Nutrition a small tour


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Nutrition a small tour

  1. 1. The science of nutrition historically has been based on the nutrients found in food.
  2. 2. • Nutrients are the chemical substances supplied by food that the body needs for growth, maintenance and repair.
  3. 3. • Carbohydrates • Protein • Fat • Minerals • Vitamins • Water
  4. 4. • Serve as a source of energy or heat • Support the growth and maintenance of tissue • Aid in the regulation of basic body process
  5. 5. • Carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen: oxygen atom ratio of 2:1. • 1gram of carbohydrate give 4 kcal
  6. 6. • GLUCOSE :Sweets, Small amounts in some fruits and vegetable • FRUCTOSE :Fruits, Honey • GALACTOSE :Milk sugar, Yogurt • STARCH :Cereals, Breads, Pasta, Starchy vegetables, Legumes. • SUCROSE :Cane sugar , Beet sugar • MALTOSE :Cereal grains( Barley, Jower , Ragi ) • LACTOSE :Milk of all mammals • GLYCOGEN :Liver and muscle tissue
  7. 7. • Provide fuel. • Spare body prorein • Help prevent ketosis • Enhance learning and memory process.
  8. 8. • Dietary fiber refers to foods, mostly from plants, that the human body cannot breakdown to digest.
  9. 9. • Soluble dietary fiber • Insoluble dietary fiber
  10. 10. • Soluble fiber dissolves in water. • Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water.
  11. 11. • Oatmeal • Oat bran • Barley • Some fruit such as apple • Broccoli • Citrus fruit
  12. 12. • Wheat bran • Corn bran • Vegetables • Nuts • Fruit skin • Some dry beans
  13. 13. • May help reduce cholesterol levels • May assist in regulating blood sugar level • May promote Weight loss
  14. 14. • Promotes regularly • May help reduce risk of some forms of cancer.
  15. 15. • Fats are usually having three fatty acids joined with a glycerol. • Fats are insoluble in water , but soluble in chloroform and benzene. • The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen is generally much higher in water and carbohydrates. • 1gram of fat give 9.3 kcal.
  16. 16. Soya bean oil, Corn oil, Safflower oil Canola oil,Walnuts,Flaxseed,Fish
  17. 17. • Fat is an important source of calories. • Fat provides the structural components for brain’s cell membranes. • Fats play an important role in the absorption of fat- soluble vitamins such as vitamins A,D,K. • Fat is required for every cell membranes. • Fatty food stays longer in the stomach and prevents hunger soon after meals.
  18. 18. • Essential fatty acid are acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but can not synthesize them. • Essential fatty acids are lenolenic acid and lenoleic acid.
  19. 19. • Proteins are composed of carbon,hydrogen,hydrogen and oxygen. • Sometimes phosphorus,sulphur,iron and iodine from part of the protein molecule, but nitrogen is the element that distinguishes proteins from carbohydrates and fats. • 1 gram protein give 4.1 kcal.
  20. 20. • Growth and maintenance of tissue • Development of immunity • Circulation of blood and nutrients • Provision of structure
  21. 21. • Essential amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism, and therefore must be a supplied in the diet. • Essential amino acid are • i)Histidine ii)Isoleucine iii)Leucine • Iv)Lysine v)Methionine vi)Phenylalanine • Vii)Threonine viii)Tryptophan ix)Valine
  22. 22. 4/22/13 The food pyramid is an excellent tool to help you make healthy food choices. you choose from a variety of foods so you get the all nutrients.
  23. 23. 4/22/13 At the base of the food pyramid, you can see the group that contains breads,grains,cereals and pastas. These foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are an important source of energy, especially for a low fat meal. You can take 6-11serving of these food per day. One serving of this group can be: 1 slice of bread ½ cup of rice, cooked cereal or pasta 1 cup of ready to eat cereal
  24. 24. • Fruits and vegetables are rich in nutrients. Many are excellent sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate or Potassium. • They are low in fat and sodium and high in fiber. • The Food Pyramid suggests 3 to5 serving of vegetables each day. • One serving of vegetables can be: • 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables • ½ cup of other vegetables, cooked or raw • 3/4cup of vegetable juice 4/22/13
  25. 25. The Food Pyramid suggests 2-4 servings of fruit each day.  One serving of fruit can be  One medium Apple, Orange, Cooked or Canned fruit  ¾ cup of fruit juice. 4/22/13
  26. 26. Meat, poultry and fish supply protein, iron and zinc. Nonmeat foods such as dried peas and beans also provide many of these nutrients. The Food Pyramid suggests 2-3 serving of cooked meat, fish or poultry. The following foods count as one serving  One egg  2 tablespoons of peanut butter  ½ cup cooked dry beans  1/3 cup of nuts 4/22/13
  27. 27.  Products made with milk provide protein and vitamins and minerals, especially calcium.  The food pyramid suggests 2-3 serving each day.  If you are breastfeeding, pregnant a teenager or a young adult age 24 or under , try to have 3 serving. 4/22/13
  28. 28.  The foods at the top of the food pyramid should be eaten sparingly because they provide calories but not much in the way of nutrition. 4/22/13