The science of nutrition
historically has been based
on the nutrients found in
• Nutrients are the chemical substances
supplied by food that the body needs for
growth, maintenance and repair.
• Serve as a source of energy or heat
• Support the growth and maintenance
• Aid in the regulation of basic body
• Carbohydrate is an organic compound
that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen, usually with a hydrogen: oxygen
atom ratio of 2:1.
• 1gram of carbohydrate give 4 kcal
• GLUCOSE :Sweets, Small amounts in some fruits and vegetable
• FRUCTOSE :Fruits, Honey
• GALACTOSE :Milk sugar, Yogurt
• STARCH :Cereals, Breads, Pasta, Starchy vegetables, Legumes.
• SUCROSE :Cane sugar , Beet sugar
• MALTOSE :Cereal grains( Barley, Jower , Ragi )
• LACTOSE :Milk of all mammals
• GLYCOGEN :Liver and muscle tissue
• Provide fuel.
• Spare body prorein
• Help prevent ketosis
• Enhance learning and memory process.
• Dietary fiber refers to foods, mostly from
plants, that the human body cannot
breakdown to digest.
• Soluble dietary fiber
• Insoluble dietary fiber
• Soluble fiber dissolves in water.
• Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water.
• Oat bran
• Some fruit such as apple
• Citrus fruit
• Wheat bran
• Corn bran
• Fruit skin
• Some dry beans
• May help reduce cholesterol levels
• May assist in regulating blood sugar level
• May promote Weight loss
• Promotes regularly
• May help reduce risk of some forms of
• Fats are usually having three fatty acids
joined with a glycerol.
• Fats are insoluble in water , but soluble in
chloroform and benzene.
• The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen is
generally much higher in water and
• 1gram of fat give 9.3 kcal.
• Fat is an important source of calories.
• Fat provides the structural components for brain’s cell
• Fats play an important role in the absorption of fat-
soluble vitamins such as vitamins A,D,K.
• Fat is required for every cell membranes.
• Fatty food stays longer in the stomach and prevents
hunger soon after meals.
• Essential fatty acid are acids that humans and
other animals must ingest because the body
requires them for good health but can not
• Essential fatty acids are lenolenic acid and
• Proteins are composed of
carbon,hydrogen,hydrogen and oxygen.
• Sometimes phosphorus,sulphur,iron and
iodine from part of the protein
molecule, but nitrogen is the element that
distinguishes proteins from carbohydrates
• 1 gram protein give 4.1 kcal.
• Growth and maintenance of tissue
• Development of immunity
• Circulation of blood and nutrients
• Provision of structure
• Essential amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be
synthesized by the organism, and therefore must be a
supplied in the diet.
• Essential amino acid are
• i)Histidine ii)Isoleucine iii)Leucine
• Iv)Lysine v)Methionine vi)Phenylalanine
• Vii)Threonine viii)Tryptophan ix)Valine
The food pyramid is an
excellent tool to help you
make healthy food
choices. you choose
from a variety of foods
so you get the all
At the base of the food pyramid, you can see the group
that contains breads,grains,cereals and pastas.
These foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are
an important source of energy, especially for a low fat
You can take 6-11serving of these food per day.
One serving of this group can be:
1 slice of bread
½ cup of rice, cooked cereal or pasta
1 cup of ready to eat cereal
• Fruits and vegetables are rich in nutrients. Many are
excellent sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate or
• They are low in fat and sodium and high in fiber.
• The Food Pyramid suggests 3 to5 serving of vegetables
• One serving of vegetables can be:
• 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables
• ½ cup of other vegetables, cooked or raw
• 3/4cup of vegetable juice
The Food Pyramid suggests 2-4 servings of fruit
One serving of fruit can be
One medium Apple, Orange, Cooked or
¾ cup of fruit juice.
Meat, poultry and fish supply protein, iron and zinc. Nonmeat
foods such as dried peas and beans also provide many of these
The Food Pyramid suggests 2-3 serving of cooked meat, fish or
The following foods count as one serving
2 tablespoons of peanut butter
½ cup cooked dry beans
1/3 cup of nuts
Products made with milk provide protein and
vitamins and minerals, especially calcium.
The food pyramid suggests 2-3 serving each
If you are breastfeeding, pregnant a teenager or
a young adult age 24 or under , try to have 3
The foods at the top of the food pyramid
should be eaten sparingly because they provide
calories but not much in the way of nutrition.