Osce by c. shekhar karmakar


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Osce by c. shekhar karmakar

  1. 1. Objectivestructured clinical examination(OSCE) Dr.Chandra Shekhar Karmakar Dept. of Anaesthesiology ShSMCH,Dhaka.
  2. 2. It is an assessment approach to measure clinical competence of trainee
  3. 3. The OSCE can be highly successful as an instrument to assess competence and the approach of the examinee & has many advantages over conventional methods.
  4. 4. What is an OSCE? • Objective : Examiners use a checklist for evaluating the trainees. • Structured: Trainee sees the same problem and perform the same tasks in the same time frame. • clinical: The task are representative of those faced in real clinical situation.
  5. 5. The OSCE has offered a striking way of making valid assessment of clinical performance of medical student, resident, and fellows .
  6. 6. History of OSCE OSCE was developed in Dundee , Scotland in the early 1975 by Dr.Harden and his colleagues.  After some modification it was described in greater detail in 1979. This method was the subject of an international conference in Ottawa in 1985 and experience were exchanged about OSCE & OSPE. More than 50 countries accepted it.
  7. 7. What is assessed by OSCE? • Various clinical skills – history taking , physical examination, technical procedure, communication, interpersonal skills. • Knowledge and understanding. • Data interpretation. • Problem solving. • Attitudes.
  8. 8. How to prepare OSCE ?
  9. 9. Harden 12 tips for organizing an OSCE • What to be assessed? • Duration of station • Number of stations • Use of examiners. • Range of approach • New station
  10. 10. Continued... • Organization of the examination • Assigning priority • Resource requirement • Plan of examination • Change signal • Records
  11. 11. The key to a successful OSCE is careful planning
  12. 12. The Examination Coordinator • The functions of the examination coordinator is crucial • Who is the catalyst that facilitates the smooth working of the committee in developing, implementing and assessing the performance of the OSCE.
  13. 13. Selection of the examination committee • An examination coordinating committee is made up of members who are committed to the evaluative and educational process • The number of members who make up this committee is not as important as the intensity of the investment of each member.
  14. 14. Continued... • The examination committee determines the content of the examination, development and implementation. • It is important that this committee has the capacity and personnel to address decisions related to reliability and validity
  15. 15. Lists of Skills, Behaviors and Attitudes to be Assessed • The examination will measure objectively the competencies in specific areas of behavior, techniques, attitudes and decision-making strategies based on the objectives of the course or the requirement of the licensing body.
  16. 16. How to develop case/scenario? • Define the purpose of the station • Candidate’s instructions • Scoring checklist • Standardized patient instructions • Instruction for station set-up
  17. 17. Define the purpose of the station • State the skill and domain to be tested Skill –Physical examination . Domain – Anaesthesiology, Internal medicine, Cardiology etc.
  18. 18. Candidate instructions • Candidate instruction must be clear and concise. • Before examination a briefing about whole system is very much effective for a successful OSCE.
  19. 19. Scoring checklist • The checklist should be complete and include the main components of the skill being assessed. • Any unnecessary or exaggerated stem must be avoided.
  20. 20. Instruction for station set-up • List of all equipments required for the station
  21. 21. The Examinees • The examinee is the student, resident, or fellow in training or at the end of training of a prescribed course
  22. 22. The Examiners • Most stations will require an examiner, although some stations do not. • The examiner at the station where clinical skills (history-taking, physical examination, interviewing and communication) are assessed, preferably be either a physician or a standardized patient.
  23. 23. The Examination Site • The examination site is part of a special teaching facility in some institutions. When such facilities are not available, the examination may be conducted in an outpatient facility .
  24. 24. Examinations Station • The total number of stations will vary based on a function of the number of skills, behaviors and attitudinal items to be tested. • For most clerkships or courses, the total will vary from 10-25.
  25. 25. Stations.. • The number of stations in an examination refer the time allocated for each station determines the time required to complete the whole examination.
  26. 26. Duration of station • Duration of stations has been fixed • Make sure that the task expected of the student can be accomplished within the time • If necessary some stations which are allocated double the standard time. Such double stations will require to be duplicated in the examination.
  27. 27. Duration of station • Times ranging from 4 to 15 minutes have been reported in different examinations and a five minute station probably most frequently chosen. • This times depend to some extent on the competencies to be assessed in the examination.
  28. 28. Couplet Station • Some competencies may best be assessed by coupled or linked stations. – The use of linked stations extends the time available to complete a task. Examination Of a patient with Poor mouth opening Findings Interpretation Plan of management For GA
  29. 29. Observer Assessment Method • Checklist • Rating scale
  30. 30. Check list for assessment of physical finding • Mr.C. presents with a sore swollen ankle for 6 weeks Don’t Do 1-introduces self to patient 2-Explain to the patient what will be do 3-Demonstrate concern for patient.i.e.is not excessive rough 4-Inspectin for any of swelling , erythema ,deformity 5-Inspection: Standing From anterior Posterior 6- Inspection pt Gait
  31. 31. Communication skills checklist (rating scale) Poor 1 Fair 2 Good 3 V Good 4 Excellenc e 5 1- Interpersonal skill: Listen carefully 2-Interviwing skill: Uses words patient can understand organized
  32. 32. Standardized patient(SP) • A standardized patient is an individual who is trained to portray scripted patient. • Standardized patients may be volunteers or paid employee • Clinically stable patient can also be used as standardized Patient e.g.. fundoscopic changes ,goiter , skin change,cardiac murmur , abdominal organomegaly etc.
  33. 33. Standardized patient instructions • These instruction must be detailed enough to guarantee standardized patient playing the same role.
  34. 34. Continued.. • Ideally a physician will also observe the standardized patients demonstrating their scenario before the examination. • Several encounters are required to obtain a reliable estimate of a persons competence.
  35. 35. Question to ensure validity • Are the patient problem relevant and important to the curriculum? • Will the station assess skill that have been taught? • Have content experts reviewed the station ?
  36. 36. Factor leading to lower reliability • Too few station or too little testing time • Checklists or items that don’t discriminate (too easy OR too hard) • Unreliable patient or inconsistent portraits by standard patient • Examiners who score idiosyncratically • Administrative problem (disorganized staff OR noisy room)
  37. 37. Continued.. • Research has shown that an acceptable level of reliability can be achieved with either a physician or standardized patient as the examiner • Harden recommends using examiners from a range of specialist and disciplines
  38. 38. Running The Exam • Space requirements • Signaling station change • Collecting result • Budget
  39. 39. Advantages of OSCE • Provides an opportunity to test a student’s ability to integrate knowledge, clinical skills, and communication with the patient • Less complexity. • Valid examination. • Summative and well formative. • Time limit for each station.
  40. 40. Advantages • Can be used with large number of students. • Reproducible. • Provides unique programmatic evaluation. • More objective. • Test not only skills and knowledge but attitudes also.
  41. 41. Disadvantage • Development and administration are time consuming and costly. • Provides assessment of case-specific skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes • Knowledge and skills are tested in compartments
  42. 42. Disadvantage • Rely on task specific checklists and scoring. • Needs more observation skills of stuff. • Standardization of simulated patients and examiners. • Repetitive and boring.
  43. 43. Some pearls ... • Have spare standardized patients and examiners available for the exam • Have back-up equipment ,such as view box , batteries • Have staff available during the examination to maintain exam security • Make sure the bells or buzzers can be heard from all location with closed door • For each examination prepare an extra station which can be setup with minimal effort
  44. 44. At last.. • In conventional examination marks awarded is on candidates global performances not for individual competencies. • The final score indicating his overall performance gives no significant feedback to the candidate. • OSCE overcome most of those obstacles but it should be remembered that no single examination system is completely perfect.
  45. 45. Thank you all