diaper check or toileting
      • Diapers not checked and changed as needed
      • Children’s hands not washed after diapering/toileting
      • Caregiver does not handle toileting accidents calmly.
  • 37. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Pretend play
      • Enough pretend-play materials not accessible daily for number of children present
        • Ex. dolls, soft animals, pots & pans, unbreakable mirror
      • Materials not age-appropriate
  • 38. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Books and pictures
      • Fewer than 6 infant/toddler books accessible daily for much of the day
      • Books and pictures used by caregiver with children fewer than 3 times a week
      • Participation not encouraged only when children are interested; children may be forced to participate
  • 39. Weakness* observed items in infant/toddler classrooms
    • Meals and snacks
      • Meal/snack schedule does not meet children’s needs
      • Food service not sanitary
      • Well-balanced, age-appropriate foods not served for meals and snacks
      • Infants not held while bottle fed
      • Infants/toddlers not put to bed with bottles
      • Children who finger feed selves do not have hands washed.
      • Children may be forced to eat.
  • 40. Strengths* observed in family/ ECE center
    • Arriving/leaving
      • Individual greeting and good-bye for all children.
      • Parents greeted as well as children.
      • Caregiver uses arriving/leaving time to share information with parents.
  • 41. Strengths* observed in family/ ECE center
    • Relationship with parents
      • Written policies given to parents before child starts child care
      • Caregiver tells parents about the activities of their children
      • Caregiver works cooperatively with parents
      • Parents welcomed as visitors both before and during enrollment
  • 42. Strengths* observed in family/ ECE center
    • Tone of caregiver/child interactions
      • Caregiver uses physical contact to show affection to all children
      • Caregiver and children seem relaxed, voices cheerful, a lot of smiling
  • 43. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Help infants/toddlers understand language
      • Fewer than 8 books suitable for infants/toddlers
      • Caregivers did not name some objects or pictures for children
      • Books or pictures not used by caregiver at least 3 times a week
  • 44. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Helping children use language
      • Few materials for helping children practice talking
        • Ex.: toy phones, puppets
      • Caregiver does not use one activity a day to encourage children to talk
  • 45. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Diapering/toileting
      • Diapering/toileting area does not meet basic sanitary conditions
      • Caregiver does not wash hands with soap after each diapering
      • Diapers not checked and changed often
      • Children’s hands not washed after diapering/toileting
      • Caregiver does not handles toileting accidents calmly
  • 46. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Safety
      • Phone in home/transportation aid not available for emergency use
      • First aid supplies not well stocked, ready to use
      • Emergency numbers not posted
      • Home has not passed official fire safety inspections
      • Hot water not managed safely
      • Obvious safety problems indoors/outdoors
      • Alternate caregiver not available for emergencies
  • 47. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Personal grooming (of children)
      • No easy place for children to wash hands
      • Each child does not have own towel/washcloth (can be paper)
      • Children do not wash before/after meals
      • Extra clothes not available to change children
  • 48. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Dramatic play
      • No dramatic play materials (ex. dress-up clothes, garage, dolls) available for children over 12 months of age
      • Few accessories for dramatic play (Ex. beds or dishes for dolls)
    • *
  • 49. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Child-related display
      • No children’s artwork displayed
      • No store-bought or adult-made pictures put up especially for children to look at
  • 50. Weakness* observed items in family/ ECE center
    • Sand and water play
      • Sand or water play provided outdoors or indoors less than once every 2 weeks year-round.
  • 51. Staff Requirement
  • 52. Ontario Regulation for ECE staffing
    • Ratio and group size
        • 0–17 months 3:10 10
        • 18–30 months 1:5 15
        • 31–60 months 1:8 16
  • 53. Tentative Schedule of Activities
    • 7:00 Arrivals, quiet activities, breakfast if needed
    • 8:00 Outdoor play
    • 9:00 Group, Circle time, music, stories
    • 9:30 Indoor Play (choice of art, science, blocks, dramatic play, other activity)
    • 10:30 Toileting/ hand washing Snack time
    • 10:45 Outdoor play (large motor activity, water/sand play, gardening, nature walks, etc.)
    • 11:30 Dismissal
    • 11:30 Circle Time
    • 11:45 Toileting/washing
    • 12:00 Lunch
    • 12:30 Story time/looking at books
    • 1:00 Rest time/naps (quiet activities for non-sleepers)
    • 3:00 Snack and indoor activities
    • 3:30 Outdoor activities
    • 5:00- Indoor activities until departure
  • 54. Thanks