Sterile products are the dosage forms of therapeutic
agents that are free of viable microorganisms.
Principally, these include parenteral, ophthalmic and
irrigating preparations of these parenteral products are
unique among dosage forms of drugs because they are
injected through the skin or mucous membrane into
internal body compartments. Thus because they have
circumvented the highly efficient first line of body
defense ,i.e. the skin and mucous membrane, they must
be free from microbial contamination and toxic
components ,as well as possess an exceptionally high
level of purity1. Although parenteral are comes under
category of sterile products but all sterile products
can’t say as parenterals.
Parenteral (Gk, para enteron, beside the intestine)
dosage forms differ from all other drug dosage
forms, because they are injected directly into body
tissue through the primary protective systems of the
human body, the skin, and mucous membranes.
As per USP Parenteral articles are preparations
intended for injection through the skin or other external
boundary tissue, so that the active substance they
contain are administered using gravity or force, directly
into a blood vessel, organ, tissue or lesion.
INTRADERMAL OR INTRACUTANEOUS
INTRASYNOVIAL AND INTRA-ARTICULAR
SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR
INTRA-ARTERIAL INFUSION ADMINISTRATION
PERFUSION (EXTRA CORPOREAL OR ISOLATION
INTRAOSSEOUS INFUSION (IO)
All products must be sterile.
All products must be free from pyrogenic (endotoxin)
Injectable solutions must be free from visible
particulate matter. This includes reconstituted sterile
Products should be isotonic, although strictness of
isotonicity depends on the route of administration.
Products administered into the cerebrospinal fluid must
be isotonic .
An immediate physiological response can be achieved
if necessary, which can be of prime consideration in
clinical condition such as cardiac arrest, asthma and
Parenteral therapy is required for drugs that are not
effective orally or that are destroyed by digestive
secretions such as insulin other hormones
Drug for uncooperative, nauseous or unconscious
patients must be administered by injection.
physician control of the drug since the patient must
return for continued treatment, also in some cases the
Parenteral administration can results in local effect for
drugs when desired as in dentistry and anesthesiology.
solutions, suspensions, emulsions, liposome, microsph
eres, nanosystems, and powders to be reconstituted as
Drug products administered by injection are
characterized by three qualities possessed by no other
type of pharmaceutical dosage form: sterility, freedom
from pyrogenicity, and freedom from particulate matter.
Method involved in quality control are –
Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM)
Soybean-Casein Digest (SCD)
Agar, granulated (moisture
Nutrient and viscosity content
Nutrient and viscosity
Pancreatic digest of casein
Sodium thioglycollate or
Resazurin sodium solution
(1:1000), freshly prepared
QS 1000 ml
**pH after sterilization 7.1+ 0.2
The DT method is the more traditional sterility test
method. Basically, the DT method involves three steps:
1. Aseptically opening each sample container from a
recently sterilized batch of product.
2. Using a sterile syringe and needle to withdraw the
required volume of sample for both media from the
3. Injecting one-half of the required volume sample into a
test tube containing the required volume of FTM and
the other half volume of sample into a second test tube
containing the required volume of SCD.
Five basic steps are involved in the use of the MF
sterility test method:
1.The filter unit
must be properly assembled and
sterilized prior to use.
2.The contents of the prescribed number of units are
transferred to the filter assembly under strict aseptic
3.The contents are filtered with the aid of a vacuum or
pressure differential system.
4. The membrane is removed aseptically and cut in half.
5.One-half of the membrane is placed in a suitable
volume (usually 100 ml) of FTM, and the other
membrane half is placed in an equal volume of SCD.
After a complete arrangement allow injecting the sample by
following ways as USP:1. Rest the ear against the fingers of the left hand and hold the
ear down with the thumb.
2. Introduce the needle with the bevel edge upward near the tip
of the ear vein.
3. Slowly inject a small amount of sample to determine if the
needle is within the vein. If not, a bubble will form or
backpressure will be felt. Withdrawing the needle slightly
and moving it forward again should place it in proper
4.Maintain steady pressure on the syringe plunger and
complete the injection within 10 minutes. Usually, the time
duration for infusion is much less than 10 minutes.
5. Withdraw the needle and apply pressure with the thumb at
the site of injection to retard bleeding and scarring.
FIG NO. 01RABBITS SITUATED IN INDIVIDUAL
Contaminants, such as dust, lint, and other particles and
micro-organisms, are found floating in the air, lying on
counters and other surfaces, attached to clothing and
body surfaces of personnel, concentrated in the exhaled
breath of personnel, and deposited on the floor. The
design and control of an aseptic area is directed toward
reducing the presence of these contaminants, so they
are no longer a hazard to aseptic filling. The
classifications used in pharmaceutical practice
normally range from Class 100,000 (Grade D) for
materials support areas to Class 100 (Grade A) for
per m 3
>/= 0.5 μm
per m 3 >/=