• Skinput is a technology that appropriates the human body for acoustic transmission.• It allows the skin to be used as an input surface.• It was developed by Chris Harrison, Densely Tan, and Dan Morris of the Microsoft Researchs Computational User Experiences Group(MRCUEG)• Its first public appearance was at Microsofts Tech Fest 2010
CONTINUATION…. Skinput allows the user to simply tap their skin in order to control audio devices, play games, make phone calls. It uses the sensors to determine where the user taps on their skin.
It listens to vibrations in your body. Skinput also responds to the various hand gestures. The arm is an instrument. Arm band detects the acoustic signals and convert them to electronic signals which easily enable the users to perform simple tasks as browsing through a mobile phone menu, making calls, controlling portable music players, etc..
• Skinput, the system is a combination of two technologies:1. the ability to detect the ultra low frequency sound2. the ‘Pico’ projectors. Pico projector applies the use of projector in a hand held device. An acoustic detector detects the ultra low frequency.
• A very small projector, basically used in gadgets.• The system comprises three main parts: The Laser light source The Combiner optics The Scanning mirror
Study of sound waves inside living body. When a finger taps the skin, several distinct forms of acoustic energy are produced. Longitudinal Waves Transverse Waves These waves form the integral part of the whole concept of skinput.
Longitudinal Waves: These waves travel through the rigid tissues of the arm, exciting the waves, which can respond to the mechanical vibrations by tapping on a rigid body.Transverse Waves: Tapping on soft regions of the arm creates higher amplitude transverse waves.
These signals need to be sensed and worked upon. This is done by wearing the wave sensor arm band. OUTSIDE VIEW INSIDE VIEW
• In Skinput, a keyboard, menu, or other graphics are beamed onto a users palm and forearm from a pico projector embedded in an armband.• An acoustic detector in the armband then determines which part of the display is activated by the users touch.• Their software matches sound frequencies to specific skin locations, allowing the system to determine which “skin button” the user pressed.
CONTINUATION….• Currently, the acoustic detector can detect five skin locations with an accuracy of 95.5%, which corresponds to a sufficient versatility for many mobile applications.• The prototype system then uses wireless technology like Bluetooth to transmit the commands to the device being controlled, such as a phone, iPod, or computer.
Projector Finger tap on armdisplay imageon arm vibrations produced and passed through bones onto skinElectronicsignals thenproduced in the detected byform of music detector in armband
Participants 13-> 7 female, 6 male. Ages ranged from 20 to 56. Body mass indexes (BMIs) ranged from 20.5 (normal) to 31.9 (obese). Each participant was made to memorize the locations for a minute .
RESULTS Five Fingers When classification was incorrect, the system believed the input to be an adjacent finger 60.5% of the time. Ring finger constituted 63.3% percent of the misclassifications.
RESULTS Whole Arm Below elbow placed the sensors closer to the input targets than the other conditions. The margin of error got double or tripled when eyes were closed.
RESULTS Fore Arm Classification accuracy for the ten-location forearm condition stood at 81.5%.
B.M.I EFFECTHigh BMI is correlated with decreased accuracies.No direct relation with gender of the participant.
Active also in Movable Playing Tetris: Using Fingers Environmentas Control PadUsing Fingers, Palms, Arms as Control Any Computing DeviceCan be run .Response is real time, robust & remains functionalwhile walking & Accuracy level is 99.5%()
No need to interact with the gadget directly. Don’t have to worry about keypad. People with larger fingers get trouble in navigating tiny buttons and keypads on mobile phones. With skinput this problem disappears. The body is portable and always available, and fingers are a natural input device.
• Though the band seems easy enough to slip on, many people would not wear a very big band around their arm for the day.• Not enough research has been conducted on this product to test the possible skin diseases or types of cancer, one can get from using this product.• This technology might start up at very high cost which will not be affordable for the common man.
Mobile Gaming I-pods• An aid to paralyzed persons.
• The most profound achievement of Skinput is proving that the human body can be used as a sensor.• A person might walk toward their home, tap their palm to unlock the door and then tap some virtual buttons on their arms to turn on the TV and start flipping through channels.• Extensive Research is going on Currently on Skinput to make the armband more smaller. Incorporate More Devices with This System. Extend accuracy level.
• Skinput allows the human body as an input surface.• It describes a novel, wearable bio-acoustic sensing array that we built into an armband in order to detect and localize finger taps on the forearm and hand.• We conclude with descriptions of several prototype applications that demonstrate the rich design space we believe Skinput enables.
• http://research.microsoft.com/en- us/um/redmond/groups/cue/skin put Official Home Page of Skinput.• http://www.chi2010.org Home Page of Computer & Human Interactions Conference, April,2010.• http://www.chrisharrison.net/proj ects/skinput Personal Homepage of Chris Harrison.• http://research.microsoft.com/en- us/um/people/dan Homepage of Dan Morris.