relating to thought process: relating to or involving the mental processes of abstract thinking and reasoning rather than the emotionsInferences from instances, statement presented as a general truth
Capital structure refers to the way a corporation finances its assets through some combination of equity, debt, or hybrid securities. A firm's capital structure is then the composition or 'structure' of its liabilities. For example, a firm that sells $20 billion in equity and $80 billion in debt is said to be 20% equity-financed and 80% debt-financed. The firm's ratio of debt to total financing, 80% in this example, is referred to as the firm's leverage. In reality, capital structure may be highly complex and include dozens of sources. Gearing Ratio is the proportion of the capital employed of the firm which come from outside of the business finance, e.g. by taking a short term loan etc.'Ratio Analysis'A tool used by individuals to conduct a quantitative analysis of information in a company's financial statements. Ratios are calculated from current year numbers and are then compared to previous years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy to judge the performance of the company. Ratio analysis is predominately used by proponents of fundamental analysis.
Change, alteration, modification, tuning………
Many researchers take a leap in the dark without knowing research methods. Research too many researchers and even to their guides, is mostly a scissor and paste job without any insight shed on the collated materials.There is a paucity of competent researcher. Most of the researcher in the name of research they do copy – paste job without going any insights shed on the collected materials.
SCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH: RESEARCH FOR DECISION MAKING Throws light on risks and uncertainty Identify alternative courses of action Helps in economic use of resources Helps in project identification
Cont… Solves investment problems Solves pricing problems Solves allocation problems Solves decision making issues in HR Solves various operational and planning problems of business and industry Provides the basis for all government policies in our economic system.
Cont… Helps social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. For students, research means careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure. For professionals in research, it may mean a source of livelihood. For philosophers and thinkers, research means the outlet for new ideas and insights.
Cont… For literary men and women, research means development of new styles and creative work. For analysts and intellectuals, research means generalizations of new theories.
APPLICATION OF RESEARCH IN VARIOUS FUNCTIONS OFMANAGEMENT: HR: Controlling attrition rate, New method for hiring, retaining or procuring employees, performance appraisal, disciplinary measures. Finance: Financial market analysis, Capital structure, Ratio analysis. Production: Right goods, Cost minimization, Work simplification, Inventory Control, product design, process improvement, Quality control.
Cont… Marketing: Marketing policy which involves pricing, Advertising service, Channels of Distribution, Product research etc .
TYPES OF BUSINESS PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY THERESEARCHER: Making decisions on various issues which are affected by large number of variables and relationship among them. Finding new ways, concept, theories, and models for dealing with business issues besides improving the older one. Pressure to adjust in competition due to globalization & varying economy.
Cont… Making adjustment with good policies regarding employee / workers welfare & customer rights. Profit sharing issue in between worker, shareholder, customer & general publics Pressure for timely production of information which is enriched quantitatively as well as qualitatively by using modern communication techniques & technologies.
Cont… Problem of employee poaching and hence find the new ways & measures to motivate and satisfy employee. Find various measures for adjustment of inflation/ deflation/ Recession/ valuation of property/ Assets. Draw the transformation of theories into application which can be applied in real world practices.
PROBLEMS IN RESEARCH: Lack of scientific training in the methodology of research Human tendencies Time and money Lack of computerization
Cont… Insufficient interaction between university research departments and business establishments Lack of confidence on the part of business units to give information Lack of code of conduct Poor library management and functioning
Cont… Difficulty of timely availability of published data. Ignorance Research for the sake of research-limited practical utility though they may use high sounding business jargon.