Project Report on ISO


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Project Report on ISO

  1. 1. A Project Report On Production and Operation Management on Submitted to: Prof. Sandeep Trada Tolani Institute of Management Studies,Adipur. Submitted by : Group A-5 Nikita Bali (11004) Sunny Bhuva (11010) Chandan Pahelwani (11047) Himani Parihar (11049) Sonia Dadlani (10022)Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 1
  2. 2. INDEX Particulars Page no. 1 Introduction 3 2 ISO standards 4 3 ISO brand 7 4 Who can join ISO? 8 5 What is ISO 9001 9 6 ISO 14001 13 7 Difference between 14 ISO9001 and ISO14001 8 Conclusion 15 9 Reference 15Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 2
  3. 3.  INTRODUCTION: ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the worldslargest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 163countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat inGeneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridgebetween the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of itsmember institutes are part of the governmental structure of theircountries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand,other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector,having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations.Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions thatmeet both the requirements of business and the broader needs ofsociety.  HISTORY: The organization which today is known as ISO began in 1926 asthe International Federation of the National StandardizingAssociations (ISA). This organization focused heavily on mechanicalengineering. It was disbanded in 1942 during the Second World Warbut was re-organized under the current name, ISO, in 1946. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognizedstandard authorities, each one representing one country. The bulk ofthe work of ISO is done by the 2700 technical committees,subcommittees and working groups. Each committee andsubcommittee is headed by a Secretariat from one of the memberorganizations.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 3
  4. 4.  ISO standards:  make the development, manufacturing and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner  facilitate trade between countries and make it fairer  provide governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental legislation, and conformity assessment  share technological advances and good management practice  disseminate innovation  safeguard consumers, and users in general, of products and services.  make life simpler by providing solutions to common problems. o How to recognize an ISO standard? In paper form, an ISO standard is published in A4 format - which isitself one of the ISO standard paper sizes. It may be anywherebetween a four-page document and one several hundred pageslong. ISO standards are also available as electronic downloads andmany are available as part of a collection on CD or in handbook. AnISO standard carries the ISO logo and the designation, "InternationalStandard".Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 4
  5. 5. o Who Standards Benefit?  ISO standards provide technological, economic and societal benefits.  For businesses, the widespread adoption of International Standards means that suppliers can develop and offer products and services meeting specifications that have wide international acceptance in their sectors. Therefore, businesses using International Standards can compete on many more markets around the world.  For innovators of new technologies, International Standards on aspects like terminology, compatibility and safety speed up the dissemination of innovations and their development into manufacturable and marketable products.  For customers, the worldwide compatibility of technology which is achieved when products and services are based on International Standards gives them a broad choice of offers. They also benefit from the effects of competition among suppliers.  For governments, International Standards provide the technological and scientific bases underpinning health, safety and environmental legislation.  For trade officials, International Standards create "a level playing field" for all competitors on those markets. The existence of divergent national or regional standards can create technical barriers to trade. International Standards are the technical means by which political trade agreements can be put into practice.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 5
  6. 6. o ISO standards are useful everywhere in the world.  For developing countries, International Standards that represent an international consensus on the state of the art are an important source of technological know-how. By defining the characteristics that products and services will be expected to meet on export markets, International Standards give developing countries a basis for making the right decisions when investing their scarce resources and thus avoid squandering them.  For consumers, conformity of products and services to International Standards provides assurance about their quality, safety and reliability.  For everyone, International Standards contribute to the quality of life in general by ensuring that the transport, machinery and tools we use are safe.  For the planet we inhabit, International Standards on air, water and soil quality, on emissions of gases and radiation and environmental aspects of products can contribute to efforts to preserve the environment.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 6
  7. 7.  The ISO Brand  Democratic Every full member of ISO has the right to take part in thedevelopment of any standard which it judges to be important to itscountrys economy. No matter what the size or strength of thateconomy, each participating member in ISO has one vote. Eachcountry is on an equal footing to influence the direction of ISOswork at the strategic level, as well as the technical content of itsindividual standards.  Voluntary ISO standards are voluntary. As a non-governmental organization,ISO has no legal authority to enforce the implementation of itsstandards. ISO does not regulate or legislate. However, countriesmay decide to adopt ISO standards - mainly those concerned withhealth, safety or the environment - as regulations or refer to them inlegislation, for which they provide the technical basis. In addition,although ISO standards are voluntary, they may become a marketrequirement, as has happened in the case of ISO 9001 qualitymanagement systems, or of dimensions of freight containers andbank cards.  Market-driven ISO only develops standards for which there is a marketrequirement. The work is mainly carried out by experts from theindustrial, technical and business sectors which have asked for thestandards, and which subsequently put them to use.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 7
  8. 8.  Consensus ISO standards are based on international consensus among theexperts in the field. Consensus, like technology, evolves and ISOtakes account both of evolving technology and of evolving interestsby requiring a periodic review of its standards at least every fiveyears to decide whether they should be maintained, updated orwithdrawn. In this way, ISO standards retain their position as thestate of the art.  Globally relevant ISO standards are technical agreements which provide theframework for compatible technology worldwide. They are designedto be globally relevant - useful everywhere in the world.  Who can join ISO? Membership of ISO is open to national standards institutes mostrepresentative of standardization in their country (one member ineach country).  Full members, known as member bodies, each have one vote, whatever the size or strength of the economy of the country concerned.  Correspondent members pay reduced membership fees. They are entitled to participate in any policy or technical body as observers, with no voting rights.  Subscriber members also pay reduced membership fees. They are institutes from countries with very small economies that nevertheless wish to maintain contact with international standardization.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 8
  9. 9. Although individuals or enterprises are not eligible formembership, both have a range of opportunities for taking part inISOs work:  Individuals may be selected by national member institutes to serve as experts on national delegations participating in ISO technical committees  Individuals and enterprises may provide their input during the process of developing a national consensus for presentation by the delegation. This may done through national mirror committees to the corresponding ISO technical committee  International organizations and associations, both non- governmental and representing industry sectors, can apply for liaison status to a technical committee. They do not vote, but can participate in the debates and the development of consensus.  WHAT IS ISO 9000? BSI has been certifying organizations for their quality managementsystems since 1978. Its first certification is still extant and held byTarmac, a successor to the original company which held thiscertificate. Today BSI claims to certify organizations at nearly 70,000sites globally. The ISO 9000 family of standards relates to quality managementsystems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet theneeds of customers and other stakeholders. The standards arepublished by ISO, the International standard organization, andavailable through National standards bodies. ISO 9000 deals with thefundamentals of quality management systems, including the eightmanagement principles on which the family of standards is based.ISO9001deals with the requirements that organizations wishing tomeet the standard have to fulfill.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 9
  10. 10. Third party certification bodies provide independent confirmationthat organizations meet the requirements of ISO 9001. Over a millionorganizations worldwide are independently certified, making ISO9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the worldtoday. Despite widespread use, however, the ISO certificationprocess has Contents been criticized as being wasteful and not beinguseful for all organizations.  BACKGROUND OF ISO 9000:- ISO 9000 was first published in 1987. It was based on the BS 5750series of standards from BSI .That were proposed to ISO in 1979.However, its history can be traced back some twenty years beforethat, to the publication of the Department of Defense. MIL-Q-9858standard in 1959. MIL-Q-9858 was revised into the NATO AQAPseries of standards in 1969, which in turn were revised into the BS5179 series of guidance standards published in 1974, and finallyrevised into the BS 5750 series of requirements standards in 1979before being submitted to ISO.  Effectiveness of ISO 9000:- The debate on the effectiveness of ISO 9000 commonly centerson the following questions: 1. Are the quality principles in ISO 9001:2000 of value? 2. Does it help to implement an ISO 9001:2000-compliant quality management system? 3. Does it help to obtain ISO 9001:2000 certifications? Effectiveness of the ISO system being implemented depends on anumber of factors, the most significant of which are: 1. Commitment of senior management to monitor, control, and improve quality. Organizations that implement an ISO system without this desire and commitment often take the cheapestTolani Institute of Management Studies Page 10
  11. 11. road to get a certificate on the wall and ignore problem areas uncovered in the audits. 2. How well the ISO system integrates into current business practices. Many organizations that implement ISO try to make their system fit into a cookie-cutter quality manual instead of creating a manual that documents existing practices and only adds new processes to meet the ISO standard when necessary. 3. How well the ISO system focuses on improving the customer experience. The broadest definition of quality is "Whatever the customer perceives good quality be." This means that a company doesnt necessarily have to make a product that never fails; some customers will have a higher tolerance for product failures if they always receive shipments on-time or have a positive experience in some other dimension of customer service. An ISO system should take into account all areas of the customer experience and the industry expectations, and seek to improve them on a continual basis. This means taking into account all processes that deal with the three stakeholders (customers, suppliers, and organization); only then will a company be able to sustain improvements in the customers  CERTIFICATION :- ISO does not itself certify organizations. Many countries haveformed accreditation bodies to authorize certification bodies, whichaudit organizations applying for ISO 9001 compliance certification.Although commonly referred to as ISO 9000:2000 certifications, theactual standard to which an organizations quality management canbe certified is ISO 9001:2008. Both the accreditation bodies and thecertification bodies charge fees for their services. The variousaccreditation bodies have mutual agreements with each other toensure that certificates issued by one of the Accredited certificationbodies (CB) are accepted worldwide.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 11
  12. 12. The applying organization is assessed based on an extensivesample of its sites, functions, products, services, and processes. A listof problems ("action requests" or "non-compliance") is first madeknown to management. If there are no major problems on this list, orafter it receives a satisfactory improvement plan from themanagement showing how any problems will be resolved, thecertification body will issue an ISO 9001 certificate. The certificate islimited by a certain scope (e.g. production of golf balls) and namesthe locations covered. An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award, but must berenewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification body,usually around three years. There are no grades of competencewithin ISO 9001: either a company is certified (meaning that it iscommitted to the method and model of quality managementdescribed in the standard) or it is not. In this respect, ISO certificationcontrasts with measurement-based quality systems such as thecapability maturity model.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 12
  13. 13.  Definition of ISO 14001 One of the subsets of ISO 14000. ISO 14001 pertains specifically tothe requirements for using the ISO 14000 rules and the guidance fortheir use. These rules address how to use the best universal practiceswhen adopting an environmental management system.  ISO 14000: Costs, Benefits and Other Issues.  The Benefits of ISO 14000 certification. The benefits of acquiring ISO certification go beyond thesatisfaction of doing a good deed. Adhering to the standard mayresult in better conformance to environmental regulations, greatermarketability, better use of resources, higher quality goods andservices, increased levels of safety, improved image and increasedprofits. The environmental awareness and the documentation that arerequired by the ISO 14000 standards assist a company in conformingto environmental regulations. This means that a company, bydiligently adhering to the standard, is less likely to violate environmental regulations and is always ready for inspection by aregulatory agency. In addition, the certification and documentationmay aid a company in acquiring capital, in defending itself duringenvironmental litigation and in receiving insurance. A wider market for a companys goods and services may resultfrom certification. Many corporations and governments will belooking for suppliers that are ISO 14000 certified in order to maintaintheir own certification and environment-friendly image. Al thoughthe European Union claims that ISO 9000 certification is not requiredto do business in Europe, that was the message received by manyTolani Institute of Management Studies Page 13
  14. 14. non-European firms and lead to the amazing success of thatstandard. If ISO 14000 is similarly successful, the companies who arealready ISO 14000 certified will have an advantage in global markets.Also, producers of consumer goods may find that many consumersnot only try to purchase goods from environment-friendlycompanies, but will spend a little more if they feel they are helpingthe environment. In order to reap this benefit, a company mustmake their environmental efforts known through advertising andlabeling. The process analyses that go along with ISO 14000 certificationmay result in streamlining processes and more efficient use ofresources and raw materials and subsequently reduce a companyscosts. Finding ways to capture emissions or recycle the product smay, in the long run, reduce the amount of raw materials andutilities used. Reducing the amount of potentially dangeroussubstances in an end product may result in less use of dangerouschemicals in a plant. This leads to a safer internal environment foremployees and the possibility of reduced insurance premiums.Improved employee morale may result when employees feel that theworkplace is safer and they are contributing to the environmentaleffort.  Whats different about ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 The vast majority of ISO standards are highly specific to aparticular product, material, or process. However, ISO 9001 (quality)and ISO 14001 (environment) are "generic management systemstandards". "Generic" means that the same standard can be appliedto any organization, large or small, whatever its product or service, inany sector of activity, and whether it is a business enterprise, a publicadministration, or a government department. ISO 9001 contains ageneric set of requirements for implementing a quality managementsystem and ISO 14001 for an environmental management system.Generic standards can be applied to any organization.Tolani Institute of Management Studies Page 14
  15. 15.  Conclusion: ISO is important for the quality and environmental management system.  References: Search engine GOOGLETolani Institute of Management Studies Page 15